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Matterhorn

The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a large, near-symmetric pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe; the four steep faces, rising above the surrounding glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone/Lion, Zmutt ridges. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt, in the canton of Valais, to the north-east and the Italian town of Breuil-Cervinia in the Aosta Valley to the south. Just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides, a trade route since the Roman Era; the Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century, followed by other renowned naturalists and artists, such as John Ruskin, in the 19th century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained and became the subject of an international competition for the summit.

The first ascent of the Matterhorn was in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper. This disaster portrayed in several films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism; the north face was not climbed until 1931 and is among the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as "The Trilogy". The west face, the highest of the Matterhorn's four faces, was climbed only in 1962, it is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The Matterhorn is composed of gneisses from the Dent Blanche nappe, lying over ophiolites and sedimentary rocks of the Penninic nappes; the mountain's current shape is the result of cirque erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an iconic emblem of the Alps in general. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, the mountain has attracted increasing numbers of visitors and climbers.

Each year, numerous mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain; the Matterhorn has been part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983. The German name Matterhorn is named for Zermatt. In the Schalbetter map, printed by Sebastian Münster in 1545, the valley is labelled Mattertal, but the mountain has the Latin name Mons Silvius and the German name Augstalberg, Augstal being the German name of Aosta Valley; the 1548 map by Johannes Stumpf gives only Mons Silvius. The French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus, where silva means forest; the change of the first letter "s" to "c" is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, who thought the word was related to "deer". Josias Simler hypothesized in De Alpibus Commentarius that the name Mons Silvius was readopted by T. G. Farinetti: "Silvius was a Roman leader who sojourned with his legions in the land of the Salassi and the Seduni, crossed the Theodul Pass between these two places.

This Silvius may have been that same Servius Galba whom Caesar charged with the opening up of the Alpine passes, which from that time onward traders have been wanting to cross with great danger and grave difficulty. Servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesar's orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, pitched his camp there; the passes which he had orders to open from there could be no other than the St. Bernard, the Simplon, the Theodul, the Moro, it is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, from which it seems to be derived. The Matterhorn is named Gran Bècca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people; the Matterhorn has two distinct summits, situated at either end of a 100-metre-long exposed rocky crest which forms the Italian/Swiss border. In August 1792, the Genevan geologist and explorer Horace Bénédict de Saussure made the first measurement of the Matterhorn's height, using a sextant and a 50-foot-long chain spread out on the Theodul glacier.

He calculated its height as 4,501.7 m. In 1868 the Italian engineer Felice Giordano measured a height of 4,505 m by means of a mercury barometer, which he had taken to the summit; the Dufour map, afterwards followed by the Italian surveyors, gave 4,482 m as the height of the Swiss summit. In 1999, the summit height was determined to be at 4,477.54 m above sea level by using Global Positioning System technology as part of the TOWER Project and to an accuracy of less than one centimetre, which allows future changes to be tracked. The topographic prominence of the Matterhorn is 1,042 metres as the ridge connecting it with a higher summit (in this case the W

Muffy Calder

Muffy Calder is a Scottish computer scientist, Vice-Principal and Head of College of Science and Engineering, Professor of Formal Methods at the University of Glasgow. From 2012-2015 she was Chief Scientific Advisor to the Scottish Government. Calder was born Muffy Thomas on 21 May 1958 in Shawinigan, Canada to Lois van Thomas and Carmen van Thomas, she graduated with a BSc degree in computer science from the University of Stirling, completed a PhD in computational science at the University of St Andrews in 1987 under the supervision of Roy Dyckhoff. She published under the surname Thomas prior to her marriage to David Calder in 1998, she has worked at the University of Glasgow since 1988, was Dean of Research in the College of Science and Engineering until 2012. She became Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government on 1 March 2012. Calder has served as Chair of the UK Computing Research Committee and Chair of the British Computer Society Academy of Computing Research Committee, she became Vice-Principal and Head of College of Science and Engineering in 2015.

In 2015 she was appointed to the Council of Physical Sciences Research Council. Calder summarises her research interests as "mathematical modelling and automated reasoning for concurrent, communicating systems". Calder published an influential overview on the feature interaction problem, with more than 300 citations at Google Scholar, her research has extended to applying computer science methods to biochemical networks and cell signalling in bioinformatics, resulting in a number of papers. Calder was appointed an OBE in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to computer science, she holds fellowships of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the British Computer Society, the Institution of Electrical Engineers and the Royal Academy of Engineering. Calder was listed as 21st most influential woman in Scotland, 2012, by The Herald

William of Champeaux

Guillaume de Champeaux, known in English as William of Champeaux and Latinised to Gulielmus de Campellis, was a French philosopher and theologian. William was born at Champeaux near Melun. After studying under Anselm of Laon and Roscellinus, he taught in the school of the cathedral of Notre-Dame, of which he was made canon in 1103. Among his pupils was Peter Abelard, of which he had a disagreement with because Abelard challenged some of his ideas, William thought Abelard was too arrogant. Abelard calls him the "supreme master" of dialectic. In 1108 he resigned his positions as archdeacon of Paris and master of Notre Dame, retreated to the shrine of St Victor, outside the city walls of Paris, under his influence, there formed what would become the abbey of St Victor, he was a friend of Bernard of Clairvaux, having helped Bernard recuperate from ill-health he motivated Bernard to write some of his important works including the Apologia, dedicated to William. William left St Victor in 1113 when he became bishop of Châlons-en-Champagne, in which time he took part in the dispute concerning investitures as a supporter of Pope Callixtus II, whom he represented at the conference of Mousson.

In 1114, he issued the Grande charte champenoise which defined the agricultural and viticultural possessions of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre-aux-Monts, thus giving rise to the modern-day Champagne wine region. After relinquishing his Benedictine Abbacy, he moved to a Cistercian monastery in Rheims, where he composed a number of spiritual books, such as his Vita Prima, which were read in monastic circles, his surviving works are a fragment on the Eucharist, inserted by Jean Mabillon in his edition of the works of St Bernard, the Moralia A brevi ala and De Origine Animae. In the last of these he maintains that children who die unbaptized must be lost, the pure soul being defiled by the grossness of the body, declares that God's will is not to be questioned, he upholds the theory of Creationism. Ravaisson-Mollien has discovered a number of fragments by him, among which the most important is the De Essentia Dei et de Substantia Dei, he is considered the founder of an early version of moderate realism, a philosophy which held that universals exist in particular things as common substances individuated by accidents and in the mind as concepts.

Cameron, Margaret. What's in a Name? Students of William of Champeaux on the Vox Significativa, Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch fur Antike und Mittelalter 9, 2004, pp. 93–114. Iwakuma, Yuko. William of Champeaux, On Aristotle's Categories, in Joël Biard, Irène Rosier-Catach, La tradition médiévale des Catégories, Louvain-Paris: Peeters, 2003, pp. 313–328. Mews, Constant. Logica in the Service of Philosophy: William of Champeaux and his Influence, Rener Berndt, Schreiber, Schenker. Studien zur Abtei Sankt Viktor in Paris und de Viktorinen, Aksademie Verlag, 2005, pp. 77–117. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Champeaux, William of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 829. Guilfoy, Kevin. "William of Champeaux". In Zalta, Edward N.. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy