The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk, Presbyterian in outlook. It was part of the wider European Protestant Reformation. From the late fifteenth century the ideas of Renaissance humanism, critical of aspects of the established Catholic Church, began to reach Scotland through the contacts between Scottish and continental scholars. In the earlier part of the sixteenth century, the teachings of Martin Luther began to influence Scotland. Important was the work of the Lutheran Scot Patrick Hamilton, executed in 1528. Unlike his uncle Henry VIII in England, James V avoided major structural and theological changes to the church and used it as a source of income and for appointments for his illegitimate children and favourites, his death in 1542 left the infant Mary, Queen of Scots as his heir, allowing a series of English invasions known as the Rough Wooing. The English supplied books and distributed Bibles and Protestant literature in the Lowlands when they invaded in 1547.
The execution of the Zwingli-influenced George Wishart in 1546, burnt at the stake on the orders of Cardinal David Beaton, stimulated the growth of these ideas in reaction. Wishart's supporters, who included a number of Fife lairds, assassinated Beaton soon after and seized St. Andrews Castle, which they held for a year before they were defeated with the help of French forces; the survivors, including chaplain John Knox, were condemned to serve as galley slaves. Their martyrdom stirred resentment of the French and inspired additional martyrs for the Protestant cause. In 1549, the defeat of the English with French support led to the marriage of Mary to the French dauphin and a regency over Scotland for the queen's mother, Mary of Guise. Limited toleration and the influence of exiled Scots and Protestants in other countries, led to the expansion of Protestantism, with a group of lairds declaring themselves Lords of the Congregation in 1557 and representing Protestant interests politically; the collapse of the French alliance and the death of the regent, followed by English intervention in 1560, meant that a small but influential group of Protestants had the power to impose reform on the Scottish church.
The Scottish Reformation Parliament of 1560 approved a Protestant confession of faith, rejecting papal jurisdiction and the Mass. Knox, having escaped the galleys and having spent time in Geneva, where he became a follower of Calvin, emerged as the most significant figure; the Calvinism of the reformers led by Knox resulted in a settlement that adopted a Presbyterian system and rejected most of the elaborate trappings of the Medieval church. When her husband Francis II died in 1560, the Catholic Mary returned to Scotland to take up the government, her six-year personal reign was marred by a series of crises caused by the intrigues and rivalries of the leading nobles. Opposition to her third husband Bothwell led to the formation of a coalition of nobles, who captured Mary and forced her abdicate in favour of her son, who came to the throne as James VI in 1567. James resisted Presbyterianism and the independence of the Kirk; the Reformation resulted in major changes in Scottish society. These included a desire to plant a school in every parish and major reforms of the university system.
The Kirk discouraged many forms of plays, as well as poetry, not devotional in nature. Scotland's ecclesiastical art paid a heavy toll as a result of Reformation iconoclasm. Native craftsmen and artists turned to secular patrons, resulting in the flourishing of Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings and walls; the Reformation revolutionised church architecture, with new churches built and existing churches adapted for reformed services by placing the pulpit centrally in the church, as preaching was at the centre of worship. The Reformation had a severe impact on church music, with song schools closed down, choirs disbanded, music books and manuscripts destroyed, organs removed from churches; these were replaced by the congregational singing of psalms, despite attempts of James VI to refound the song schools and choral singing. Women gained new educational possibilities and religion played a major part in the lives of many women, but women were treated as criminals through prosecutions for scolding and witchcraft.
Scottish Protestantism was focused on the Bible, starting in the seventeenth century there would be efforts to stamp out popular activities viewed as superstitous or frivolous. The Kirk became the subject of many Scots saw their country as a new Israel. Christianity spread in Scotland from the sixth century, with evangelisation by Irish-Scots missionaries and, to a lesser extent, those from Rome and England; the church in Scotland attained clear independence from England after the Papal Bull of Celestine III, by which all Scottish bishoprics except Galloway became formally independent of York and Canterbury. The whole Ecclesia Scoticana, with individual Scottish bishoprics, became the "special daughter of the see of Rome", it was run by special councils made up of all the Scottish bishops, with the bishop of St Andrews emerging as the most important figure. The administration of parishes was given over to local monastic institutions in a process known as appropriation. By the time of the Reformation in the mid-sixteenth century 80 per cent of Scottish parishes were appropriated, leaving few resources for t
James IV of Scotland
James IV was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. He assumed the throne following the death of his father, King James III, at the Battle of Sauchieburn, a rebellion in which the younger James played an indirect role, he is regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs of Scotland, but his reign ended in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden. He was the last monarch from the island of Great Britain to be killed in battle. James IV's marriage in 1503 to Margaret Tudor linked the royal houses of England, it led to the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when Elizabeth I died without heirs and James IV's great-grandson James VI succeeded to the English throne as James I. James was the son of Margaret of Denmark, born in Holyrood Abbey; as heir apparent to the Scottish crown, he became Duke of Rothesay. He had two younger brothers and John. In 1474, his father arranged his betrothal to the English princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV of England, his father James III was not a popular king, facing two major rebellions during his reign, alienating many members of his close family his younger brother Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany.
