Laos the Lao People's Democratic Republic referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand to the west and southwest. Present-day Laos traces its historic and cultural identity to the kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao, which existed for four centuries as one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. Due to Lan Xang's central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a popular hub for overland trade, becoming wealthy economically as well as culturally. After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke off into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang and Champasak. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three territories uniting to form what is now known as the country of Laos, it gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949.
Laos became independent with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war began, which saw the communist resistance, supported by the Soviet Union, fight against, the monarchy and a number of military dictatorships, supported by the United States. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power, seeing the end to the civil war. During the first years of Communist rule, Laos was dependent on military and economic aid supported by the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. In 2018, the country had the fourth highest GDP per capita in Indochina, after Singapore and Thailand. In the same year, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index, indicating medium development. Laos is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization in 1997, it is a one-party socialist republic espousing Marxism–Leninism governed by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
The capital and largest city is Vientiane. Other major cities include Luang Prabang and Pakse; the official language is Lao. Laos is a multi-ethnic country, with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up about 55 percent of the population in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 45 percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos's strategies for development are based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand and Vietnam, as well as its initiative to become a "land-linked" nation, shown by the construction of four new railways connecting Laos to its neighbours. Laos has been referred to as one of East Asia and Pacific's Fastest Growing Economies by the World Bank, with annual GDP growth averaging 7.8% for the past decade. The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, which are the Lao people.
In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" or "Pathet Lao", both mean "Lao Country". An ancient human skull was recovered from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos. Stone artifacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. Archaeological evidence suggests agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 BC, iron tools were known from 700 BC; the proto-historic period is characterised by contact with Indian civilisations. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, Tai-speaking tribes migrated southwestward to the modern territories of Laos and Thailand from Guangxi sometime between the 8th–10th centuries. Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, founded in the 14th century by a Lao prince Fa Ngum, with 10,000 Khmer troops, took over Vientiane. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings.
He made Theravada Buddhism Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in Vietnam, his ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373, where he died. Fa Ngum's eldest son, Oun Heuan, ascended to the throne under the name Samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for 100 years. In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from Luang Prabang to Vientiane to avoid a Burmese invasion. Setthathirat became king in 1548, after his father was killed, ordered the construction of what became the symbol of Laos, That Luang. Setthathirat disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia and Lan Xang began to decline, it was not until 1637, when Sou
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Taxonomically, they are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, unlike flatworms, have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish from one another. Estimates of the number of nematode species described to date vary by author and may change over time. A 2013 survey of animal biodiversity published in the mega journal Zootaxa puts this figure at over 25,000. Estimates of the total number of extant species are subject to greater variation. A referenced article published in 1993 estimated there may be over 1 million species of nematode, a claim which has since been repeated in numerous publications, without additional investigation, in an attempt to accentuate the importance and ubiquity of nematodes in the global ecosystem. Many other publications have since vigorously refuted this claim on the grounds that it is unsupported by fact, is the result of speculation and sensationalism.
More recent, fact-based estimates have placed the true figure closer to 40,000 species worldwide. Nematodes have adapted to nearly every ecosystem: from marine to fresh water, from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations, they are ubiquitous in freshwater and terrestrial environments, where they outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, are found in locations as diverse as mountains and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere at great depths, 0.9–3.6 km below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa. They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor, their numerical dominance exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of lifecycles, their presence at various trophic levels point to an important role in many ecosystems. They have been shown to play crucial roles in polar ecosystem; the 2,271 genera are placed in 256 families.
The many parasitic forms include pathogens in animals. A third of the genera occur as parasites of vertebrates. Nathan Cobb, a nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth as thus:In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, if, as disembodied spirits, we could investigate it, we should find its mountains, vales, rivers and oceans represented by a film of nematodes; the location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings, there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our highways; the location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites. Modern Latin compound of nemat- "thread" + -odes "like, of the nature of". In 1758, Linnaeus described some nematode genera included in the Vermes.
