USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
United States Olympic Training Center
The United States Olympic Training Centers are three campuses created by the United States Olympic Committee as training facilities for its Olympic and Paralympic athletes. They are located in Colorado. There is a U. S. Olympic Education Center in Marquette and other official U. S. Olympic/Paralympic training sites are located in Edmond, Oklahoma; some athletes preparing for the Olympics and Pan American Games live at one of the OTCs for a period of months or years, while others visit periodically with their respective national teams for training camps, coaching, or physical testing. Although foreign national teams are granted use of the USOTCs, they are used by athletes from the United States; the USOTCs are all open to the general public for tourism, they are the only facilities for Olympic training in the world to do so. The Colorado Springs OTC was the first to be built, has been the home of the U. S. Olympic Committee since 1978, its location on the former Ent Air Force Base was selected for its high elevation, thought to improve training effectiveness.
Its facilities include an Olympic-size swimming pool, an indoor shooting range, the Olympic Training Center Velodrome, two sports centers housing numerous gymnasiums and weight rooms, a sports science laboratory, in addition to an athlete center and dining hall, several dormitories, a visitors' center, the offices of both the USOC and U. S. Paralympics; the Lake Placid OTC facility opened two years after hosting the 1980 Winter Games. The LPOTC is home to four resident sports: Bobsled/Skeleton, Freestyle Ski, Biathlon. Athletes from boxing and kayak, rowing, synchronized swimming, team handball, water polo and wrestling train on site; the third OTC is in Chula Vista, located about 7 miles south of the city of San Diego, is where the U. S. national rugby sevens team trains. The 150-acre campus features sport venues and support facilities for eight Olympic sports: archery, canoe/kayak, field hockey, soccer and track & field. In June 1995, the training center known as ARCO Training Center for sponsorship reasons, was open.
Over the years more facilities, such as beach volleyball courts and a BMX track, were added. The Chula Vista OTC is home to the annual SoCal Showdown, a national-level archery tournament that attracts archers from around the country to compete in a several day competition consisting of qualifications and eliminations; as of January 2017, the training center is owned by the City of Chula Vista, has been renamed Chula Vista Elite Athlete Training Center. The United States Olympic Committee will continue funding athlete programming at the center at least through 2020. US Olympic Committee website
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for long-range precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves cut into the bore walls. The term was rifled gun, with the word "rifle" referring to the machining process of creating grooving with cutting tools, is now used for any long handheld device designed for aimed discharge activated by a trigger, such as air rifles and the personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare, law enforcement and shooting sports. Like all typical firearms, a rifle's projectile is propelled by the contained deflagration of a combustible propellant compound, although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, formal target shooting and casual shooting; the raised areas of the rifling are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile, imparting a spin around the longitudinal axis of the barrel.
When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling, in the same way that a properly spirally thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. This thus improves range and accuracy. Rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are classified as single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic, or automatic. Single shot, bolt action, semi-automatic rifles are limited by their designs to fire a single shot for each trigger pull. Only automatic rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze. Modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in function with machine guns. In fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A military's light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles; the difference between an automatic rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system, ammunition feed system. Rifles, with their lighter components and smaller capacity magazines, are incapable of sustained automatic fire in the way that machine guns are.
Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are belt-fed. Many machine guns allow the operator to exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles do not. Most machine guns fire from an open bolt in order to reduce the danger of "cook-off", while all rifles fire from a closed bolt for accuracy. Machine guns are crewed by more than one soldier; the term "rifle" is sometimes used to describe larger rifled crew-served weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles and naval rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing if the weapon is not rifled or does not fire solid projectiles; the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket either through the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" that would allow for more shots to be fired from the firearm.
This might have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although military commanders preferred smooth bore weapons for infantry use because rifles were much more prone to problems due to powder fouling the barrel and because they took longer to reload and fire than muskets. Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets. In the early 18th century, Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the momentum and kinetic energy of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with greater ease; the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Their greater range was considered to be of little practical use, since the smoke from black powder obscured the battlefield and made it impossible to target the enemy from a distance. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters and non-military uses like hunting.
Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, the need to load from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. On firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable; the performance of early muskets defined the style of warfare at the time. Due to the lack of accuracy, soldiers were deployed in long lines to fire at the opposing forces. Precise aim was thus not necessary to hit an opponent. Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, imprecise
The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
Arthur Cook (sport shooter)
Arthur Edwin "Art" Cook is a sports shooter and Olympic Champion for the United States. He won a gold medal in the 50 metre rifle prone event at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London. Cook was born in Washington, DC, he attended the University of Maryland, where he was the captain of the rifle team and a member of Sigma Pi fraternity. Cook began shooting in 1939 while attending a Boy Scout Camp. In 1941 he came in last place in a Boy Scout team shooting match, he kept practicing. He won his first victory in 1946 at the National Junior Smallbore Rifle Championship, he entered the University of Maryland and led them to the National Intercollegiate Team Championships is 1947 and 1949 where they set record scores both years. The team lost a close championship contest to the U. S. Naval took second place, he was named to the All-American Rifle Team all three years. He left school in 1949 to work for a gun supply business. In 1951 he entered the U. S. Air Force. Aside from the 1948 Olympic Team, Cook was a member of the U.
S. teams at the 1949 International Shooting Union World Championships, the 1951 Pan American Games, the 1952 ISU World Championships, the 1954 ISU World Championships. He won two medals at the 1949 World Championships and one medal in 1952. In 1953 and 1957 he won the National Gallery Rifle Championship, he coached the U. S. Deaf Olympic Team in 1969 and 1993, helped establish the United States Air Force Marksmanship Training Program, he was inducted into the University of Maryland Athletic Hall of Fame in 1982. In 1955 he formed his own wholesale supply company, Arthur Cook Supply Corp
ISSF 50 meter rifle prone
50 metre rifle prone is an International Shooting Sport Federation event consisting of 60 shots from the prone position with a.22 Long Rifle caliber rifle. The time limit is 75 minutes for the entire match, including sighting shots, or 90 minutes if there is a need to compensate for slow scoring systems. In the 2013 ISSF rules the 60-shot prone match consists of 15-minute preparation and sighting time, followed by the match - 60 shots in 50 minutes for electronic scoring, 60 shots in 60 minutes for paper targets; the sport is based on the traditional "English Match" that consisted of 60 shots in the prone position with a.22 rifle, but had varying distances between 45.7 metres and 100 metres. Before 2017, the men's event was included in the Olympic program but starting with the 2020 Olympics this event has been deleted to promote equal gender in Olympic shooting sports. Mixed gender doubles events were introduced to replace this event and two other individual shooting events. Now this event is contested in World Championships only.
This includes a final for the top eight competitors. Beginning with the 2013 season, a new finals format was instituted, in which the qualification score is discarded, the standings among the top eight shooters are determined by their finals scores alone; the course of fire was changed with the new rules, from the previous 10-shot and 20-shots program into a 24-shot elimination format at present from year 2017 with the lowest ranking shooter eliminated every two shots, starting from the completion of 12th shot. The women's event included in both the ISSF and the CISM World Championships; as there is no final, shooters with the same score are separated by a number of tie-breaking criteria, the first being the number of inner tens. Women's rifles may weigh up to 6.5 kilograms, as opposed to 8.0 kilograms for men, but after the switch from standard rifles to sport rifles this is now the only difference in equipment
Mount Holly, New Jersey
Mount Holly is a township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. It is the county seat of Burlington County as well as an eastern suburb of Philadelphia; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 9,536, reflecting a decline of 1,192 from the 10,728 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 89 from the 10,639 counted in the 1990 Census. Mount Holly gives its name to the National Weather Service's Weather Forecast Office for the Philadelphia metropolitan area, though the office is located in adjacent Westampton. What is now Mount Holly was formed as Northampton on November 6, 1688. Northampton was incorporated as one of New Jersey's first 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Little Egg Harbor Township, Washington Township, Pemberton borough, Coaxen Township, Pemberton Township, Westampton Township and Lumberton Township; the township was renamed Mount Holly as of November 6, 1931, based on the results of a referendum held three days earlier.
