Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom
Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom was the fourth child and second daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark, the younger sister of George V. Princess Victoria was born on 6 July 1868 at London, her father was the Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Her mother was the Princess of Wales, the eldest daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark, she was known as "Toria" to her family. She was christened at Marlborough House on 6 August 1868 by Archibald Campbell Tait, Bishop of London. Princess Victoria was educated at home by tutors and spent her childhood at Marlborough House and Sandringham; the Princess was close to her brother, the future King George V. With her sisters, she was a bridesmaid at the wedding in 1885 of their paternal aunt Princess Beatrice to Prince Henry of Battenberg, she was a bridesmaid at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of York on 6 July 1893. Although she had a number of suitors, the most famous of them being King Carlos I of Portugal, Princess Victoria never married and had no children.
Her mother, Alexandra, is believed to have discouraged her from marrying. Instead she remained a companion to her parents her mother, with whom she lived until Queen Alexandra's death in 1925; the Princess set up her own home at Coppins, Iver, in Buckinghamshire. She took a particular interest in the village life, becoming honorary president of the Iver Horticultural Society. After the death of her mother, she decided to live in Buckinghamshire. Princess Victoria's last years were plagued with health problems, she suffered from neuralgia, indigestion, depression and influenza. Princess Victoria died at home on 3 December 1935, aged 67, her funeral took place on 7 December 1935 at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, where she was buried. Her remains were moved and reburied at the Royal Burial Ground, Windsor Great Park, on 8 January 1936, her death affected King George V, who died one month later. 6 July 1868 – 22 January 1901: Her Royal Highness Princess Victoria of Wales 22 January 1901 – 3 December 1935: Her Royal Highness The Princess Victoria Imperial Order of the Crown of India, 6 August 1887 Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem Member First Class of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert Royal Family Order of King Edward VII Royal Family Order of King George V Upon her younger sister's marriage in 1896, Princess Victoria was awarded a personal coat of arms, being the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom, bearing an inescutcheon of the shield of Saxony and differenced with a label argent of five points, the first and fifth bearing roses gules, the second and fourth crosses gules.
The inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant in 1917. "Princess Victoria, His Majesty's Sister, A Quiet Home Life," The Times, 4 December 1935, p. 18, column A. Ronald Allison and Sarah Ridell, The Royal Encyclopedia
Louise, Princess Royal
Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife was the third child and the eldest daughter of the British king Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark. In 1905, her father gave her the title of Princess Royal, bestowed on the eldest daughter of the British monarch if there is no living holder. Princess Louise was born at Marlborough House, the London residence of her parents the Prince and Princess of Wales, she spent much of her childhood at her parents' country estate in Norfolk. Like her sisters, Princesses Victoria and Maud, she received limited formal education, she was baptised at Marlborough House on 10 May 1867 by Archbishop of Canterbury. She and her sisters and Victoria, were bridesmaids at the wedding of their paternal aunt Princess Beatrice, to Prince Henry of Battenberg in 1885. On Saturday 27 July 1889, Princess Louise married Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, at the Private Chapel in Buckingham Palace. Two days after the wedding, Queen Victoria created him Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The letters patent creating this dukedom contained the standard remainder to heirs male of the body lawfully begotten. However, it became apparent that the Duchess would not have a son. Therefore, on 24 April 1900, Queen Victoria signed letters patent creating a second Dukedom of Fife, along with the Earldom of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom with a special remainder: in default of a male heir, these peerages would pass to the daughters of the 1st Duke and to their male descendants; the Duke and Duchess of Fife had three children: Alastair Duff, Marquess of Macduff, stillborn 16 June 1890 Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife, married her first cousin once removed, Prince Arthur of Connaught, had issue. Her Highness Princess Maud of Fife married the 11th Earl of Southesk, had issue. On 9 November 1905, King Edward VII created Princess Louise the Princess Royal, the highest honour bestowed on a female member of the royal family. At the same time, the King declared that the two daughters of the Princess Royal would be styled as princesses, with precedence after all members of the royal family bearing the style of "Royal Highness".