The name of the group Nematoda, informally called "nematodes", came from Nematoidea defined by Karl Rudolphi, from Ancient Greek νῆμα and -eiδἠς. It was treated as family Nematodes by Burmeister. At its origin, the "Nematoidea" erroneously included Nematodes and Nematomorpha, attributed by von Siebold. Along with Acanthocephala and Cestoidea, it formed the obsolete group Entozoa, created by Rudolphi, they were classed along with Acanthocephala in the obsolete phylum Nemathelminthes by Gegenbaur. In 1861, K. M. Diesing treated the group as order Nematoda. In 1877, the taxon Nematoidea, including the family Gordiidae, was promoted to the rank of phylum by Ray Lankester; the first clear distinction between the nemas and gordiids was realized by Vejdovsky when he named a group to contain the horsehair worms the order Nematomorpha. In 1919, Nathan Cobb proposed, he argued they should be called "nema" in English rather than "nematodes" and defined the taxon Nemates, listing Nematoidea sensu restricto as a synonym.
However, in 1910, Grobben proposed the phylum Aschelminthes and the nematodes were included in as class Nematoda along with class Rotifera, class Gastrotricha, class Kinorhyncha, class Priapulida, class Nematomorpha. In 1932, Potts elevated the class Nematoda to the level of phylum. Despite Potts' classification being equivalent to Cobbs', both names have been used and Nematode became a popular term in zoological science. Since Cobb was the first to include nematodes in a particular phylum separated from Nematomorpha, some researchers consider the valid taxon name to be Nemates or Nemata, rather than Nematoda, because of the zoological rule that gives priority to the first used term in case of synonyms; the phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close relatives among the protostomian Metazoa are unresolved. Traditionally, they were held to b
A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems; these and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota, which share a common ancestor, an interpretation, strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group oomycetes; the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and parasites, they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment, they have long been used in the form of mushrooms and truffles. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, more various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans; the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies; the fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species. Of these, only about 120,000 have been described, with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans. Since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace and Pliny; this in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos, which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds. The word mycology is derived from the Greek logos, it denotes the scientific study of fungi. The Latin adjectival form of "mycology" appeared as early as 1796 in a book on the subject by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon; the word appeared in English as early as 1824 in a book by Robert Kaye Greville. In 1836 the English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. Refers to mycology as the study of fungi. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland". Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are immobile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies, which sometimes resemble plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago; some morphological and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi separating them from the other kingdoms: Shared features: With other euka
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode, is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt. It occurs in much of the United States and Mexico, it occurs in Japan, Taiwan and Portugal. Pine mortality in Japan was first reported Munemoto Yano in Nagasaki prefecture in 1905; the nematode was first discovered in the timber of longleaf pine in United States. Steiner and Burhrer reported that the nematode was a new species, they named it Aphelenchoides xylophilus in 1934. In 1969, Japanese plant pathologists Tomoya Kiyohara and Yozan Tokushige discovered many unfamiliar nematodes on dead pine trees around the Kyushu islands in Japan, they experimentally inoculated the nematode to healthy pine and other conifer trees and observed them. The healthy pine trees were killed—especially Japanese red and Japanese Black pine; however and Loblolly pine, Sugi cedar, Hinoki cypress trees were able to survive. The researchers concluded that the nematode was the pathogen behind the increase of mortality in Japanese pine trees.
In 1972, the year after the ground-breaking paper of Kiyohara and Tokushige was published, Yasuharu Mamiya and T. Kiyohara posited that the nematode was the pathogen behind pine mortality, that it was a new species, they named. Bursaphelenchus lingnicolous, the Japanese nematode, was re-classified as the American species B. xylophilus in 1981. Pine wilt nematode epidemics have occurred in Japan during warm, dry summers. Species of the genus Bursaphelenchus are difficult to distinguish because they are similar in morphology. A positive identification can be made with molecular analyses such as restriction fragment length polymorphism. B. Xylophilus is distinguished by three characteristics: the spicule is flattened into a disc-shaped cucullus at the tip, the front vulval lip is flap-like, the tail of the female is rounded; the pine wilt nematode has a typical nematode life cycle, with four juvenile stages and an adult stage with both male and female individuals that reproduce sexually. The mycophagous phase of the life cycle takes place in dead or dying wood, where the nematodes live and feed upon fungi, rather than the wood itself.
