Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete.
The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.
In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples, known as Beatrice of Aragon, was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples and Isabella of Clermont. She was twice Queen of Hungary and of Bohemia, having married both Matthias Corvinus and Vladislaus II, Beatrice received a good education at her fathers court in Naples. She was engaged in 1474 and married Matthias in Hungary 22 December 1476, again in 1488, Matthias took Ancona under his protection for a while, occupying it with a Hungarian garrison. Beatrice exerted some influence in the policy of Hungary and she wished to participate in policy, in 1477, she accompanied Matthias during the invasion of Austria, and in 1479, she was present during the peace treaty between Matthias and Vladislaus II. In 1479, their relationship became tense when Matthias awarded his illegitimate son John Corvinus with a fief and invited Johns mother, Barbara Edelpock, Matthias died before Beatrice ever conceded that his son János should be the rightful heir. Upon his death in 1490, Beatrice managed to keep a position by the support of the Hungarian nobility.
After the death of Matthias Corvinus, she wrote a letter to Simon Keglevich, she addressed this letter to king Simon Keglevich and she offered him to become as a mother to his children. He declined this offer, he delivered this letter to the parliament and she presided as a royal representative at the parliament where the next king was elected, with the Hungarian crown placed at her side. It is believed she could not control Janos and was claimed illegitimate by her second husband, Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary wrote in the same year 1490 many letters with the same text to many of the Hungarian nobility. Beatrice married her husband, Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary. Beatrice had great support by the Hungarian nobility, and the nobility had demanded of Vladislav that he marry her and this marriage was yet again childless. Formally, the marriage was questioned, as her spouse was not granted a divorce from his first wife by the pope. Her husband claimed that he did not regard the marriage as legal, and that he had forced to marry her against his will, and in 1493.
In 1500, the declared the marriage to be illegal. Beatrice returned to Naples, where she arrived in 1501, J. Macek, Tři ženy krále Vladislava, Mladá fronta, Praha,1991 kol. autorov, Encyklopédia Slovenska, Bratislava,1977
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Ottoman Hungary was the territory of Medieval Hungary which was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1541 to 1699. Ottoman rule covered mostly the central and southern territories of the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary as almost the entire region of the Great Hungarian Plain, under the reign of Louis II Jagiellon, internal dissentions divided the nobility. Provoked into war by diplomatic insult, Suleyman the Magnificent attacked the Kingdom of Hungary and he did not hesitate to launch an attack against the weakened kingdom, whose smaller, badly led army was defeated on 29 August 1526 at the Battle of Mohács. Thus he became influential in the Kingdom of Hungary, while his semi-vassal, named John I Zápolya, Suleyman went further and tried to crush Austrian forces, but his siege of Vienna in 1529 failed after the onset of winter forced his retreat. The title of king of Hungary was disputed between Zápolya and Ferdinand until 1540, whereas a great many of the 17,000 and 19,000 Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of present-day Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs.
Southern Slavs were acting as akıncıs and other light troops intended for pillaging in the territory of present-day Hungary, in these times, territory of present-day Hungary began to undergo changes due to the Ottoman occupation. Vast lands remained unpopulated and covered with woods, the life of the inhabitants on the Ottoman side was unsafe. Peasants fled to the woods and marshes, forming guerrilla bands, the territory of present-day Hungary became a drain on the Ottoman Empire, swallowing much of its revenue into the maintenance of a long chain of border forts. However, some parts of the economy flourished, in the huge unpopulated areas, townships bred cattle that were herded to south Germany and northern Italy - in some years they exported 500,000 head of cattle. Wine was traded to the Czech lands and Poland, following this treaty, the members of the Habsburg dynasty administered much enlarged Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In the 1540s the total of the four fortresses of Buda, Pest, Székesfehérvár.
The number of Ottoman garrison troops stationed in Ottoman Hungary vary, in 1640 when the front remained relatively quiet,8,000 Janissary supported by an undocumented number of local recruits was sufficient to garrison the whole of the Eyalet of Budin. The territory was divided into Eyalets, which were divided into Sanjaks. At first, Ottoman-controlled territories in present-day Hungary were part of the Budin Eyalet, new eyalets were formed, Temeşvar Eyalet, Zigetvar Eyalet, Kanije Eyalet, Egir Eyalet, and Varat Eyalet. Likewise, Zigetvar and Egir eyalets included parts of present-day Serbia, Slovakia and Sanjak-Beys were responsible for administration and defense. The Ottomans only interest was to secure their hold on the territory, the Sublime Porte became the sole landowner and managed about 20 percent of the land for its own benefit, apportioning the rest among soldiers and civil servants. The Ottoman landlords were interested mainly in squeezing as much wealth from the land as quickly as possible, of major importance to the Sublime Porte was the collection of taxes.