In December 1911, while sailing to Egypt, the Princess Royal and her family were shipwrecked off the coast of Morocco. Although they escaped unharmed, the Duke of Fife fell ill with pleurisy contracted as a result of the shipwreck, he died at Assuan, Egypt in January 1912, Princess Alexandra succeeded to his dukedom, becoming Duchess of Fife in her own right. Princess Alexandra married Prince Arthur of Connaught, a first cousin of Princess Louise. Princess Louise of Wales received the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert in 1885 and the Imperial Order of the Crown of India in 1887, she became a Lady of the Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem in 1888 and a Dame Grand Cross of that order in 1929. She became colonel-in-chief of the 7th Dragoon Guards in 1914, she served as colonel-in-chief of the 4th and 7th Dragoon Guards when it was formed in 1921. In the autumn of 1929 at Mar Lodge she was taken ill with gastric hemorrhage and was brought back to London; the Princess Royal died fifteen months in January 1931, at her home in Portman Square, London, at the age of 63 and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
Her remains were removed to the Private Chapel, Mar Lodge, Aberdeenshire. 20 February 1867 – 27 July 1889: Her Royal Highness Princess Louise of Wales 27 July 1889 – 22 January 1901: Her Royal Highness Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife 22 January 1901 – 9 November 1905: Her Royal Highness The Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife 9 November 1905 – 4 January 1931: Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal 1914: Colonel-in-chief of the 7th Dragoon Guards 1922: Colonel-in-chief of the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards Upon her marriage, Princess Louise was granted a coat of arms, being those of the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom with an inescutcheon for Saxony, all differenced with a label argent of five points, the outer pair and centre bearing crosses gules, the inner pair bearing thistles proper. The inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant in 1917
Order of the Crown of India
The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. The Order was established by Queen Victoria in 1878; the Order is open only to women. The Order was limited to British princesses, wives or female relatives of Indian princes and wives or female relatives of any person who held the office of: Viceroy of India, Governor-General of India, Governor of Madras, Governor of Bombay, Governor of Bengal, Secretary of State for India, Commander-in-Chief in India; the members of the Order could use the post-nominal letters "CI", but did not acquire any special precedence or status due to it. Furthermore, they were entitled to wear the badge of the Order, which included Queen Victoria's Imperial Cypher, VRI; the letters were set in diamonds and turquoises and were together surrounded by a border of pearls surmounted by a figure the Imperial Crown. The badge was worn attached to a light blue bow, edged in white, on the left shoulder. Queen Elizabeth II and her sister Princess Margaret were appointed to the Order by their father King George VI in June 1947.
Queen Elizabeth II is the last surviving former member of the Order. Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester was the last ordinary member at the time of her death in 2004. 1878: The Princess of Wales 1878: The German Crown Princess 1878: The Grand Duchess of Hesse 1878: Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein 1878: Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne 1878: Princess Beatrice 1878: The Duchess of Edinburgh 1878: The Duchess of Cambridge 1878: The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1878: The Duchess of Teck 1878: Maharani Bamba Singh 1878: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal 1878: Maharani Sita Vilas Dawaji Ammani Anaro of Mysore 1878: Maharanee Jumnabai Sahib Gaekwad of Baroda 1878: Dilawar un-Nisa Begum Sahiba, of Hyderabad 1878: Nawab Qudsia, Begum of Bhopal 1878: Vijaya Mohana Muktamba Bai Ammani Raja Sahib of Tanjore 1878: Maharani Swarnamoyee of Cossimbazar 1878: The Duchess of Argyll 1878: The Marchioness of Salisbury 1878: The Marchioness of Ripon, wife of the Viceroy 1878: Lady Mary Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 1878: The Countess of Elgin 1878: The Countess of Mayo 1878: Lady Susan Bourke 1878: Viscountess Halifax 1878: Lady Hobart 1878: Lady Jane Baring 1878: Anne Napier, Baroness Napier 1878: Edith Bulwer-Lytton, Countess of Lytton 1878: Harriette Lawrence, Baroness Lawrence 1878: Cecilia