The nematode cannot travel outside of the wood independently. B. xylophilus has the shortest life cycle of any known parasitic nematode. In laboratory studies in which it is cultured on fungal media, its life cycle is completed in four days. In nature it reproduces most in the summer, producing large numbers of individuals that spread throughout the resin canal system of susceptible pines, into the trunk, the branches, the roots. If living tree cells are no longer available the parasite feeds and reproduces on the fungal hyphae growing in the resin canals. In the fall and winter the parasite becomes inactive; as soon as the pathogen of nematode was known, Monochamus alternatus, sawyer beetle, it had been one of the noticed insects because this sawyer found dead pine trees, prove the important vector of the nematode and know that the nematode infected healthy pine trees. The nematodes drop off the sawyer, infect healthy pine tree when the adult sawyers eat the young pine branches; the pine wilt nematode is vectored by a number of bark beetles and wood borers, is most associated with beetles in the genus Monochamus, the pine sawyers.
Pine sawyers lay their eggs in the bark of dead timber. The growing larva feeds on the wood and pupates in the resulting cavity. Nematodes of the third juvenile stage congregate in the cavity around the pupa, molt into the fourth juvenile stage, invade the trachea of the adult beetle. During this dispersive stage the beetle transports the nematode to other trees; the mechanism from nematode infection to pine death is unknown now, but the outline has been recognized. The cause of pine death is stopping moving water in the timber; the phenomenon is caused by small bubbles air embolism of xylem tissue stops water movement. The embolism doesn't make tylose or clog the pine cell. Why the several cavitation and non-reversible embolism occur, is unknown. In primary transmission, when the beetle feeds on a susceptible host pine, the pine wilt nematode enters the tree and feeds on the epithelial cells which line the resin ducts; this is referred to as the phytophagous phase of the nematode, it results in pine wilt disease.
Water transport in the tissues of the infested tree is disrupted, the disease can manifest within a few weeks. Signs include browning of the needles or yellowing of the leaves, the tree may die within two to three months. Furuno observed standing pine trees in Japanese forest, ranked their resistance to pine wood nematode; the "High resistance" pines are killed by the nematode, but young saplings or trees in weakened condition may succumb. High resistance Pinus taeda, P. elliottii, P. palustris, P. rigida, P. taiwanensisLow resistance P. strobus, P. massoniana, P. resinosa, P. tabulaeformis, P. banksiana, P. contorta, P. thumb×P. MassoLow susceptible P. bungeana, P. monticola, P. parviflora, P. strobiformis, P. densiflora, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. rudis, P. pseudostrobus, P. oocarpa, P. radiata, P. greggii Highly susceptible P. koraiensis, P. leiophylla, P. luchuensis, P. thunbergii, P. nigra, P. mugo, P. khasya, P. muricata An updated portal in English is available at http://www.efiatlantic.efi.int/portal/policy_support/pine_wood_nematode_information/ In Japan and officers think that the mainstream of prevent this disease is removing sawyers, the vector of the nematode.
The sawyers like to spawn at
Manzanita is a common name for many species of the genus Arctostaphylos. They are evergreen shrubs or small trees present in the chaparral biome of western North America, where they occur from Southern British Columbia and Washington to Oregon, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in the United States, throughout Mexico. Manzanitas can live in places with little water, they are characterized by smooth orange or red bark and twisting branches. There are 105 species and subspecies of manzanita, 95 of which are found in the Mediterranean climate and colder mountainous regions of California, ranging from ground-hugging coastal and mountain species to small trees up to 20 feet tall. Manzanitas carry berries in spring and summer; the berries and flowers of most species are edible. The word manzanita is the Spanish diminutive of manzana. A literal translation would be little apple; the name manzanita is sometimes used to refer to species in the related genus Arbutus, known by that name in the Canadian area of the tree's range, but is more known as madroño, or madrone in the United States.
Native Americans in Northern California made a tisane from manzanita leaves to treat poison oak rash. The leaves contain chemicals with a mildly disinfectant quality, can be used for mild urinary tract infections; the berries are a good food, as they can be stored. Once stored and dried, the berries can be ground into a coarse meal; the berries can be eaten ripe or green for a sour taste. They are good used as a thickener or sweetener in other dishes. Fresh berries and branch tips can be soaked in water to make a cider. Native Americans used. Manzanitas are useful as ornamental plants in gardens in the western United States and similar climate zones, they are evergreen drought-tolerant, have picturesque bark and attractive flowers and berries, come in many sizes and growth patterns. Arctostaphylos columbiana, for example, is hardy enough to be used for highway landscaping in western Oregon and Washington. Arctostaphylos'Emerald Carpet', A. uva-ursi, other low-growing manzanitas are valuable evergreen groundcovers for dry slopes.
