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Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology known as National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, is a public technical university located in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is part of the group of publicly funded institutions in India known as National Institutes of Technology, it is named after the Independent India's first Minister of Education and independence activist Abul Kalam Azad, remembered as Maulana Azad. Established in the year 1960 as Maulana Azad College of Technology or Regional Engineering College, Bhopal, it became a National Institute of Technology in 2002 and was recognized as an Institute of National Importance under the NIT Act in 2007; the Institute is funded by Ministry of Human Resource Development, the Government of India is governed by the NIT Council. It offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in science, engineering and management. MANIT was started in 1960 as Maulana Azad College of Technology, named after the first Minister of Education of India, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

MACT started functioning in 1960 at Govt S. V. Polytechnic with an intake of 120 students and seven faculty members, it was one of the first eight Regional Engineering Colleges started during the second five-year plan in India, where the main focus was development of the public sector and rapid industrialization. To ensure enough supply of trained personnel to meet the demand for these projects, a decision was taken to start the Regional Engineering Colleges, at the rate of one per each major state, which can churn out graduates with good engineering merit. Thus, seventeen RECs were established from 1959 onwards in each of the major states; each college was a joint and cooperative enterprise of the central government and the concerned state government. MACT was one of the first 8, it was established in the Western Region along with Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology and Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat. It first operated from the Swami Vivekananda Polytechnic with Mr.

S. R. Beedkar, Principal of Swami Vivekananda Polytechnic as the planning officer of the institute; the foundation stone of the Institute building was laid by the Prime Minister late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 23 April 1961. The Institute Progressed into the higher level of an education center in the steady development of infrastructure as well as academics. Shri J. N. Moudgill became the first principal of MACT in 1962. 5-years degree program in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering was started. In 1963, the five-year Bachelor of Architecture was started as well. In 1964, Institute is shifted to its own building, its present campus; as the necessity of science and technology kept on growing, more undergraduate program kept on getting added which were- Electronics and Communications Engineering in 1972, Computer Science and Engineering in 1986, Information Technology in 2001 (later merged with Computer Science and Engineering in 2013 and 3-year Master of Computer Applications in 1988.

The success of technology-based industry led to high demand for scientific education. During the Premiership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the Minister of Human Resource Development, Murli Manohar Joshi decided to upgrade all "Regional Engineering Colleges" to "National Institutes of Technology" that shall be funded by the Central Government itself. Hence, in 2002, all REC's became NIT's and MACT became Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology. In the same year, MANIT was granted deemed university status. With this advancement, the World Bank assisted "Technical Education Quality Improvement Program" started in 2003, for the rapid academic and infrastructural growth of the college. In addition to engineering programs, an MBA program as well commenced from 2006; the Government of India in 2007 passed the NIT Act as per which MANIT was declared an Institute of National Importance. The NIT Council is the governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology system; the NIT Council is each NIT's Board of Governors.

MANIT is spread over 650 acres which makes it one of the largest NITs in India in terms of total campus area. The entire campus consists of administrative and academic buildings, workshops and community centers, residential accommodations for students and staff and other general amenities such as Post Office, a Bank with ATM, Shopping complex, a School for children, medical care unit, an auditorium with the capacity of 1000 persons and sports complex with vast expand of open area. An official branch of the State Bank of India operates from the main campus; the campus is divided into three sections and facilities are given below:- Total Area of academic block 265 hectares. Total building area of Offices 250 sq. m. A computer center. A dispensary; the Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Auditorium with a seating capacity of 1000 persons. Institute Cafeteria, Amul parlor, Nescafé huts, fast food court. A gymnastic hall. Football ground and field's ground. Sports complex with indoor games facilities such as table tennis and meditation hall.