Northcote, Countess of Iddesleigh 1878: Catherine Frere, Lady Frere 1878: Mary Temple, Lady Temple 1878: Caroline Denison, Lady Denison 1878: Katherine Strachey, Lady Strachey 1878: Jane Gathorne-Hardy, Countess of Cranbrook 1878: Princess Frederica of Hanover 1878: Princess Marie of Hanover 1879: The Duchess of Cumberland 1879: The Duchess of Connaught 1879: Lady Napier of Magdala 1879: Lady Frances Cunynghame 1879: Dowager Lady Pottinger 1881: Bharani Thirunal Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal 1881: Lady Fergusson 1881: Mrs William Patrick Adam 1882: The Duchess of Albany 1883: Lady Grant Duff 1884: Edith Fergusson 1884: The Countess of Dufferin 1885: Lady Randolph Churchill 1885: Lady Reay 1886: Viscountess Cross 1887: Princess Louise of Wales 1887: Princess Victoria of Wales 1887: Princess Maud of Wales 1887: Maharanee Sunity Devee of Kuch Behar 1888: The Marchioness of Lansdowne 1889: Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein 1889: Princess Victoria Mary of Teck 1890: Lady Harris 1891: Maharanee Sakhiabai Raje Sahib Scindia Bahadur, Regent of Gwalior 1891: Lady Wenlock 1892: Maharanee Chimnabai Sahib Gaekwad of Baroda 1892: Lady Nandkuverbai Bhagvatsinh Jadeja, Rani Sahib of Gondal 1893: Vani Vilasa Sannidhana, Maharani of Mysore 1893: The Crown Princess of Romania 1893: Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1893: Princess Aribert of Anhalt 1894: The Countess of Elgin (wife of Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, Viceroy of India, 1894–18
A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial sovereignty; the Was and other types of staves were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are described as "sceptres" if they are full-length staffs. One of the earliest royal sceptres was discovered in the 2nd Dynasty tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were known to carry a staff, Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff; the staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre. The sceptre assumed a central role in the Mesopotamian world, was in most cases part of the royal insignia of sovereigns and gods; this is valid throughout the whole Mesopotamian history, as illustrated by both literary and administrative texts and iconography. The Mesopotamian sceptre was called ĝidru in Sumerian and ḫaṭṭum in Akkadian; the ancient Indian work of Tirukkural dedicates one chapter each to the ethics of the sceptre.
According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."Among the early Greeks, the sceptre was a long staff, such as Agamemnon wielded or was used by respected elders, came to be used by judges, military leaders and others in authority. It is represented on painted vases as a long staff tipped with a metal ornament; when the sceptre is borne by Zeus or Hades, it is headed by a bird. It was this symbol of Zeus, the king of the gods and ruler of Olympus, that gave their inviolable status to the kerykes, the heralds, who were thus protected by the precursor of modern diplomatic immunity. When, in the Iliad, Agamemnon sends Odysseus to the leaders of the Achaeans, he lends him his sceptre. Among the Etruscans, sceptres of great magnificence were used by kings and upper orders of the priesthood. Many representations of such sceptres occur on the walls of the painted tombs of Etruria; the British Museum, the Vatican, the Louvre possess Etruscan sceptres of gold, most elaborately and minutely ornamented.
The Roman sceptre derived from the Etruscan. Under the Republic, an ivory sceptre was a mark of consular rank, it was used by victorious generals who received the title of imperator, its use as a symbol of delegated authority to legates was revived in the marshal’s baton. In the First Persian Empire, the Biblical Book of Esther mentions the sceptre of the King of Persia. Esther 5:2 "When the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she obtained favor in his sight. So Esther came near, touched the top of the scepter." Under the Roman Empire, the sceptrum Augusti was specially used by the emperors, was of ivory tipped with a golden eagle. It is shown on medallions of the empire, which have on the obverse a half-length figure of the emperor, holding in one hand the sceptrum Augusti, in the other the orb surmounted by a small figure of Victory; the codes of the right and the cruel sceptre are found in the ancient Tamil work of Tirukkural, dating back to the first century BCE. In Chapters 55 and 56, the text deals with the right and the cruel sceptre furthering the thought on the ethical behaviour of the ruler discussed in many of the preceding and the following chapters.