James III's pro-English policy was unpopular, rebounded badly upon him when the marriage negotiations with England broke down over lapsed dowry payments, leading to the invasion of Scotland and capture of Berwick in 1482 by Cecily's uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in the company of the Duke of Albany. When James III attempted to lead his army against the invasion, his army rebelled against him and he was imprisoned by his own councillors in the first major crisis of his reign. James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, though somewhat estranged from her husband she was given responsibility for raising their sons at Stirling Castle, but she died in 1486. Two years a second rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader, they fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn on 11 June 1488, where the king was killed, though several sources claimed that Prince James had forbidden any man to harm his father. The younger James was crowned at Scone on 24 June.
However he continued to bear intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father. He decided to do penance for his sin; each Lent, for the rest of his life, he wore a heavy iron chain cilice around his waist, next to the skin. He added extra ounces every year. James IV proved an effective ruler and a wise king, he defeated another rebellion in 1489, took a direct interest in the administration of justice and brought the Lord of the Isles under control in 1493. For a time, he supported Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the English throne, carried out a brief invasion of England on his behalf in September 1496. In August 1497, James laid siege to Norham Castle, using his grandfather's bombard Mons Meg. James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, established good diplomatic relations with England, emerging at the time from a period of civil war. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497. In 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII.
This treaty was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year, in an event portrayed as the marriage of The Thrissil and the Rois by the great poet William Dunbar, resident at James' court. James was granted the title of Defender of the Faith in 1507 by the Papal Legate at Holyrood Abbey. James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France and this created diplomatic problems with England. For example, when rumours that James would renew the Auld alliance circulated in April 1508, Thomas Wolsey was sent to discuss Henry VII's concerns over this. Wolsey found "there was never a man worse welcome into Scotland than I... they keep their matters so secret here that the wives in the market know every cause of my coming." Nonetheless, Anglo-Scottish relations remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509. James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence. James founded two new dockyards for this purpose and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy, including the Margaret, the carrack Great Michael.
The latter, built at great expense at Newhaven, near Edinburgh and launched in 1511, was 240 feet in length, weighed1,000 tons and was, at that time, the largest ship in the world. James IV was a true Renaissance prince with an interest in scientific matters, he granted the Incorporation of Surgeons and Barbers of Edinburgh a royal charter in 1506, turned Edinburgh Castle into one of Scotland's foremost gun foundries, welcomed the establishment of Scotland's first printing press in 1507. He built a part of Falkland Palace, Great Halls at Stirling and Edinburgh castles, furnished his palaces with tapestries. James was a patron of the arts, including many literary figures, most notably the Scots makars whose diverse and observant works convey a vibrant and memorable picture of cultural life and intellectual concerns of the period. Figures associated with his court include William Dunbar, Walter Kennedy and Gavin Douglas, who made the first complete translation of Virgil's Aeneid in northern Europe.
His reign saw the passing of the makar Robert Henryson. He patronised music at Restalrig using rental money from t
In Scottish presbyterianism, a communion season, sometimes called a holy fair, is an annual week-long festival culminating with the celebration of the Lord's supper. It begins with a Thursday fast. On Friday, known as the question day, lay catechists, called "the men", would give their interpretations of Bible verses chosen by the minister, they would emerge as charismatic leaders of local revivals. A day of preparation would be held on Saturday; the climax was the Sabbath day celebration of communion outdoors in a natural amphitheatre. A thanksgiving service would be held on Monday; the practice developed in the eighteenth century as a result of hostility toward episcopacy and lack of ministers. Where ministers refused or neglected parish communion, large assemblies were carried out in the open air combining several parishes; these large gatherings were discouraged by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, but continued. They could become mixed with secular activities and were commemorated as such by Robert Burns in the poem "Holy Fair".