Larger varieties, such as Arctostaphylos.'Dr. Hurd,' can be grown as individual specimens, pruned to emphasize the striking pattern and colors of the branches, they prefer light, well-drained soil, although the low-growing ground covers will tolerate heavier soils. Manzanita branches are popular as decoration, due to their unique shape and strength when dried. Florists sometimes use them as centerpieces at wedding receptions and other events adding hanging votive candles, beaded gems and small flowers to them; the wood is notoriously hard to cure due to cracking against the grain, giving it few uses as lumber. The slow growth rate and many branchings further decrease the sizes available; some furniture and art employ whole round branches, which reduces cracking and preserves the deep red color. The dead wood decays and can last for many years, on and off the plant. Sunlight smooths and bleaches manzanita to light grey or white, rendering it superficially akin to animal bones; because of this and the stunted growth of many species, manzanita is collected in its more unusual shapes, giving it the nickname mountain driftwood.
Manzanita wood is used as perches for parrots and other large pet birds. The branches of the larger species are long-lasting for this purpose; some aquarium keepers use sandblasted manzanita as driftwood in planted aquaria because of its attractive forked growth and its chemical neutrality. If properly cleaned and cured, it holds up well over extended periods of submersion; the wood is resistant to the leaching of tannins into the water column, a problem found with other aquarium driftwoods. When used as driftwood, manzanita must be either weighted down for several weeks or soaked first to counteract the wood's natural buoyancy when it has been dried and cured; the green wood does not float. Manzanita wood, when dry, is excellent for burning in a campfire, fireplace, or stove, it burns at a high temperature for long periods. However, caution should be exercised, because the high temperatures can damage thin-walled barbecues, crack cast iron stoves or cause chimney fires. During World War II, Manzanita root burls were used as an expedient native material to make smoking pipes due to its relation and similar fire-resistant properties to then-unavailable imported briar.
Labeled as "Mission Briar", it was harvested for the remainder of the war, stopping soon after when supplies of imported briar once again became available. Some manzanita species are among the rarest plants in the world. Arctostaphylos hookeri ravenii, an endemic species, is the most endangered and restricted plant in the mainland United States. In 1987 only one specimen remained, at a secret location in the Presidio of San Francisco National Historic Landmark District in San Francisco, California; this plant has since been cloned. Arctostaphylos franciscana, a species native to San Francisco, had not been seen growing wild since 1947 until it was spotted growing in the Presidio of San Francisco in October 2009. Caltrans transplanted this specimen on 23 January 2010 to make way for the Doyle Drive Replacement Project. Transplanting costs were funded in part by Federal Highways Administration, The Presidio of San Francisco, private donors. "Arctostaphylos hookeri, subspecies franciscana", a scrubby, thin-twigged bush, riddled with the webs of miniature spiders, resides in a corner of
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas, who named the tree in honour of the English botanist, Aylmer Bourke Lambert, it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 1.5–2.5 m, exceptionally 3.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, was discovered in 2015. The second tallest recorded was "Yosemite Giant", an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park: one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white pine group and, like all members of that group, the leaves grow in fascicles of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 5–11 cm long. Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive; the seeds are 1 -- 2 cm long, with a 2 -- 3-centimeter long wing. According to David Douglas, the seeds were eaten by Native Americans; the sugar pine occurs in the mountains of Oregon and California in the western United States, Baja California in northwestern Mexico. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust, a fungus, accidentally introduced from Europe in 1909. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust in the northern part of the species' range that has experienced the rust for a longer period of time; the rust has destroyed much of the Western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U.
S. Forest Service has a program for developing western white pine. Seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild; the Sugar Pine Foundation in the Lake Tahoe Basin has been successful in finding resistant sugar pine seed trees and has demonstrated that it is important for the public to assist the U. S. Forest Service in restoring this species. However, blister rust is much less common in California, sugar, Western white and whitebark pines still survive in great numbers there. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the "king of the conifers"; the common name comes from the sweet resin. John Muir found, it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert. In the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the'First People' by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a handsome son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of To'kis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child.