The ancient treatise says it was not the king's spear but the sceptre that bound him to his people—and to the extent that he guarded them, his own good rule would guard him. With the advent of Christianity, the sceptre was tipped with a cross instead of with an eagle. However, during the Middle Ages, the finials on the top of the sceptre varied considerably. In England, from a early period, two sceptres have been concurrently used, from the time of Richard I, they have been distinguished as being tipped with a cross and a dove respectively. In France, the royal sceptre was tipped with a fleur de lys, the other, known as the main de justice, had an open hand of benediction on the top. Sceptres with small shrines on the top are sometimes represented on royal seals, as on the great seal of Edward III, where the king, bears such a sceptre, but it was an unusual form; this sceptre was, it is believed, made in France around 1536 for James V. Great seals represent the sovereign enthroned, holding a sceptre in the right hand, the orb and cross in the left.
Harold Godwinson appears thus in the Bayeux tapestry. The earliest English coronation form of the 9th century mentions a sceptre, a staff. In the so-called coronation form of Ethelred II a sceptre, a rod appear, as they do in the case of a coronation order of the 12th century. In a contemporary account of Richard I’s coronation, the royal sceptre of gold with a gold cross, the gold rod with a gold dove on the top, enter the historical record for the first time. About 1450, Sporley, a monk of Westminster, compiled a list of the relics there; these included the articles used at the coronation of Saint Edward the Confessor, left by him for the coronations of his successors. A golden sceptre, a wooden rod gilt, an iron rod are named; these survived until the Commonwealth, are minutely described in an inventory of the
Marlborough House, a Grade I listed mansion in St James's, is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat. It was built for Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, the favourite and confidante of Queen Anne. For over a century it served as the London residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, it became a royal residence through the 19th century and first half of the 20th. It was leased by Queen Elizabeth II to the Commonwealth beginning in 1965; the Duchess wanted her new house to be "strong and convenient and good". The architect Christopher Wren and his son of the same name designed a brick building with rusticated stone quoins, completed in 1711; the house was taken-up by the Crown in 1817. In the 1820s plans were drawn up to demolish Marlborough House and replace it with a terrace of similar dimensions to the two in neighbouring Carlton House Terrace, this idea featured on some contemporary maps, including Christopher and John Greenwood's large-scale London map of 1830, but the proposal was not implemented.
Located north of The Mall and east of St James's Palace, Marlborough House was used by members of the Royal Family dowager queens and by Prince Albert Edward of Wales and his wife Alexandra. Queen Adelaide, widow of William IV, was given the use of Marlborough House from 1831 until her death in 1849. From 1853 to 1861 Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria, arranged for the building to be used by the "National Art Training School" the Royal College of Art. From 1861-1863, Sir James Pennethorne enlarged the structure by adding a range of rooms on the north side and a deep porch for the Prince of Wales King Edward VII, his wife the Princess of Wales, Alexandra of Denmark, who made their home the social centre of London, their second son King George V, was born at Marlborough House in 1865, the family lived there until Victoria died in 1901, when Edward acceded the throne and they moved to nearby Buckingham Palace. After Edward VII died in 1910, Alexandra again made Marlborough House her London home until her death in 1925.
