Maurizio Arrivabene is the current team principal of the Scuderia Ferrari Formula One team. He was appointed in November 2014, replacing Marco Mattiacci in the role, Arrivabene comes from a marketing and sales background. This appointment was part of a rejuvenation process by Marchionne who deposed the ex long-time Ferrari Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo. He has been an independent board member of Juventus F. C. since 2012, Ferrari appoints Maurizio Arrivabene to lead Gestione Sportiva. Maurizio Arrivabene replaces Mattiacci as Ferrari F1 team boss
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Philip Toll Hill, Jr. was an American automobile racer and the only American-born driver to win the Formula One World Drivers Championship. He scored three wins at each of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring sports car races, Hill was described as a thoughtful, gentle man and once said, Im in the wrong business. I dont want to beat anybody, I dont want to be the big hero, born in Miami, Hill was raised in Santa Monica, where he lived until his death. He studied business administration at the University of Southern California from 1945 to 1947, Hill left early to pursue auto racing, working as a mechanic on other drivers cars. Hill began racing cars at an age, going to England as a Jaguar trainee in 1949. He made his debut in the French Grand Prix at Reims France in 1958 driving a Maserati. That same year, paired with Belgian teammate Olivier Gendebien, Hill became the first American-born winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Hill driving most of the night in rainy conditions. He and Gendebien would go on to win the endurance race again in 1961 and 1962.
Hill began driving full-time for the Ferrari Formula One team in 1959, in 1960 he won the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the first Grand Prix win for an American driver in nearly forty years, since Jimmy Murphy won the 1921 French Grand Prix. This turned out to be the last win for a car in Formula 1. The following season, Hill won the Belgian Grand Prix and with two races left trailed only his Ferrari teammate Wolfgang von Trips in the season standings, a crash during the Italian Grand Prix killed von Trips and fifteen spectators. Hill won the race and clinched the championship but the triumph was bittersweet, Ferraris decision not to travel to America for the seasons final round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race at Watkins Glen as the newly crowned World Champion. When he returned for the season, his last with Ferrari, Hill said, I no longer have as much need to race. I dont have as much hunger anymore, I am no longer willing to risk killing myself. After leaving Ferrari at the end of 1962, he and fellow driver Giancarlo Baghetti started for the new team ATS created by engineers in the great walkout of 1961.
Phil Hill has the distinction of having won the first and last races of his driving career, Hill drove an experimental MG, EX-181, at Bonneville Salt Flats. The Roaring Raindrop, had an 91 cu. in, supercharged MGA Twin Cam engine, using 86% methanol with nitrobenzene and sulphuric ether, for an output of 290 HP. In 1959 Phil Hill attained 257 MPH in this car, breaking the record of Stirling Moss in same car
The Swiss are citizens of Switzerland. The demonym derives from the toponym of Schwyz and has been in use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 6.76 million in 2009 with 90% of them living in Switzerland, about 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union. The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside of Europe are found in the United States, closely related German-speaking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians. The French-speaking Swiss, traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects, today largely assimilated to the standard French language, amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and they are closely related to the French. The Italian-speaking Swiss, traditionally speakers of Lombard language today partly assimilated to the standard Italian language, amalgamated from Raetians and they are closely related to the Italians. The Romansh, speakers of the Romansh language, settling in parts of the Grisons, with worldwide human migration, there are an increasing number of Swiss not descended or only partially descended from the core ethnic groups listed above.
Most naturalized Swiss citizens will be linguistically oriented according to their canton of residence, the Swiss populace historically derives from an amalgamation of Gaulish or Gallo-Roman and Rhaetic stock. Their cultural history is dominated by the Alps, and the environment is often cited as an important factor in the formation of the Swiss national character. Political allegiance and patriotism was directed towards the cantons, not the federal level, from the 19th century there were conscious attempts to foster a federal Pan-Swiss national identity that would replace or alleviate the cantonal patriotisms. An additional symbol of national identity at the federal level was introduced with the Swiss national holiday in 1889. The bonfires associated with the holiday have become so customary since that they have displaced the Funken traditions of greater antiquity. These specifically include Grisons, Ticino and Geneva, according to Hartley-Moore, Localized equivalents of nationalist symbols were essential to the creation of Swiss civil society.