In the Highlands communicants lodged with friends and family. In the United States, Presbyterians incorporated communion seasons into evangelical revivalism, there the practice contributed to the development of the camp meeting. Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Holy Fairs: Scotland and the Making of American Revivalism. Wm. B. Eerdmans
St Mary's Abbey, Melrose is a ruined monastery of the Cistercian order in Melrose, Roxburghshire, in the Scottish Borders. It was founded in 1136 by Cistercian monks at the request of King David I of Scotland, was the chief house of that order in the country until the Reformation, it was headed by the Commendator of Melrose. Today the abbey is maintained by Historic Environment Scotland as a scheduled monument; the east end of the abbey was completed in 1146. Other buildings in the complex were added over the next 50 years; the abbey was built in the Gothic manner, in the form of a St. John's Cross. A considerable portion of the abbey is now in ruins. A structure dating from 1590 is maintained as a museum open to the public. Alexander II and other Scottish kings and nobles are buried at the abbey. A lead container believed to hold the embalmed heart of Robert the Bruce was found in 1921 below the Chapter House site; this was documented in records of his death. The rest of his body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey.
The abbey is known for its many carved decorative details, including likenesses of saints, dragons and plants. On one of the abbey's stairways is an inscription by John Morow, a master mason, which says, Be halde to ye hende; this has become the motto of the town of Melrose. An earlier monastery was founded by later dedicated to, Saint Aidan of Lindisfarne; this was shortly before his death in 651 at Old Melrose within the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, on a site about two miles east of Melrose Abbey. Set in a bend of the River Tweed, a graveyard marks the site. St. Cuthbert, who grew up nearby, trained at Old Melrose abbey, he was prior from 662. The visionary Dryhthelm was a monk there in the early eighth century; the abbey site was raided by Kenneth I of Scotland in 839. Melrose was the first Cistercian abbey in Scotland. King David I wanted the new abbey to be built on the same site, but the Cistercians insisted that the land was not good enough for farming and selected the current site.
It was said to have been built in ten years. The church of the convent was dedicated to St. Mary on 28 July 1146; the abbey became the mother church of the order in Scotland. Its first community came from Rielvaux, the Yorkshire house colonized from Cîteaux. In the 12th century, around Melrose, the Cistercians implemented new farming techniques and marketed Melrose wool throughout the great trading ports across northern Europe. A town grew up around the abbey. During a time of famine four thousand starving people were fed by the monastery for three months; the monastery had exclusive of the abbot and dignitaries. The last abbot was James Stewart, "natural son" of James V, who died in 1559; the privileges and possessions of the abbey were extensive. Its founder David endowed it with the lands of Melrose and other places. Succeeding monarchs increased its property; the house was not only famed for its wealth, for many of its abbots were men of distinction and honour. Waltheof of Melrose, stepson of King David and at one time prior of Kirkham, was abbot of Melrose from 1148-1159.
He endowed Melrose with a reputation for sanctity and learning which placed it on a par with houses such as Fountains and Rievaulx and made it the premier abbey in Scotland. The tomb of St. Waltheof, in the chapter house, was to become the focus of pilgrimage. One of the earliest accounts of the settlement reached at Runnymede is found in the Chronicle of Melrose Abbey. Melrose was located on one of the main roads running from Edinburgh to the south making it vulnerable to attack. In 1322 the town was attacked by the army of Edward II and much of the abbey was destroyed, it was rebuilt by order of King Robert the Bruce, with Sir James Douglas being principal auditor of finance for the project. In 1385 the abbey was burned by the army of Richard II of England, as he forced the army of Robert II of Scotland back to Edinburgh, it was rebuilt over a period of about 100 years—construction was still unfinished when James IV visited in 1504. From 1541 the abbacy was held by a series of commendators. In 1544, as English armies raged across Scotland in an effort to force the Scots to allow the infant Mary, Queen of Scots to marry the son of Henry VIII, the abbey was again badly damaged and was never repaired.