The township was named for hills covered with holly trees. Some areas of today's Mount Holly were known as Bridgetown; the first European settlement in what is now Mount Holly began in 1677, when Walter Reeves acquired land from the Lenape Native Americans living in the area. He constructed a dam on Rancocas Creek to channel water through a raceway to power a grist mill and saw mill. Edward Gaskill and his sons hand dug the mill race on their property between 1720 and 1723. After the mills were established, more settlers were attracted to the area and built houses and commercial buildings on High, White and Pine streets, including the Shinn Curtis Log House. By 1800, over 250 dwellings had been built. Today no mills remain on the raceway, which still flows in its original course from the Rancocas just above the dam; the raceway proved a way for herring to make their way above the dam and was the scene of an annual fish run in the spring which provided fresh herring for slating and eating. The former mill land has been preserved as the Mill Dam Park.
It marks the importance of mills to the early settlements. On December 17, 1776, Colonel Samuel Griffin of the Continental Army crossed the Delaware River with 600 men — untrained men and boys, with little equipment — and marched to Mount Holly, where he set up a few "3-pounder" artillery pieces on Iron Works Hill. Hessian commanders von Block and Carl von Donop, were told that there were 3,000 American troops at Mount Holly. By December 23, 1776, 2,000 Hessians were moved from Bordentown and positioned at The Mount in Mount Holly, where they engaged in a three-day-long artillery exchange, known as the Battle of Iron Works Hill or Battle of Mount Holly, with the Americans on Iron Works Hill; the Americans slipped away that night. After George Washington crossed the Delaware River on December 25, 1776, the fact that thousands of Hessian troops had been drawn to Mount Holly aided in the Continental Army's success in the Battle of Trenton the next day, a surprising American victory that helped turn the Army's fading morale after the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington just weeks before and the ignominious retreat through New Jersey.
The 1793 state legislature approved the relocation of the Burlington County seat from Burlington City to Mount Holly, approved by voters in a 1796 referendum. Several important municipal buildings were constructed, including the courthouse in 1796 and the county prison built circa 1819; the Burlington County Prison was designed by Robert Mills, a nationally known architect who designed the Washington Monument. The town has numerous 18th and 19th-century buildings, most of which are included in the Mount Holly Historic District. Commercial buildings were constructed along High Street. In 1849, the Burlington and Mount Holly Railroad was established, connecting communities along the Delaware River to Philadelphia, the major city of the area; the railroad supported industrialization along its route. The Camden and Mount Holly Railroad constructed a station 20 years near the intersection of Washington and King streets. A trolley station was built in 1904 for the passengers making connections to Burlington City and Moorestown.
New municipal buildings were constructed during the 20th century, including the Town Hall on Washington Street and the U. S. Post Office located across the street, both federally funded and constructed as Works Progress Administration projects under President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. In the late 1950s, Mount Holly began to have economic difficulties due to industrial restructuring and the loss of working-class jobs. In the post-World War II period, numerous blue collar, family wage jobs disappeared as the community's traditional employers, the mills and dye factories, were shut down. At first these job losses were offset in part by gains at the nearby military bases, Fort Dix and McGuire Air Force Base during the Vietnam War. In 1970, the residential vacancy rate in Mount Holly was 4.3%. By 1980, the vacancy rate had climbed to 8.7% as a result of the nearby military installations' downsizing after the end of the Vietnam War. During this same period, 1970–1980, shopping malls proliferated in the suburban Philadelphia area, retail business in Mount Holly suffered.
Mount Holly had a total area of 2.852 square miles, including 2.806 square miles of land and 0.04