The Hanukkah menorah chanukiah or hanukkiah, is a nine-branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of Hanukkah, as opposed to the seven-branched menorah used in the ancient Temple or as a symbol. On each night of Hanukkah, a new branch is lit; the ninth holder, called the shamash, is for a candle used to light all other candles or to be used as an extra light. To be kosher, the shamash must be offset on a higher or lower plane than the main eight candles or oil lamps, but there are differing opinions as to whether all the lights must be arranged in a straight line, or if the channukiah can be arranged in a curve; the hanukkiah, along with the seven-branched menorah and the Star of David, is among the most produced articles of Jewish ceremonial art. The hanukkiah is displayed in public around Hanukkah time December. Elected officials participate in publicly lighting the hanukkiah; the Chabad-Lubavitch movement is well associated with public lighting ceremonies, which it has done since a directive from their last Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, in 1987.
In the book A Kosher Christmas:'Tis the Season to Be Jewish, author Rabbi Joshua Plaut, Ph. D. details the history of public displays of the hanukkiah across the United States, summarizes the courts cases associated with this issue, explains how the Presidents of the United States came to embrace lighting the hanukkiah during Hanukkah. Since 1979, the White House has been represented at the lighting of the National Menorah in celebration of Hanukkah, beginning with the attendance of President Jimmy Carter in the ceremony in Lafayette Park. Additionally, beginning with President Bill Clinton in 1993, a hanukkiah is lit at the White House, in 2001, President George W. Bush began the annual tradition of a White House Hanukkah Party in the White House residence, which includes a hanukkiah candle lighting ceremony. In the United Kingdom, the House of Commons of the United Kingdom each year holds a hanukkiah lighting at the official residence of the Speaker of the House of Commons, located in the Palace of Westminster.
The hanukkiah used was commissioned by the Rt. Hon. Michael J. Martin MP Speaker of the House of Commons. Martin is a Roman Catholic. Two big hanukkiahs are in each standing at 32 feet. One is at Grand Army Plaza in Brooklyn, the other is at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street in Manhattan near Central Park. A 4,000-pound structure, it is the work of Israeli artist Yaacov Agam; because of the hanukkiah's heights, Con Edison assists the lighting by using a crane to lift each person to the top. In the United States, the public display of hanukkiahs and Christmas trees on public grounds has been the source of legal battles. In the 1989 County of Allegheny v. ACLU case, the majority of the US Supreme Court ruled that the public display of hanukkiahs and Christmas trees did not violate the Establishment Clause because the two symbols were not endorsements of the Jewish or Christian faith, rather the two items are part of the same winter-holiday season, the court found, had attained a secular status in U. S. society.
English speakers most call the lamp a "menorah" or "Hanukkah menorah." In Modern Hebrew the lamp is called a chanukkiyah, a term coined at the end of the nineteenth century by Hemda Ben-Yehuda, whose husband Eliezer Ben Yehuda was the leading force behind the revival of the Hebrew language. Many museums have notable collections of hanukkiahs, including the Israel Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Jewish Museum, which owns the Lindo lamp. There is a collection in the small Jewish Museum in Rio de Janeiro. More offbeat Hanukkah products on the American market include a "Menorah Tree" inspired by the Christmas tree tradition, a "Menorah Bong"; the "Thanksgivukkah" coincidence of Thanksgiving and the second night of Hanukkah in 2013 inspired a turkey-shaped "menurkey". Yearly lighting of the Menorah at the White House in Washington DC Hanukkah Lamps from the collection of The Jewish Museum
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana
High Priest of Israel
High priest was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. In the Israelite religion including the time of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, other terms were used to designate the leading priests; the official introduction of the term "high priest" went hand in hand with a enhanced ritual and political significance bestowed upon the chief priest in the post-Exilic period from 411 BCE onward, after the religious transformations brought about by the Babylonian captivity and due to the lack of a Jewish king and kingdom. The high priests belonged to the Jewish priestly families that trace their paternal line back to Aaron, the first high priest of Israel in the Hebrew Bible and elder brother of Moses, through Zadok, a leading priest at the time of David and Solomon; this tradition came to an end in the 2nd century BCE during the rule of the Hasmoneans, when the position was occupied by other priestly families unrelated to Zadok.