A late Art Nouveau-Gothic memorial fountain by Alfred Gilbert in the Marlborough Road wall of the house commemorates her. In 1936, Marlborough House became the London residence of George V's widow, Queen Mary who survived George by 17 years. In the grounds of the house remains her pet cemetery. A thatch-roofed rotating summer house built. A plaque to commemorate Queen Mary was unveiled by the Queen in 1967 in the exterior wall closest to the corner with the Mall. After Queen Mary's death in 1953, Marlborough House continued to be used by various members of the royal family as a London residence before Queen Elizabeth II leased it to the Commonwealth Secretariat in 1965, an arrangement which continues today; the nearly cubical saloon retains wall-paintings by Louis Laguerre of the Battle of Blenheim. A cupola inserted in the ceiling is surrounded by paintings by Orazio Gentileschi for the Queen's House, Greenwich, 1636. There are paired staircases flanking the saloon, with further battle pieces by Laguerre.
Most of the interiors have been altered. Marlborough House is open to the public for Open House Weekend each September; the house is open for group tours by prior arrangement. Stourton, James. Great Houses of London. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-3366-9.. Visiting Information at The Commonwealth Secretariat Virtual tour Flickr images tagged Marlborough House
Christian IX of Denmark
Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig and Lauenburg. Growing up as a prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a junior branch of the House of Oldenburg which had ruled Denmark since 1448, Christian was not in the immediate line of succession to the Danish throne. However, in 1852, Christian was chosen as heir to the Danish monarchy in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian acceded to the throne as the first Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg; the beginning of his reign was marked by the Danish defeat in the Second Schleswig War and the subsequent loss of the duchies of Schleswig and Lauenburg which made the king immensely unpopular. The following years of his reign were dominated by political disputes as Denmark had only become a constitutional monarchy in 1849 and the balance of power between the sovereign and parliament was still in dispute.
In spite of his initial unpopularity and the many years of political strife, where the king was in conflict with large parts of the population, his popularity recovered towards the end of his reign, he became a national icon due to the length of his reign and the high standards of personal morality with which he was identified. Christian married his second cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1842, their six children married into other royal families across Europe, earning him the sobriquet "the father-in-law of Europe". Margrethe II of Denmark, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Philippe of Belgium, Harald V of Norway, Felipe VI of Spain, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Constantine II of Greece, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, Queen Sofia of Spain, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, are among his descendants. Christian was born on 8 April 1818 at Gottorf Castle near the town of Schleswig in the Duchy of Schleswig as Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, the fourth son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel.
He was named after Prince Christian of Denmark, the King Christian VIII, his godfather. Christian's father was the head of the ducal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, a junior male branch of the House of Oldenburg. Through his father, Christian was thus a direct male-line descendant of King Christian III of Denmark and an agnatic descendant of Helvig of Schauenburg, mother of King Christian I of Denmark, the "Semi-Salic" heiress of her brother Adolf of Schauenburg, last Schauenburg duke of Schleswig and count of Holstein; as such, Christian was eligible to succeed in the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, but not first in line. Christian's mother was a daughter of Landgrave Charles of Hesse, a Danish Field Marshal and Royal Governor of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, his wife Princess Louise of Denmark, a daughter of Frederick V of Denmark. Through his mother, Christian was thus a great-grandson of Frederick V, great-great-grandson of George II of Great Britain and a descendant of several other monarchs, but had no direct claim to any European throne.
Christian lived with his parents and many siblings at Gottorf Castle, where the family stayed with Duke Friedrich Wilhelm's parents-in-law. However, on 6 June 1825, Duke Friedrich Wilhelm was appointed Duke of Glücksburg by his brother-in-law Frederick VI of Denmark, as the elder Glücksburg line had become extinct in 1779, he subsequently changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and founded the younger Glücksburg line. Subsequently, the family moved to Glücksburg Castle, where Christian was raised with his siblings under their father's supervision. Following the early death of the father in 1831, Christian grew up in Denmark and was educated in the Military Academy of Copenhagen; as a young man, Christian unsuccessfully sought the hand of his third cousin, Queen Victoria, in marriage. At the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842, he married his half-second cousin, Louise of Hesse-Kassel, a niece of Christian VIII. In 1852, with the approval of the great powers of Europe, Christian was chosen by King Frederick VII to be heir presumptive after the extinction of the most senior line to the Danish throne, as Frederick VII seemed incapable of fathering children.