This led to its decline as a working monastery. The last abbot was James Stuart, who died in 1559. In 1590, Melrose's last monk died; the abbey withstood one final assault—some of its walls still show the marks of cannon fire after having been bombarded by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War. In 1610, a portion of the abbey's church was converted into a parish church for the surrounding town. A plain vault was inserted into the crossing, it was used until 1810. In 1812, a stone coffin was found buried in an aisle in the abbey's south chancel; some speculated the remains were those of Michael Scot, the philosopher and "wizard." At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Sir Walter Scott was appointed Sheriff-Depute of Roxburghshire. In 1822, with the financial assistance of the Duke of Buccleuch, Sir Walter supervised the extensive repair work, to preserve the ruins. In 1918 the Duke gave the ruins to the state, by which time the abbey had undergone further restoration and repair; the King's heart is said to have been buried in the church brought back from a crusade with the body of Lord Douglas in either 1330 or 1331.
In 1996 an archaeological excavation on the
Glenbuck is a small, remote village in East Ayrshire. Part of Ayrshire, it nestles in the hills 3 miles east of Muirkirk, East Ayrshire, Scotland; the site of the village was to the north-west of Glenbuck "Loch", on the River Ayr, was surrounded on three sides by South Lanarkshire. The Ayrshire/Lanarkshire border runs north to south across the Loch; the "Loch" is in fact. Much of the dam banks were created by French prisoners of war; the dam was situated so that the water to power the mill took 12 hours to reach Catrine. The Tenant of West Glenbuck Farm had his rent paid by James Findlay to open the sluice at 18.00 and close it at 06.00, mirroring the working hours of the Mill. The water turned the famous Catrine Wheel; the double wheel was 15.24 metres in diameter and revolved three times per minute, using 240 tonnes of water whilst generating 500 horse power. The water powered a dozen other water mills downstream; the dam's creation drained the valley downstream and thus allowed the road to be relocated into the valley floor along the route of the modern A70 and paved the way for the adjacent railway line around 1839.
The land was a dense bog with the old coach road higher up on the opposite side of valley running below Wee Darnhunch west across the fields along to Darnhunch Farm where gaps in the stone walls shows the old Toll Route. Railway enthusiasts considered the loch - dissected by the 1830 line - to be an exceptional place to photograph trains with still-water either side of the line and many photos, well known to steam buffs, exist; the last local train through Glenbuck station and over this dam was in 1964. The first steam railway in Scotland was between Troon and Kilmarnock, its iron rails were made in Glenbuck Iron works. Glenbuck was once a thriving coal mining community, but the last mine closed in 1931; the village was unable to provide jobs for the unemployed miners and suffered economic decline as a result. There is an informative collection of memories of Glenbuck here, it was an early centre for pig iron making and early coal blast furnaces were built and remained till recently. Used from 1795 to 1813 these belonged to the Glenbuck Iron Co. whose papers are lodged with the Scottish Records office.
Local lore says the firm conducted early research to make steel from coal with supposed advice provided by experts from Toledo. A deep study of local iron work was published by Donnachie and Butt, I L & J'Three 18th century Scottish ironworks'. Weaving was common and'Stair Row' in Glenbuck was the street where the weavers lived and worked; the last traditional weaver died in 1880. In 1879 local mine owner Charles Howatson built a splendid high Victorian estate house known as Glenbuck House and he forested all around the loch, he was in his middle years when he built and developed the estate with fine and still extant steadings. He died in 1914, in the following decades his inheritors, in order to avoid paying tax on the family home removed the roof and the house soon crumbled as the softer red local Mauchline sandstone is friable when exposed to rain; the once fine house was built and turned to dust in less than a century, was demolished by 1948 after a brief plan to turn it into flats was abandoned by Ayr County Council.
The loch car park now occupies its site. The village is best known for being the birthplace of Bill Shankly, who played football for Preston North End and Scotland before going on to manage Liverpool. Shankly was born in the village in 1913. Glenbuck Cherrypickers, the town's obscurely named football team, was successful, producing a steady stream of professional footballers; the team folded in 1931 before Shankly was old enough to play for them, although several of his brothers did. The site of the village pitch remains; this seminal football team's story appears in the press. Little of the original village exists. Opencast coal mining in the 1990s resulted in the demolition of many original properties. Of the seven remaining houses still extant, four are still occupied including a taxi firm and artist's. A wind farm developer administers most of the properties but since taking control West Glenbuck farmhouse has lain empty, leading to further de-population of the village. Lochside Cottage, now in private ownership, was the'new' toll house and Wee Darnhunch was the old toll house for the earlier higher road, manned by Robert Burns's maternal uncle - John Brown - in the 1790s.