Though Aaron was the first high priest mentioned in the Book of Exodus, Louis Ginzberg in Legends of the Jews noted that in legends the first man that assumed the title of high priest of God is Enoch, succeeded by Methuselah, Noah, Abraham and Levi. Aaron, though he is but called "the great priest", being simply designated as "ha-kohen", was the first incumbent of the office, to which he was appointed by God; the succession was to be through one of his sons, was to remain in his own family. If he had no son, the office devolved upon the brother next of age: such appears to have been the practise in the Hasmonean period. In the time of Eli, the office passed to the collateral branch of Ithamar, but King Solomon is reported to have deposed the high priest Abiathar, to have appointed Zadok, a descendant of Eleazar, in his stead. After the Exile, the succession seems to have been, in a direct line from father to son. Antiochus IV Epiphanes for instance, deposed Onias III in favor of Jason, followed by Menelaus.
Herod the Great nominated no less than six high priests. The Roman legate Quirinius and his successors exercised the right of appointment, as did Agrippa I, Herod of Chalcis, Agrippa II; the people elected candidates to the office. The high priests before the Exile were, appointed for life; the age of eligibility for the office is not fixed in the Law. Aristobulus, was only seventeen when appointed by Herod; the age a Levite entered. Legitimacy of birth was essential; the high priest had to abstain from ritual defilement. He may marry only an Israelite virgin. In Ezekiel 44:22 this restriction is extended to all kohanim, an exception being made in favor of the widow of a priest. According to Leviticus 21:11 He was not permitted to come in contact with the bodies of the dead, not for his parents Leviticus 21:1-3. According to Josephus, birth on foreign soil was not a disqualification; the Torah provides for specific vestments to be worn by the priests when they are ministering in the Tabernacle: "And you shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, for dignity and for beauty".
These garments are described in detail in Exodus 28, Exodus 39 and Leviticus 8. The high priest wore eight holy garments. Of these, four were of the same type worn by all priests and four were unique to the Kohen Gadol; those vestments which were common to all priests, were: Priestly undergarments: linen pants reaching from the waist to the knees "to cover their nakedness" Priestly tunic: made of pure linen, covering the entire body from the neck to the feet, with sleeves reaching to the wrists. That of the high priest was embroidered. Priestly sash: that of the high priest was of fine linen with "embroidered work" in blue and purple and scarlet. Priestly turban: that of the high priest was much larger than that of the priests and wound so that it formed a broad, flat-topped turban; the vestments that were unique to the high priest were: Priestly robe: a sleeveless, blue robe, the lower hem of, fringed with small golden bells alternating with pomegranate-sh
The Amidah called the Shemoneh Esreh, is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy. This prayer, among others, is found in the traditional Jewish prayer book. Due to its importance, it is called hatefila in rabbinic literature. Observant Jews recite the Amidah at each of three prayer services in a typical weekday: morning and evening. A fourth Amidah is recited on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, Jewish festivals, after the morning Torah reading. A fifth is recited on Yom Kippur; the typical weekday Amidah consists of nineteen blessings, though it had eighteen. When the Amidah is modified for specific prayers or occasions, the first three blessings and the last three remain constant, framing the Amidah used in each service, while the middle thirteen blessings are replaced by blessings specific to the occasion; the prayer is recited standing with feet together, preferably while facing Jerusalem. In Orthodox public worship, the Amidah is first prayed silently by the congregation and is repeated aloud by the chazzan.
Conservative and Reform congregations sometimes abbreviate the public recitation of the Amidah according to their customs. To recite the Amidah is a mitzvah de-rabbanan for, according to legend, it was first composed by the Anshei Knesset HaGedolah; the rules governing the composition and recital of the Amidah are discussed in the Talmud, in Chapters 4–5 of Berakhot. The language of the Amidah most comes from the mishnaic period, both before and after the destruction of the Temple. In the time of the Mishnah, it was considered unnecessary to prescribe its content; this may have been because the language was well known to the Mishnah's authors. The Mishnah may not have recorded a specific text because of an aversion to making prayer a matter of rigor and fixed formula. According to the Talmud, R. Gamaliel II undertook to codify uniformly the public service, directing Simeon ha-Pakoli to edit the blessings and made it a duty, incumbent on every one, to recite the prayer three times daily, but this does not imply.