In the Swiss model, pride in local identity is to some degree synonymous with loyalty to the larger state, as Gottfried Keller argued in the nineteenth century, Without cantons and without their differences and competition, no Swiss federation could exist. Facilitated naturalization for foreign spouses and children of Swiss citizens requires a total minimum residence of five years, with more than 20% of the population resident aliens, Switzerland has one of the highest ratios of non-naturalized inhabitants in Europe. In 2003,35,424 residents were naturalized, a number exceeding net population growth. Over the 25-year period of 1983 to 2007,479,264 resident foreigners were naturalized, compare the figure of 0. 2% in the United Kingdom. The genetic composition of the Swiss population is similar to that of Central Europe in general, Switzerland is on one hand at the crossroads of several prehistoric migrations, while on the other hand the Alps acted as a refuge in some cases
Sebastian Vettel is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in 2010,2011,2012 and 2013 with Red Bull Racing and he is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of four drivers to have won four or more drivers titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017. Vettel started his career in Formula One as a test driver for BMW Sauber and made his debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, in the season, he signed with Toro Rosso and stayed with the team into 2008. He became the youngest race winner at the time when he took victory at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, in his first year driving for Red Bull in 2009, Vettel finished the season as the youngest-ever World Drivers Championship runner-up. The following year he went on to become the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers Championship, in the same year he helped Red Bull win the teams first World Constructors Championship.
He followed up his first championship with three titles, becoming the youngest double and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons and wrapping up the titles early, after his winless 2014 season he returned to winning ways in his first Ferrari season, being the closest challenger to the dominant Mercedes cars and winning three races. He is currently in place among all time race winners. Vettel was born in Heppenheim, West Germany, to Norbert and he has one younger brother and two older sisters, Melanie, a dental technician, and Stefanie, a physiotherapist for disabled children. Vettel suggested in an interview that he was terrible at school, Vettel is a fan of The Beatles, collecting several records, including Abbey Road and his favourite song being Drive My Car. In an interview on Top Gear, Vettel stated that he was a fan of British comedy such as Little Britain, Vettel lives in Thurgovia, Switzerland amongst other racing drivers and is a fan of German football team Eintracht Frankfurt.
Vettel has described himself as competitive and impatient, Vettel appears in advertisements for Head & Shoulders. Vettel provided the voice of character Sebastian Schnell in the version of the movie Cars 2 dubbed for German-speaking audiences, Vettel is in a relationship with Hanna Prater, a childhood friend. In January 2014, Vettel became a father for the first time with the birth of his daughter, in September 2015, Vettel became a father for the second time with the birth of his second daughter, Matilda. In 2015, Forbes estimated that Vettels annual income was $33 million, on the Formula One circuit, Kimi Räikkönen, his Ferrari teammate for 2015 to 2017, is a close friend. Vettel shows to have a friendship with fellow drivers such as Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher, Nico Rosberg with whom he repeatedly showcases a close
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo, nicknamed El Chueco or El Maestro, was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers Championship five times, from childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8, Fangio competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949 where he achieved further success. He won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 47 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams, Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career—the most of any driver. After retirement, Fangio presided as the president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world, Fangios grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce within three years by making charcoal from tree branches and his father, emigrated to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region.
His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio, slightly to the north and they married on 24 October 1903, and lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born on San Juans Day 1911 at 12,10 a. m. in Balcarce and his birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce. He was the fourth of six children, in his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No.4 of Balcarce, when Fangio was 13, he dropped out of school and worked as an assistant mechanic. When he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employers customers and he developed pneumonia, which almost proved fatal, after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest. He was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother, after recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21.
In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires and his driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination and he returned to Balcarce where he aimed to further his football career. Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangios hobby of building his own car and his parents donated space in a section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. After finishing his service, Fangio opened his own garage
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control