Glenbuck, at the head of the River Ayr, is mentioned in Robert Burns's poem The Brigs of Ayr describing the River Ayr - Auld Ayr - in winter flood threatening the New Brig: West Glenbuck Farm land is where one of the best examples of a flanged Bronze Axe head in Scotland was found when ploughing - this item is held by the National Museum in Edinburgh and a picture is printed in the Society Of Antiquaries of Scotland notes by Arch. Fairbairn 1913-27; the C38 road is still maintained by the council and the Shankly memorial is visited along with a new River Ayr Way walk which loosely follows the 44 mile length of the river to the coast. The innovative river walk begins at a totem pole, located near the loch. There is a permanent bird-hide on the loch to observe local waterfowl. A useful local collection of Muirkirk Advertiser items p
Tunnels in popular culture
Mysterious tunnels or "secret passages" are a common element of the local folklore tradition in Europe. In Norwegian a secret tunnel-like passage is called a lønngang and in Swedish a lönngång; such tunnels are said to physically link prominent places such as country houses, churches, ancient monuments and other medieval, buildings. Legends about the existence of secret tunnels involve improbably long subterranean passages, sometimes running under major obstacles such as rivers and lakes to reach their destinations. Religious buildings and the landed gentry are common elements in many tunnel stories, it is unlikely that many of the recorded tunnels exist physically, for this is a characteristic of their nature. Underground structures have a fascination due to their being hidden from view and their contents, purpose and destinations remaining unknown. Over the centuries many underground structures have been discovered by chance, ranging from Cornish Fogous, souterrains that are Pictish and medieval sewers to smuggling tunnels, escape tunnels, siege tunnels, the like.
On occasion, possible tunnels prove to be of purely natural origin, such as at Cleeves Cove cave in Scotland, or Kents Cavern in England. The site at Cleeves Cove cave was known as the'Elfhouse' or'Elfhame', the locals at that time believing that elves had made it their abode. Natural caves or tunnel systems can be of great extent; some castles did have escape tunnels, such as the short passage located at Loudoun Castle in East Ayrshire, which leads from the old kitchens to a'tunnel-like' bridge over the Hag Burn. Others examples were longer: the young king Edward III was imprisoned by Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March at Nottingham Castle, in 1330 a small group of armed supporters of Edward III made use of a long, winding secret passage which led directly into the castle, allowing them to surprise and capture Mortimer. Other tunnels are products of an excessive desire for personal privacy, such as at Welbeck Abbey and Brownlow Castle. Another tunnel allowed for the supposed free and secret movement of monks and other ecclesiastics who may have had cause to keep a low profile for fear of attack or abusive treatment during periods of unrest or persecution.
Smugglers at times avoided the excise man by making use of drains, sewers or water supply conduits, although in a few cases they seem to have constructed tunnels for the purpose of smuggling. Bruce Walker, an expert on Scottish vernacular architecture, has suggested that the numerous and long-ruined ice houses on country estates may have led to Scotland's many tunnel legends; the appearance of ice house entrance could have prompted the uninitiated to make such deductions since ice houses are inconspicuously located in such places as ha-ha walls and stable basements, woodland banks, open fields. Many legends are associated with the actual and supposed activities of the Knights Templar and they are rich in stories about tunnels connecting the various properties that the order possessed up to the 12th century, when it was suppressed. Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung and others had various psychological interpretations of the symbolic meanings of tunnels and these may have a part to play in the origins of tunnel myths.
Alfred Watkins, in The Old Straight Track, suggested. In the city of Aalborg a tunnel is said to have run from the convent under the fjord to another convent near Sundby; this tunnel had branches which ran to the castle of Aalborghus. A student once tried to explore the tunnels with a sword and a light; the broken cord was retrieved. At Furness Abbey a tunnel has been said to run underneath the Abbey to both Piel Castle and Dalton Castle; this was said to be how the monks travelled to and from each monument to receive foodstuffs and keep watch upon the towns. It has been rumoured that the Holy Grail and King John’s missing jewels, are hidden somewhere inside. Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire stands in an impressive cliff-top position overlooking the River Swale. A potter named. Following it deep into the hillside, he came to a large cavern where slept King Arthur and his knights around the famous Round Table. On the table lay an ancient horn and a mighty sword. Thompson reached out and picked up the horn, but the sleepers began to awake and, fearing for his life, the potter fled.