Taxation left little for the landlords to collect, Most of the nobility
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, known by various titles and honorifics, was a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin, the miraculous birth took place when she was already betrothed to Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Marys life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to the Catholic and Orthodox teaching, at the end of her life her body was assumed directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion and she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries.
The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, there is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Roman Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, many Protestants minimize Marys role within Christianity, based on the argued brevity of biblical references. Mary has a position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Marys name in the manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name ܡܪܝܡ. The English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, which is a form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament, in Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husbands involvement. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions.
For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelos Pietà, the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. However, this phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God, some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, the scriptural basis for the term Queen can be seen in Luke 1,32 and the Isaiah 9,6. Queen Mother can be found in 1 Kings 2, 19-20 and Jeremiah 13, other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary
Frigyes Schulek was a Hungarian architect, a professor at József Technical University and a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Schulek was born in Pest and began school in Buda and his father Ágost Schulek held a position in the Finance Ministry of Lajos Kossuth. The Schulek family accompanied Kossuths government on its flight to Debrecen during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, after the suppression of the struggle for independence, Ágost Schulek was declared persona non grata, and the family returned to Debrecen. Graduating in 1857, Frigyes Schulek enrolled in the Buda Polytechnic, thereafter he attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. He became a member of the Wiener Bauhütte where he studied under Friedrich von Schmidt, in 1866 he briefly worked on the restoration of the Regensburg Cathedral, subsequently visiting France and Italy. From 1871 he taught drawing at the Budapest Art School. In 1872 he was appointed architect of the newly founded Provisional Monuments Commission, known as the National Monuments Commission, here he coordinated the reconstruction and restoration of mediæval castles and churches.
Between 1874 and 1896 Schulek rebuilt the Church of Our Lady in Buda Castle, originally built in an early French Gothic style, it had been destroyed by fire in 1526, reopened as a mosque in 1541. After the Ottoman period and its 1586 reconversion to a church, the Franciscans and, and his other restorations include the town hall of Lőcse and churches at Ákos and Pozsony. Of the few buildings Schulek designed himself, most are in the Neo-Romanesque style and these include the Calvinist Reformed Church in Szeged and the Elisabeth Lookout at János-hegy, Budapest. Between 1895 and 1903 Schulek designed corridors and towers to connect still-extant portions of the fortress behind Matthias Church. Known as the Fishermans Bastion, the viewpoint has become a city landmark and his 1909 design for the Votive Church of Szeged, a twin-spired structure with red-brick façades and white stone trim, was modified by Ernő Foerk, and construction was completed by 1930. In 1903, following Imre Steindls death, Schulek was appointed professor of architecture at the Technical University of Budapest.
He became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1895 and was made an honorary member in 1917. Vol.11, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-7001-2803-7, p.314 f
Coronation of the Hungarian monarch
The Coronation of the Hungarian monarch was a ceremony in which the king or queen of the Kingdom of Hungary was formally crowned and invested with regalia. It corresponded to the ceremonies that occurred in other European monarchies. In the Middle Ages, all Hungarian coronations took place in Székesfehérvár Basilica, the Archbishop of Esztergom anointed the king or queen. The Archbishop placed the Holy Crown of Hungary and mantle of Saint Stephen on the head of the anointed person, the king was given a sceptre and a sword which denoted military power. Upon enthronement, the crowned king took the traditional coronation oath. Other clergy and members of the nobility had roles, most participants in the ceremony were required to wear uniforms or robes. Many other government officials and guests attended, including representatives of foreign countries, as the legends say, the first Hungarian monarch, Saint Stephen I was crowned in the St Adalbert Cathedral in Esztergom in the year of 1000. After his death he was buried in the Cathedral of Székesfehérvár which he started to build and had buried his son Saint Emeric, since then, the following Hungarian monarchs starting with Peter Orseolo, Saint Stephens nephew in 1038.