A justification for this choice was his marriage to Louise of Hesse-Kassel, who—as a niece of Christian VIII of Denmark—was related to the royal family. Frederick VII's childlessness had presented a thorny dilemma and the question of succession to the Danish throne proved problematic. Denmark's adherence to the Salic Law and a burgeoning nationalism within the German-speaking parts of Schleswig-Holstein hindered all hopes of a peaceful solution. Proposed resolutions to keep the two Duchies together and part of Denmark proved unsatisfactory to both Danish and German interests. While Denmark had adopted the Salic Law, this only affected the descendants of Frederick III of Denmark, the first hereditary monarch of Denmark. Agnatic descent from Frederick III would end with the death of the childless King Frederick VII and his childless uncle, Prince Ferdinand. At that point, the law of succession promulgated by Frederick III provided for a Semi-Salic succession. There were, several ways to interpret to whom the crown could pass, since the provision was not clear as to whether a claimant to the throne could be the closest female relative or not.
As the nations of Europe looked on, the numerous descendants of Hel
Prince Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel
Frederick William George Adolphus, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel was the only son of Wilhelm I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim and Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark. He was born in Copenhagen, moved to Denmark at the age of three, grew up there, he attended the university in Bonn, began a military career. In 1843 he was third in line for the Danish throne after the King's son and brother, Prince Ferdinand. On 28 January 1844, Frederick married Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia at St Petersburg. Frederick had come to St Petersburg as a prospective bridegroom for her sister Olga, but fell in love with Alexandra instead on the first evening he spent with the family. Although Olga was the elder daughter and found Frederick to be an engaging young man, she stepped aside in favour of her sister, chaperoned the couple when they wanted to spend time together; the emperor and empress gave their permission for Alexandra and Frederick to be married. Alexandra became acutely ill with tuberculosis shortly before her wedding, this complicated the pregnancy which soon followed.
She was never well enough to take up her new position with her husband. They stayed in St. Petersburg, where her health declined, she went into labor prematurely, three months before the child was due, gave birth to a son, Wilhelm. The infant died shortly after he was born, Alexandra died the same day, her parents were devastated and their grief would last until the end of their lives. She was buried at the Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg; the son was buried in Rumpenheim, now a borough of Offenbach am Main, Germany. In 1849 Frederick William joined HMS Cleopatra to train as a midshipman; the Cleopatra was reassigned to Singapore to take the place of HMS Maeander. She arrived in Singapore from Devonport via Rio de Janeiro under Captain Massie on 14 September 1849 and left with HMS Reynard for Labuan and China on 10 October; the Singapore paper mistakenly described the Prince as the son of the Danish king but the king had no sons, he was an heir to the throne. On 26 May 26, 1853, Frederick married Alexandra's first cousin, Princess Anna of Prussia, at Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin.
Although they had six children together and Anna were never close, it is speculated that one reason was because Fritz was unable to overcome his grief for his first wife. His first wife was Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia, daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. Alexandra died in childbirth, delivering a son, born three months prematurely, who died on the day of his birth: Prince Wilhelm His second wife was Princess Anna of Prussia, the youngest daughter of Prince Charles of Prussia and Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, they had six children: Prince Frederick William III of Hesse. Princess Elisabeth Alexandra Charlotte of Hesse. Prince Alexander Frederick of Hesse. Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, King of Finland. Princess Marie-Polyxene of Hesse. Princess Sybille Marguerite of Hesse, he is important dynastically as a candidate for both the headship of the Hesse-Kassel dynasty and for the Danish throne. When Frederick William, deposed Elector of Hesse died in 1875, his sons were excluded from succession, because of his morganatic marriage.
Therefore, Frederick succeeded him as titular Elector of Hesse. Frederick William died on 14 October 1884 at Hamburg. Media related to Frederick William, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel at Wikimedia Commons