To this end, the grandfather breaks open a scale from a sugar pine cone, secretly instructs Ahsoballache to immerse the scale's contents in spring water hide them inside a covered basket. Ahsoballache performs the tasks that night; the Washo language has a word for sugar pine, simt'á:gɨm, a word for "sugar pine sugar", nanómba. Chase, J. Smeaton. Cone-bearing Trees of the California Mountains. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. p. 99. LCCN 11004975. OCLC 3477527. LCC QK495. C75 C4, with illustrations by Carl Eytel - Kurut, Gary F. "Carl Eytel: Southern California Desert Artist", California State Library Foundation, Bulletin No. 95, pp. 17-20 retrieved November 13, 2011 Muir, J.. My First Summer in the Sierra. Kinloch Jr. Bohun B.. "Pinus lambertiana". In Burns, Russell M.. Silvics of North America. Washington, D. C.: United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 1 – via Southern Research Station. Habeck, R. J.. "Pinus lambertiana". Fire Effects Information System. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory – via https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
U. C. Jepson Manual treatment for Pinus lambertiana US Forest Service—Dorena Genetic Resource Center — The Sugar Pine Foundation — The Sugar Pine and Western White Pine Restoration Program Pinus lambertiana in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley Conifer Specialist Group. "Pinus lambertiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 May 2006. Arboretum de Villardebelle: photo of a cone
In Korean cuisine, gui or guee is a grilled dish. Gui most has meat or fish as the primary ingredient, but may in some cases have grilled vegetables or other vegetarian ingredients; the term derives from the verb gupda, which means "grill". At traditional restaurants, meats are cooked at the center of the table over a charcoal grill, surrounded by various banchan and individual rice bowls; the cooked meat is cut into small pieces and wrapped with fresh lettuce leaves, with rice, thinly sliced garlic and other seasonings. The suffix gui is omitted in the names of meat-based gui such as galbi, whose name is galbi gui. Meat-based grilled dishes are collectively called gogi gui. Bulgogi: thinly sliced or shredded beef marinated in soy sauce, sesame oil, sugar, green onions, black pepper, cooked on a grill. Bulgogi means "fire meat." Variations include chicken, or squid. Galbi: pork or beef ribs, cooked on a metal plate over charcoal in the centre of the table; the meat is sliced thicker than bulgogi.
It is called "Korean barbecue" along with bulgogi, can be seasoned or unseasoned. A variation using seasoned chicken is called dak galbi. Samgyeopsal: Unseasoned pork bacon cut from the belly, served in the same fashion as galbi. Sometimes cooked on a grill with kimchi together at either side. Grilled with garlic and onions, dipped in ssamjjang and wrapped in lettuce leaves. Dakgui: grilled chicken Saengchi gui: grilled pheasant Gui made with pig or cow's intestines is collectively called naejang gui or yang gui. Makchang gui: grilled pork large intestines prepared like samgyeopsal and galbi, served with a light doenjang sauce and chopped scallions, it is popular in Daegu and the surrounding Gyeongsang region. Gopchang gui: similar to makchang except prepared from the small intestines of pork Gui made with fish is called saengseon gui that means "grilled fish", while grilled shellfishes are called seokhwa gui or jogae gui Jangeo gui, sliced & roasted eel in gochujang or ganjang Gomjangeo gui, similar to jangeo gui but pike eel is cooked whole after being killed so it is still moving on the grill Godeungeo gui: grilled mackerel Jogi gui: grilled croaker Garibi gui: grilled scallops Samchi gui: grilled Japanese Spanish mackerel Daeha gui: grilled Chinese white shrimp Jeonbok gui: grilled abalone Dubu gui: grilled tofu rectangles Deodeok gui: grilled deodeok Beoseot gui: grilled mushroom Songi gui: grilled matsutake Gim gui or guun gim: grilled gim Korean barbecue Barbecue Regional variations of barbecue Jeok Gui at the Doosan Encyclopedia Gui at the Empas / EncyKorea GuEe and Jeok