Built-in area of Hostels 14011 sq.m. 9 Boys Hostels 2 Girls Hostels Each hostel has indoor and outdoor games facilities. Built-in Area of Staff Quarters 25,116 sq. m. Total 369 numbers of staff Quarters Children park Officers club Artificial lake "Lotus Lake" and MANIT Boat Club Faculty/officer quarters Bachelor flats Dormitories VIP Guest House Faculty Guest House MANIT has various academic departments with a wide range of courses; the department a

Martin Aigner

Martin Aigner is an Austrian mathematician, professor at Freie Universität Berlin since 1974, with interests in combinatorial mathematics and graph theory. He received Ph. D from the University of Vienna, his book Proofs from THE BOOK has been translated into 12 languages. He is a recipient of a 1996 Lester R. Ford Award from the MAA for his expository article Turán's Graph Theorem. In 2018 received the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Mathematical Exposition. Combinatorial Theory Proofs from THE BOOK Springer, Berlin, 1998, ISBN 3-540-63698-6 in German: Das BUCH der Beweise, 2nd edition: 2003, ISBN 3-540-40185-7 A Course in Enumeration, 2007, ISBN 3-540-39032-4 Discrete Mathematics, 2007, ISBN 0-8218-4151-3 Mathematics Everywhere. Martin Aigner, Ehrhard Behrends, 2010 Alles Mathematik: Von Pythagoras zum CD-player, by Martin Aigner, Ehrhard Behrends, 2008, ISBN 3-8348-0416-9 Combinatorial search. Teubner, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-519-02109-9 Graphentheorie. Eine Entwicklung aus dem 4-Farben-Problem. Teubner, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-519-02068-8 Diskrete Mathematik.

Mit über 500 Übungsaufgaben. Vieweg, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 3-528-07268-7, corrected edition 12006, ISBN 3-8348-0084-8


Glooston is a small village and civil parish in the Harborough district of Leicestershire, England. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 54, increasing to 147 at the 2011 census; the parish covers an area of 1.46 square miles. Its shape is narrow, being over 2 miles in length north to south; the highest point in the parish is Crossburrow Hill, 400 feet high. The settlement of Glooston lies around a crossroads in the centre of the parish. There are several 17th and 18th century brick-built houses, a terrace of early 19th century stone-built cottages; the Roman Gartree Road crosses the village east to west and the site of a Roman villa, by a stream north-east of the crossroads, was excavated in 1946. The manor of Glooston was recorded in the Domesday Book as being held by Hugh de Grentemesnil. From 1180 to the middle of the 14th century the Basset family of Drayton were mesne tenants; the manor was held of the Bassets by the Harington family, from c. 1412-1422 held by the Brauncepath family, through the marriage of Margaret Harington to Richard Brauncepath.

The manor passed to John Colly, a distant Harington relative, in 1480 after a protracted legal dispute. His descendant Anthony Colly put the manor in trust in 1587 to pay an annuity of £100 for 60 years to a skinner, Randall Manning of London; this payment was in arrears by 1592, possession of the manor passed to Manning. In 1614 Colly redeemed it for £1,500, in 1632 he sold it to the Brudenell family for £4,500, in whose possession it has remained. By the 17th century half of the agricultural land in the parish was enclosed and laid down to pasture as sheep runs. To the south of the village were three open fields, Little Field, Burrough or Crosborough Field, Willowsike Field; these were enclosed with a total area of 469 acres being allotted. The lord of the manor, the Earl of Cardigan, who held the whole of the old enclosures, was allotted 56 acres; the Rev. J. H. Dent of Hallaton, whose family held an estate in Glooston, was allotted 236 acres; the Rector of Glooston was allotted 182 acres in lieu of tithes and glebe.

The parish church of St John the Baptist was rebuilt in 1866-67 by the architect Joseph Goddard of Leicester. Goddard appears to have retained the plan of the original church, whose fabric was of 15th or 16th century date, it has an aisleless nave, south porch and a double bell-cote. OS Mapping of Glooston from Multimap History of Glooston Recent housing development, Glooston Park Images of Glooston from Geograph Old Barn Inn and Restaurant Glooston Music Festival

History of the Jews in the Isle of Man

The history of the Jews in the Isle of Man goes back to at least the early 19th century. The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland; the head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. There is a small Jewish community with the older congregational name of Isle of Man Hebrew Congregation now known as Manx Hebrew Congregation, without a synagogue and no rabbi in the main city of Douglas. There is a Jewish cemetery on the island. Various reports and advertisements about the Jews on the Isle of Man have appeared in the English press going back about a hundred years. A 2016 report in The Jewish Chronicle stated that there were about 200 Jews on the island but they were not religious and intermarried. Jews were interned on the Isle of Man during both World Wars as'enemy aliens'. During World War I it was German Jewish prisoners of war and in World War II it was Jewish refugees fleeing Germany and Austria.