In order to reconcile the various assertions of editorship, the Talmud concludes that the prayers had fallen into disuse, that Gamaliel reinstituted them. The historical kernel in these conflicting reports seems to be that the benedictions date from the earliest days of the Pharisaic Synagogue, they were at first spontaneous outgrowths of the efforts to establish the Pharisaic Synagogue in opposition to, or at least in correspondence with, the Sadducean Temple service. This is apparent from the aggadic endeavor to connect the stated times of prayer with the Temple sacrifices at the same times; the Talmud indicates that when Rabbi Gamaliel II undertook to uniformly codify the public service and to regulate private devotion, he directed Samuel ha-Katan to write another paragraph inveighing against informers and heretics, inserted as the twelfth prayer in modern sequence, making the number of blessings nineteen. Other Talmudic sources indicate, that this prayer was part of the original 18. On regular weekdays, the Amidah is prayed three times, once each during the morning and evening services that are known as Shacharit, Ma'ariv.
One opinion in the Talmud claims, with support from Biblical verses, that the concept for each of the three services was founded by each of the three biblical patriarchs. The prescribed times for reciting the Amidah thus may come from the times of the public tamid sacrifices that took place in the Temples in Jerusalem. After the Second Temple's destruction in 70 CE, the Council of Jamnia determined that the Amidah would substitute for the sacrifices, directly applying Hosea's dictate, "So we will render for bullocks the offering of our lips." For this reason, the Amidah should be recited during the time period in which the tamid would have been offered. Accordingly, since the Ma'ariv service was optional, as it replaces the overnight burning of ashes on the Temple altar rather than a specific sacrifice, Maariv's Amidah is not repeated by the hazzan, while all other Amidot are repeated. On Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, other Jewish holidays there is a Musaf Amidah to replace the additional communal sacrifices of these days.
On Yom Kippur, a fifth public recitation, Ne'ilah, is added to replace a special sacrifice offered on that day. The weekday Amidah contains nineteen blessings; each blessing ends with the signature "Blessed are you, O Lord..." and the opening blessing begins with this signature as well. The first three blessings as a section are known as the shevach, serve to inspire the worshipper and invoke God's mercy; the middle thirteen blessings compose the bakashah, with six personal requests, six communal
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions and daily Psalm readings, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is used for religious purposes, provides a time frame for agriculture and is an official calendar for civil purposes, although the latter usage has been declining in favor of the Gregorian calendar; the present Hebrew calendar is the product including a Babylonian influence. Until the Tannaitic period, the calendar employed a new crescent moon, with an additional month added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year; the year in which it was added was based on observation of natural agriculture-related events in ancient Israel. Through the Amoraic period and into the Geonic period, this system was displaced by the mathematical rules used today; the principles and rules were codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century.
Maimonides' work replaced counting "years since the destruction of the Temple" with the modern creation-era Anno Mundi. The Hebrew lunar year is about eleven days shorter than the solar year and uses the 19-year Metonic cycle to bring it into line with the solar year, with the addition of an intercalary month every two or three years, for a total of seven times per 19 years. With this intercalation, the average Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 40 seconds than the current mean tropical year, so that every 217 years the Hebrew calendar will fall a day behind the current mean tropical year; the era used. As with Anno Domini, the words or abbreviation for Anno Mundi for the era should properly precede the date rather than follow it. AM 5779 began at sunset on 9 September 2018 and will end at sunset on 29 September 2019; the Jewish day is of no fixed length. The Jewish day is modeled on the reference to "...there was evening and there was morning..." in the creation account in the first chapter of Genesis.