The huge Romanic cathedral was one of the biggest of its kind in Europe, however he had to be crowned three times because of the internal conflicts with the aristocrats that werent willing to accept his rule. He was crowned for the first time in may of 1301 by the archbishop of Esztergom and this meant that two of the conditions for the legitimacy were not being fulfilled. Finally, after obtaining the Holy Crown, Charles was crowned for his third time, only after this, Matthias started with internal and institutional reforms in the Kingdom, having been considered as the legitimate ruler of Hungary. The Ottomans used the cathedral for gunpowder storage, and during the attack the building was destroyed, rulers of Hungary were not considered legitimate monarchs until they were crowned King of Hungary with the Holy Crown of Hungary. As women were not considered fit to rule Hungary, the two queens regnant and Maria Theresa, were crowned kings of Hungary. Even during the personal union of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The only Habsburg who reigned without being crowned in Hungary was Joseph II, the final such rite was held in Budapest on 30 December 1916, when Emperor Charles I of Austria and Empress Zita were crowned as King Charles IV and Queen Zita of Hungary. The ceremony was rushed, due both to the war and the requirement for the Hungarian monarch to approve the state budget prior to the end of the calendar year. Charles IVs coronation was filmed however, and thus remains the only coronation of an Hungarian monarch ever documented in this way, the Austro-Hungarian empire perished with the end of World War I, although Hungary would restore a titular monarchy from 1920-45—while forbidding Charles to resume the throne. A communist takeover in 1945 spelled the end of this kingdom without a king
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
It was designed and built between 1895 and 1902 on the plans of Frigyes Schulek. Construction of the bastion destabilised the foundations of the neighbouring 13th century Dominican Church which had to be pulled down, between 1947–48, the son of Frigyes Schulek, János Schulek, conducted the other restoration project after its near destruction during World War II. Its seven towers represent the seven Magyar tribes that settled in the Carpathian Basin in 896, from the towers and the terrace a panoramic view exists of Danube, Margaret Island, Pest to the east and the Gellért Hill. The Buda side castle wall was protected by the fishermens guild, other people say, it got the name from the part of the city, which lies beneath the tower. The guild of fishermen was responsible for defending this stretch of the city walls in the Middle Ages and it is a viewing terrace, with many stairs and walking paths. A bronze statue of Stephen I of Hungary mounted on a horse, erected in 1906, the pedestal was made by Alajos Stróbl, based on the plans of Frigyes Schulek, in Neo-Romanesque style, with episodes illustrating the Kings life.
It was featured as a Pit Stop on the season of American TV show The Amazing Race
Buda is the former capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 the western part of the current Hungarian capital Budapest on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises about one-third of Budapests complete territory and is mostly wooded, notable landmarks include the Buda Castle and the Citadella. The Hungarian presidents residence, Sándor Palace, is in Buda, Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686. It was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era, by the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim, largely resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. In 1686, two years after the siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda. After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the almost deserted city, germans — clinging to their language — partly crowded out, partly assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here. As the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century slowly Hungarians became the majority there.
Edmund Hauler and philologist Andrew III of Hungary, buried in the Greyfriars Church in Buda Jadwiga of Poland, born here, capestrano, Italy Pest Óbuda Buda Castle Richard Brookes, The General Gazetteer, London, J. F. C. John Thomson, New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London, H. G. Bohn Charles Knight, drawings of Castle Buda over the centuries
Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, and was first completed in 1265. In the past, it has been called Royal Palace and Royal Castle and it is linked to Clark Ádám Square and the Széchenyi Chain Bridge by the Castle Hill Funicular. The castle is a part of the Budapest World Heritage Site, the first royal residence on the Castle Hill was built by King Béla IV of Hungary between 1247 and 1265. It is uncertain whether it was situated on the tip of the hill or on the northern elevation. The oldest part of the palace was built in the 14th century by Stephen, Duke of Slavonia. Only the foundations remain of the keep, which was known as Stephens Tower. The Gothic palace of King Louis I was arranged around a courtyard next to the keep. King Sigismund significantly enlarged the palace and strengthened its fortifications, Sigismund, as a Holy Roman Emperor, needed a magnificent royal residence to express his prominence among the rulers of Europe. He chose Buda Castle as his residence, and during his long reign it became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages.
Buda was an important artistic centre of the International Gothic style, construction began in the 1410s and was largely finished in the 1420s, although some minor works continued until the death of the king in 1437. The palace was first mentioned in 1437, under the name fricz palotha, the most important part of Sigismunds palace was the northern wing, known as the Fresh Palace. On the top floor was a hall called the Roman Hall with a carved wooden ceiling. Great windows and balconies faced toward the city of Buda, the façade of the palace was decorated with statues, a and coat-of-arms. In front stood the bronze statue of Sigismund, repaired by King Matthias Corvinus. The southern part of the residency was surrounded with narrow zwingers. Two parallel walls, the so-called cortina walls, run down from the palace to the River Danube across the steep hillside, the most imposing structure, the Broken Tower, on the western side of the cour dhonneur, remained unfinished. The basement of the tower was used as a dungeon, the top floors were probably the treasury of the royal jewels, the last phase of large-scale building activity took place under King Matthias Corvinus.
During the first decades of his reign the king finished the work on the Gothic palace, the Royal Chapel, with the surviving Lower Church, was likely built at that time
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest
The archbishopric of Esztergom was the most prominent historical archdiocese in Hungary. It was created in 1000 under Stephen I of Hungary largely on the territory of Upper Hungary, after the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, its territory was reduced to its present-day extent, it became the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest on 31 May 1993. The rest became part of the Catholic structures of Czechoslovakia. S. B, jános Csernoch Jusztinián György Serédi, O. S. B. Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest Roman Catholicism in Hungary History of the Archdiocese Herbermann, Charles, ed. Archdiocese of Gran