In 1914 the British Government passed the Aliens Restriction Act. Citizens of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire who were living in, or only visiting the UK, were designated as possible "Enemy Aliens". Men of fighting age were interned for the whole duration of the war in special camps for civilian detainees. Camps were created at sites across the UK; as the war progressed, Prisoners of War were put into the camps in London, The Isle of Man and Lofthouse Park. Over 32,000 civilian men were interned for all of the war; the Jewish Chronicle has archive evidence of the role that local British Jewish communities took on in support of some of the interned. During World War II, to escape the Holocaust some sources state that there were about 1,500 German-Jewish civilian internees, whose spiritual and material welfare was supervised by the British Chief Rabbi's "Religious Emergency Council". Other sources state that it is estimated that about 2,000 to 3,000 people Jews, were interned on the Isle of Man during World War II as'enemy aliens'.

With frequent visits by Rabbi Dr. Solomon Schonfeld, who inspected internee camps on behalf of the Council. A writer for The Jewish Chronicle wrote in November 1940:'Today the island has what must be the fullest Jewish life in the world. In ordinary camps on a weekday there are more worshippers than in the Great Synagogue, London, on a Sabbath.' Lectures were delivered on a variety of Jewish topics, the community was served by two kosher boarding houses. Women and children internees were housed in the areas of Port Erin and Port St Mary. Curiously, the island was a place were Jews from Germany both shared interment; the BBC reported in 2016 on the background to this saga, that at the start of World War II there were around 80,000 people in Britain who were considered potential "enemy aliens". The British government was afraid of those who might assist the Nazis. In that light, the Isle of Man was chosen to accommodate people at camps in the towns of Douglas and Peel; the BBC report goes on to state that "political prisoners were detained in high security camps, but most internees - including many Jewish refugees - were free to go shopping, swim in the sea and attend classes.

A few months a mixed camp was established in Rushen." The Jewish prisoners were released and some men given the option of joining the British armed forces. Reports of the time record that by August 1940, there were in total around 14,000 prisoners held on the Isle of Man, with thousands more transported to internment camps in Canada and Australia. At the Hutchinson Internment Camp in Douglas, numbers fell from September 1940 when the internees who posed no threat to Britain began to be released; this was marked in Hutchinson Camp, where there was an unusually high proportion of Jewish and anti-Nazi internees. The camp closed during March 1944, when its 228 inmates transferred to Peveril Internment Camp in Peel in order to clear Hutchinson Camp ready for use as a prisoner of war camp. In 2001 the Jewish community on the Isle of Man instituted its own Holocaust Memorial Day, commemorated annually

Yanagawa Domain

Yanagawa Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It was associated with Chikugo Province in modern-day Fukuoka Prefecture on the island of Kyushu. In the han system, Yanagawa was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The hereditary daimyōs were head of the head of the domain. Tanaka clan, 1600–1620 Yoshimasa Tadamasa Tachibana clan, 1620–1871 Muneshige Tadashige Akitora Akitaka Sadayoshi Sadanori Akinao Akihisa Akikata Akihiro Akinobu Akitomo List of Han Abolition of the han system Yanagawa on "Edo 300 HTML"

Lilit Phra Lo

Lilit Phra Lo is a narrative poem of around 3,870 lines in Thai. Lilit is a poetic form. Date and authorship are unknown but the work was composed in the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century CE and counts among the five earliest works of Thai literature; the plot is a courtly romance that ends with political reconciliation. The work has been criticized for portraying feudal indulgence; the story has been reworked by prominent novelists and film-makers adapting the plot to conform to modern values. The National Library of Thailand holds fifty-two volumes of Lilit Phra Lo in the form of samut thai or samut khoi accordion books, including two complete sets. One volume carries a date of 1860. All are in the orthography of the middle to late nineteenth century. All of these manuscripts appear to come from a single source as there are no major variations in the story. A first, undated printing was made at the behest of King Chulalongkorn in 1902; the Vajirañāṇa Library reprinted the same text in 1915 and 1926, the National Library has reprinted the same text with only minor corrections.