Based on the classic rabbinic interpretation of this text, a day in the rabbinic Hebrew calendar runs from sunset to the next sunset. Halachically, a day ends and a new one starts when three stars are visible in the sky; the time between true sunset and the time when the three stars are visible is known as'bein hashmashot', there are differences of opinion as to which day it falls into for some uses. This may be relevant, for example, in determining the date of birth of a child born during that gap. There is no clock in the Jewish scheme. Though the civil clock, including the one in use in Israel, incorporates local adoptions of various conventions such as time zones, standard times and daylight saving, these have no place in the Jewish scheme; the civil clock is used only as a reference point – in expressions such as: "Shabbat starts at...". The steady progression of sunset around the world and seasonal changes results in gradual civil time changes from one day to the next based on observable astronomical phenomena and not on man-made laws and conventions.
In Judaism, an hour is defined as 1/12 of the time from sunrise to sunset, so, during the winter, an hour can be much less than 60 minutes, during the summer, it can be much more than 60 minutes. This proportional hour is known as a sha'ah z'manit. A Jewish hour is divided into parts. A part is 1/18 minute; the ultimate ancestor of the helek was a small Babylonian time period called a barleycorn, itself equal to 1/72 of a Babylonian time degree. These measures are not used for everyday purposes. Instead of the international date line convention, there are varying opinions as to where the day changes. One opinion uses the antimeridian of Jerusalem. Other opinions exist as well; the weekdays proceed to Saturday, Shabbat. Since some calculations use division, a remainder of 0 signifies Saturday. While calculations of days and years are based on fixed hours equal to 1/24 of a day, the beginning of each halachic day is based on the local time of sunset; the end of the Shabbat and other Jewish holidays is based on nightfall which occurs some amount of time 42 to 72 minutes, after sunset.
According to Maimonides, nightfall occurs. By the 17th century, this had become three-second-magnitude stars; the modern definition is when the center of the sun is 7° below the geometric horizon, somewhat than civil twilight at 6°. The beginning of the daytime portion of each day is determined both by sunrise. Most halachic times are based on some combination of these four times and vary from day to day throughout the year and vary depending on location; the daytime hours are divided into Sha'oth Zemaniyoth or "Halachic hours" by taking the time between sunrise and sunset or between dawn and nightfall and dividing it into 12 equal hours. The nighttime hours are s
According to the Hebrew Bible, Phinehas or Phineas was a priest during the Israelites' Exodus journey, the grandson of Aaron and son of Eleazar, the High Priests. He distinguished himself as a youth at Shittim with his zeal against the Heresy of Peor, he was displeased with the immorality with which the Moabites and Midianites had tempted the Israelites to inter-marry and to worship Baal-peor, so he executed an Israelite man and a Midianite woman while they were together in the man's tent, running a javelin or spear through the man and the belly of the woman, bringing to an end the plague sent by God to punish the Israelites for sexually intermingling with the Midianites. Phinehas is commended for having stopped Israel's fall to idolatrous practices brought in by Midianite women, as well as for stopping the desecration of God's sanctuary. After the entry to the land of Israel and the death of his father, he was appointed the third High Priest of Israel, served at the sanctuary of Bethel, he is commemorated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church on September 2.
The name "Phinehas" comes from the Egyptian name Pa-nehasi, Panehesy. According to the Oxford Companion to the Bible, "the Bible uses Egyptian and Nubian names for the land and its people... For the Egyptians used to these color variations, the term for their southern neighbors was Neḥesi,'southerner', which also came to mean'the black' or'the Nubian'; this Egyptian root appears in Exodus 6.25 as the personal name of Aaron's grandson, Phinehas". The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament interprets the name to mean "the bronze-colored one"; the account appears after the story of Balaam, hired by the Moabite chieftain, Balak, to curse the Israelites. Balaam failed to do so. Having failed to curse them, Balaam left for his own country; the Book of Numbers asserts a direct connection between Balaam and the events at Peor, stating that the Moabites "caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor". Moses gave orders to kill all the idolaters, yet Zimri, the son of the Israelite prince Salu from the Tribe of Simeon defied Moses and publicly showed his opinion to those standing at the Tabernacle entrance with Moses by going in to Cozbi, the daughter of the Midianite prince Sur.