As he raced down the tunnel back to daylight and safety, he heard a voice behind him declare: "Potter Thompson, Potter Thompson! If thou hadst drawn the sword or blown the horn, Thou hadst been the luckiest man e'er was born."The tunnel appears to have been well known, though the cave remains hidden. A second story tells how this subterranean passage is supposed to run from the Castle to nearby Easby Abbey; some soldiers once sent a drummer-boy along it to test the theory and followed the sound of his drum halfway to the Abbey. The drumming stopped and the boy was never seen alive again, but his ghost is said to haunt the tunnel, from where a slow drumbeat i
George Wishart was a Scottish Protestant Reformer and one of the early Protestant martyrs burned at the stake as a heretic. He belonged to a younger branch of the Wisharts of Pitarrow near Kincardineshire, his mother was Elizabeth, sister of Sir James Learmonth, married James Wishart of Pitarrow in April 1512. He was called George after his maternal grandfather of granduncle Prior George Leirmont, the name was derived from his mother‘s family. George’s father, James Wishart, died in May 1525, his mother, Eliyabeth together with her brother, Sir James Learmont of Balcomie, were the two people who were responsible for George’s upbringing, he may have graduated M. A. at King's College and was a student at the University of Leuven, from which he graduated in 1531. He taught the New Testament in Greek as schoolmaster at Montrose in Angus, until investigated for heresy by the Bishop of Brechin in 1538, he fled to England, where a similar charge was brought against him at Bristol in the following year by Thomas Cromwell.
Under examination by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer he recanted some utterances. In 1539 or 1540 he may have visited Germany and Switzerland, but by 1542 he had entered Corpus Christi College, where he studied and taught. In 1543 he returned to Scotland, in the train of a Scottish embassy which had come to London to consider the treaty of marriage between Prince Edward and the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, he returned to Montrose. He may have been the "Scottish man called Wishart" acting as a messenger to England for Alexander Crichton of Brunstane in a 1544 plot against Cardinal David Beaton; some historians such as Alphons Bellesheim and Richard Watson Dixon have accepted this identification. Other possibilities include a George Wishart, Baillie of Dundee, who allied himself with Beaton's murderers, his career as an itinerant preacher began from when he traveled Scotland from east to west. The story has been told by his disciple John Knox, he went from place to place, in danger of his life, denouncing the errors of the Papacy and the abuses in the churches of Montrose, Ayr, Edinburgh, Leith and elsewhere.
At Ormiston in East Lothian, in January 1546, he was seized by Lord Bothwell on the orders of Cardinal Beaton, taken to Elphinstone Castle, transferred by order of the privy council to Edinburgh castle on 19 January 1546. Thence he was handed over to Beaton, he was hanged on a gibbet and his body burned at St Andrews on 1 March 1546. Foxe and Knox attribute to him a prophecy of the death of the Cardinal, assassinated on 29 May following in revenge for Wishart's death. Wishart's preaching in 1544–45 helped popularize the teachings of Calvin and Zwingli in Scotland, he translated into English the first Helvetic Confession of Faith in 1536. At his trial he refused to accept that confession was a sacrament, denied free will, recognized the priesthood of all believing Christians, rejected the notion that the infinite God could be "comprehended in one place" between "the priest's hands", he proclaimed that the true Church was where the Word of God was faithfully preached and the two dominical sacraments rightly administered.
The Martyrs Memorial at St Andrews was erected to the honour of George Wishart, Patrick Hamilton, other martyrs of the Reformation era. There is a house at Saint Kentigern College in New Zealand, named after him. Dundee's East Port, the remains of a gateway in the town's walls, is known as the Wishart Arch; the Arch is the only surviving portion of the town's walls, survived owing to a story that George Wishart preached from it in 1544 to plague victims. However this story has been described as'probably-mythical' and the structure is thought to have been built around 1590, long after Wishart's death. Wishart was commemorated in Dundee with a United Presbyterian church being named after him. Wishart church could seat over 700 people, it was this church. It was renamed Wishart Memorial Church in 1901, a year after it had become part of the United Free Church of Scotland, 1929 became part of the Church of Scotland. In 1975 the church congregation was united with Dundee church and the building was sold to Dundee Cyrenians who turned it into a hostel for people with alcohol problems called the Wishart Centre.
Patrick Hamilton John Ogilvie This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Wishart, George". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Wishart, George". Dictionary of National Biography. 62. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 248–251, 253–254. Stevenson, David. "Wishart, George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29794. Foxe and Monuments. Hay Fleming and Confessors of St Andrews. Cameron M, et al. Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology. Ryrie, The Origins of the Scottish Reformation Martin Holt Dotterweich, ‘Wishart, George ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 Stirnet Genea