This has become the standard text. However, there is no explanation of the relationship between this printed text and the various manuscript versions; some stanzas in this printed text cannot now be located in any manuscript versions, some stanzas found in most of the manuscripts are missing from the printed text. In 1954, Chanthit Krasaesin edited an annotated version showing variations found in the various manuscripts. In 1957, the Ministry of Education reprinted the National Library 1926 text, adding numbering of the stanzas and some glosses. In 1961 Phra Worawetphisit, a monk and professor of Thai language and literature at Chulalongkorn University, who had edited the edition, authored Khu mue lilit phra lo. In 2001, Cholada Ruengruglikit published an annotated edition based on the National Library text. In 1916, the Wannakhadi samoson, a body established by King Vajiravudh to promote literature, selected Lilit Phra Lo as a superb example of the lilit form. Since 1934, the poem has been used for teaching in secondary schools in Thailand.

Song and Suang are two cities with royal rulers. When Suang attacks Song, the king of Song is killed; the son who succeeds has two daughters and Pheng. When the king of Suang dies, he is succeeded by his son, Phra Lo, a man of "incomparable beauty." Princesses Phuean and Pheng hear of Lo's fall in love. Their maids Ruen and Roi arrange to have traders sing of the princesses' beauty so that Lo hears and falls in love with them in return; the maids search for love magic to draw Lo to Song. All adepts refuse; the maids are taken to see Old Lord Tiger Spirit, deep in the mountains. He casts a spell which makes Lo desperate to make love to the princesses. Lo’s mother hires all the local adepts who counter the spell; the maids send word to Old Lord Tiger Spirit who reinforces the spell, but Lo’s mother finds an adept who again can counter it. After the maids send word again, Old Lord Tiger Spirit recruits a massive spirit army which overwhelms the guardian spirits of Song and the magic of the city’s adepts.

Old Lord Tiger Spirit sends a flying betelnut which makes Lo unstoppable. His mother pleads with him in vain gives him her blessing. Lo leaves with a great army. Along the way he is torn between thoughts of his queen and mother left behind, his obsession with the princesses ahead. At the frontier, he sends the army home except for a hundred troops and two manservants and Kaeo, they get past the border guards by subterfuge. At the Kalong River, he is again torn between going back home; when he looks for an omen in the river, the prediction is that he will not survive to return home, yet he decides to travel on. He leaves the remainder of the army behind, sends ahead the two manservants who find the royal park of Song. Impatient at the delay, the princesses send word to Old Lord Tiger Spirit, who arranges for a beautiful cock to lure Phra Lo, he meets up with his manservants and they enter the royal park. After the two princesses and their two maids all dream the same dream, the maids travel to the royal park.

The two sets of servants meet, pair off, make love in a lake, on its bank, in a pavilion. They reluctantly part to fetch their respective master and mistresses. Lo and the two princesses meet in a pavilion in the park; the four servants withdraw. The three make love. Outside, the four servants restrain themselves for fear of giving offence to a royal residence; the three bathe, eat a meal, swear undying love. The princesses and their maids leave to return to Song. Lo and his manservants enter the palace under cover of night. After they have stayed secretly with the princesses for half a month, word leaks out; the father of the princesses is angry, but once he sneaks a look at Lo, he realizes Lo will be a perfect son-in-law, starts arrangements for the marriage. The late king's widow sees an opportunity to take revenge for the killing of her husband in the war between Suang and Song. Though the king ignores her pleas for vengeance, she secretly sends a murder squad. In the ensuing battle, the princesses come to stand beside Lo, all three are killed by poison arrows.

The four servants are killed. The King of Song is devastated, he has all members of the murder squad killed, has the widow f