In a moment of great strength born of holy zeal, Phinehas went after them and ran them through with a spear. He thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, by which twenty-four thousand of them had perished. God noticed that Phinehas showed bravery for God. God decided not to destroy all of the children of Israel in anger because Phinehas had made atonement for their sins. God declared that Phinehas, his sons' sons for all eternity, would receive divine recognition for this; the Christian book of Revelation mirrors this sentiment. Revelation describes Jesus as speaking to one of seven Christian churches: "Nevertheless, I have a few things against you: You have people there who hold to the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to entice the Israelites to sin by eating food sacrificed to idols and by committing sexual immorality." Giving a more elaborated version of events, the 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserts that Balaam sent for Balak and the princes of Midian and told them that, if they wished to bring evil upon Israel, they would have to make the Israelites sin.
Balaam advised. This strategy succeeded, soon many of the Israelites had been seduced. Phinehas led a 12,000-strong Israelite army against the Midianites to avenge this occasion. Among those slain in the expedition were five Midianite kings, Rekem, Zur and Reba, Balaam, son of Beor. According to the Israelite roll-calls, the Israelites did not lose a man in the expedition. Phinehas son of Eleazar appears again in the book of Joshua; when the tribes of Reuben and Gad, together with the half-tribe of Manasseh, depart to take possession of their lands beyond the Jordan, they build a great altar on the other side. According to Joshua 24:33, Phinehas owned land in the mountains of Ephraim, where he buried his father. In addition to these episodes, Phinehas appears as the chief adviser in the war with the Benjamites, he is commemorated in Psalm 106:28–31. According to 1 Chronicles 6:4–8, his relation to Zadok is the following: Phinehas begat Abishua, Abishua begat Bukki, Bukki begat Uzzi, Uzzi begat Zerahiah, Zerahiah begat Meraioth, Meraioth begat Amariah, Amariah begat Ahitub, Ahitub begat Zadok.
According to I Maccabees, he is an ancestor of Matitiyahu. Pinchas is the name of the 41st weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the book of Numbers; the beginning of this parshah tells the judgement of Phinehas son of Eleazar. The Hebrew expression "One who acts like Zimri and asks for a reward as if he were Phinehas" refers to hypocrites who ask for undeserved rewards and honours, it derives from the Babylonian Talmud, where it is attributed to the Hasmon
Guillaume Rouillé was one of the most prominent humanist bookseller-printers in 16th-century Lyon. He invented the pocket book format called the sextodecimo, printed with sixteen leaves to the folio sheet, half the size of the octavo format, published many works of history and poetry as well as medicine, in addition to his useful compilations and handbooks. Rouillé was born in Tours. Though he was a Frenchman, he served his apprenticeship in the Venetian printing-house of Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari, retained his connections with Venice as a source of texts after his arrival in Lyon around 1543. Among his works was the French translation by Barthélemy Aneau of Andrea Alciato's pioneering emblem book, which formed part of a major publishing venture in Lyons by the team of Guillaume Rouillé and his printer Macé Bonhomme, 1549, which extended to translations in Italian and Spanish Rouillé published books of imprese by Paolo Giovio and Gabriele Simeoni. Another work of iconography was the useful compilation of portrait types of Antiquity, Promptuarii iconum insigniorum à seculo hominum, subiectis eorum vitis, per compendium ex probatissimis autoribus desumptis in which each medal-like portrait head was followed by a brief biography.
He was one of the four printers that edited the "Lyon printers tribute to Michael de Villanueva" edition of a Materia Medica, as a tribute for his murdered friend, Michael "Servetus". French editions followed, Promptuaire des Medalles des plus renommées personnes... 1581, etc. His Sententiae omnes undiquaque selectissimae, 1555, compiled moral maxims from the works of Aristotle. On his title pages his mark was prominently displayed: an eagle displayed atop a globe on a pedestal, flanked by serpents with entwined tails, his heirs continued the press into the 17th century. Rouillé died in Lyon