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Matthew Murray

Matthew Murray was an English steam engine and machine tool manufacturer, who designed and built the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin cylinder Salamanca in 1812. He was an innovative designer in many fields, including steam engines, machine tools and machinery for the textile industry. Little is known about Matthew Murray's early years, he was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1765. He was apprenticed to be either a blacksmith or a whitesmith. In 1785, when he concluded his apprenticeship, he married Mary Thompson of County Durham; the following year he moved to Stockton and began work as a journeyman mechanic at the flax mill of John Kendrew in Darlington, where the mechanical spinning of flax had been invented. Murray and his wife, had three daughters and a son called Matthew. In 1789, due to a lack of trade in the Darlington flax mills and his family moved to Leeds to work for John Marshall, to become a prominent flax manufacturer. John Marshall had rented a small mill at Adel, for the purpose of manufacture but to develop a pre-existing flax-spinning machine, with the aid of Matthew Murray.

After some trial and error, to overcome the problem of breakages in the flax twine during the spinning of the flax, sufficient improvements were made to enable John Marshall to undertake the construction of a new mill at Holbeck in 1791, Murray was in charge of the installation. The installation included new flax-spinning machines of his own design, which Murray patented in 1790. In 1793 Murray took out a second patent on a design for "Instruments and Machines for Spinning Fibrous Materials", his patent included a carding engine and a spinning machine that introduced the new technique of "wet spinning" flax, which revolutionised the flax trade. Murray maintained the machinery for Marshall's mills and made improvements that pleased his employer. At this stage it seems. Industry in the Leeds area was developing fast and it became apparent that there was an opportunity for a firm of general engineers and millwrights to set up. Therefore, in 1795, Murray went into partnership with David Wood and set up a factory at Mill Green, Holbeck.

There were several mills in the vicinity and the new firm supplied machinery to them. The firm was so successful that in 1797 it moved to larger premises at Holbeck; the firm welcomed two new partners at this point. The firm became known as Fenton and Wood. Murray was the technical innovator and in charge of obtaining orders. Although the firm still served the textile industry, Murray began to consider how the design of steam engines could be improved, he wanted to make them simpler and more compact. He wanted the steam engine to be a self-contained unit that could be assembled on site with pre-determined accuracy. Many existing engines suffered from faulty assembly. One problem that Murray faced was that James Pickard had patented the crank and flywheel method of converting linear motion to circular motion. Murray ingeniously got round this difficulty by introducing a hypocycloidal gear; this consisted of a large fixed ring with internal teeth. Around the inside of this ring a smaller gear wheel, with half the outer one's diameter, would roll driven by the piston rod of the steam engine, attached to the gear's rim.

As the piston rod moved backwards and forwards in a straight line, its linear motion would be converted into circular motion by the gear wheel. The gear wheel's bearing was attached to a crank on the flywheel shaft; when he used the hypocycloidal gear he was able to build engines that were more compact and lightweight than previous ones. However, Murray ceased to use this type of motion as soon. In 1799 William Murdoch, who worked for the firm of Boulton and Watt, invented a new type of steam valve, called the D slide valve. This, in effect, slid backwards and forwards admitting steam to one end of the cylinder the other. Matthew Murray improved the working of these valves by driving them with an eccentric gear attached to the rotating shaft of the engine. Murray patented an automatic damper that controlled the furnace draft depending on the boiler pressure, he designed a mechanical hopper that automatically fed fuel to the firebox. Murray was the first to adopt the placing of the piston in a horizontal position in the steam engine.

He expected high standards of workmanship from his employees, the result was that Fenton and Wood produced machinery of a high precision. He designed a special planing machine for planing the faces of the slide valves; this machine was kept in a locked room, to which only certain employees were allowed access. The Murray Hypocycloidal Engine in Thinktank museum, England, is the third-oldest working engine in the world, the oldest working engine with a hypocycloidal gear; as a result of the high quality of his steam engines, sales increased a great deal and it became apparent that a new engine assembly shop was required. Murray designed this himself, produced a huge three-storeyed circular building known as the Round Foundry; this contained a centrally mounted steam engine to power all of the machines in the building. Murray built a house for himself adjoining the works; the design of this was pioneering, as each room was heated by steam pipes, so that it became known locally as Steam Hall. The success that Fenton and Wood enjoyed because of the high quality of their workman

Vermont State Hospital

Vermont State Hospital, alternately known as the Vermont State Asylum for the Insane and the Waterbury Asylum, was a mental institution built in 1890 in Waterbury, Vermont to help relieve overcrowding at the run Vermont Asylum for the Insane in Brattleboro, now known as the Brattleboro Retreat. Intended to treat the criminally insane, the hospital took in patients with a wide variety of problems, including mild to severe mental disabilities, depression and senility; the hospital campus, much of which now houses other state offices, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016. As a replacement for this facility, the state operates the 25 bed Vermont psychiatric care hospital in Berlin, VT. During the tenure of Dr. Eugene A. Stanley as superintendent, the hospital expanded – with a patient population peaking at 1,728 in the mid-1930s – and constructed a new three-story building for the treatment of women. Stanley, an advocate of eugenics, espoused forced sterilization and advised the Eugenics Society, to whom he provided patient records.

The word, "Waterbury," used in a derogatory sense, was intended to convey to the listener that someone was either insane or was acting or talking in a manner disagreeable to the speaker The property was flooded in 1927. In 2011, Tropical Storm Irene flooded. In 1963, the population started to decline. Empty floor space was converted into state offices. Since 2012, the hospital has been affiliated with the University of Vermont-UVM Medical Center Department of Psychiatry, several other colleges and universities; the hospital runs the Vera A. Hanks School of Psychiatric Technology. In 2012, the property covered 117 acres. Brandon Training School Brattleboro Retreat National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Vermont Official website

Plymouth Municipal Airport (North Carolina)

Plymouth Municipal Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport located two nautical miles south of the central business district of Plymouth, in Washington County, North Carolina, United States. According to the FAA's National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2009–2013, it is classified as a general aviation airport. Although many U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, this airport is assigned PMZ by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA. Plymouth Municipal Airport covers an area of 390 acres at an elevation of 39 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 3/21 with an asphalt surface measuring 5,500 by 75 feet. For the 12-month period ending November 21, 2008, the airport had 11,275 aircraft operations, an average of 30 per day: 80% general aviation, 18% military, 2% air taxi. At that time there were 13 aircraft based at this airport: 77% single-engine, 15% multi-engine and 8% helicopter. Aerial photo as of 6 March 1994 from USGS The National Map "Plymouth Municipal Airport - PMZ". at North Carolina DOT Airport Directory FAA Terminal Procedures for PMZ, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for PMZ AirNav airport information for PMZ FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for PMZ