Malik Meraj Khalid
Malik Meraj Khalid, was a Pakistani left wing statesman and Marxist philosopher who served as the acting Prime Minister of Pakistan from November 1996 until February 1997. He was noted as being one of the philosopher and founding personality of the Pakistan Peoples Party. Born in 1916 to a farming family in Punjab, British India. Inspired by the communist literature published in Soviet Union, his initial public community work was aimed towards promoting the literacy in his native village, in 1967, he helped founded the PPP and ascended towards holding the highly important public offices. In 2003, Meraj peacefully died in his resident in Lahore, Malik Meraj Khalid was born in Dera Chahal, a small village near Distt. Lahore, to a poor and farming family, Khalid did not abandoned the school, and despite the hardship, Khalid completed his high-school and went on to work for feudal lord who agreed to finance his education. He was educated at Islamia College and gained LLB in 1944, in 1948 he began to practice law.
For the first time he elected to the Provincial Assembly of West Pakistan in 1965, in 1968 he joined the Pakistan Peoples Party and was appointed President of Lahore chapter. It was on the PPP ticket that he was successfully re-elected to the National Assembly in 1970, Malik Meraj Khalid, famous for his gentleness and honesty was a favourite of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the flamboyant Prime Minister of Pakistan during the 1970s. It was he who played a role in the political career of Meraj Khalid by first appointing him as his Minister for Food and Agriculture. Afterwards he was appointed Chief of the Partys Parliamentary Affairs in November 1972, after the execution of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in April 1979, he was nominated member of the PPPs Central Committee but he eventually resigned from this position in January 1988. After once more returning to the National Assembly in 1988. However, he lost the subsequent elections in 1990, and remained aloof from politics for sometime, during this period of solitude he kept on serving as the Rector of International Islamic University in Islamabad.
Malik Meraj Khalid was asked to officiate the interim government before new elections, chronicles Of Pakistan A profile of Malik Meraj Khalid Meraj Khalid passes away
Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry
Fazlul Quader Chaudhury was a Bengali politician who served as the 5th speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan from East Pakistan. He belonged to Ayub Khans Convention Muslim League and he was the Acting President of Pakistan from time to time when Ayub Khan left the country. His elder brother Fazlul Kabir Chaudhury was the leader of the opposition in East Pakistan assembly, Quader was preceded by Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan of Awami League. Chaudhury was born on 26 March 1919 at Gahira village in Chittagong District and he graduated from Calcutta Presidency College and earned B. L degree from Calcutta University Law College. In 1941 he was elected secretary of All India Muslim Student Federation. He joined the Muslim League and was elected the secretary of Chittagong district unit of the party in 1943, Chaudhury was elected member of the Pakistan National Assembly in 1962. In Ayub Khan’s cabinet he served in the Ministry of Agriculture and Works, the Ministry of Education and Information and he played an important role in floating the Convention Muslim League and was elected a member of the central committee of the party.
In 1973, after the independence of East Pakistan, he was jailed in Bangladesh by the Awami League government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman for war crimes as collaborator of Pakistan Army during 1971 and he was killed in Dhaka Central Jail on 17 July 1973. Chaudhurys elder son Salahuddin Quader Chowdhury was a politician and he was elected member of the Bangladeshi Parliament six times. The death sentence was executed on early hours of 22 November 2015 inside Dhaka Central Jail
Alvin Robert Cornelius
Chief Justice Alvin Bobby Robert Cornelius, HPk, was a Pakistani jurist, legal philosopher and judge, serving as the 4th Chief Justice of Pakistan from 1960 until 1968. In addition, he served as Law Minister in the cabinet of Yahya Khan. Cornelius was born in Agra, Uttar Pradesh in the British Indian Empire, Cornelius graduated from Allahabad University in India and Selwyn College at Cambridge in the United Kingdom. During this time, Cornelius became a recognised jurist, publishing important text books in Pakistani legal history during his career, Cornelius became a leading activist for the Pakistan Movement. In 1946, Cornelius was elevated to judge at the Lahore High Court. Cornelius was regarded as a man of justice and fighting against the extremism, as he quoted in his case, A general feeling of despair. And common readiness in the anticipate the worst, in 1960, President Ayub Khan nominated Cornelius to become the Chief Justice of Pakistan, his contest was briefly discussed, but eventually he was elevated to Chief Justice.
Alvin Robert Cornelius became the first Christian Chief Justice, becoming one of the most famous and his opinions, according to legal scholars in Pakistan, were some of the greatest defences of freedom of religion written by a Christian Chief Justice of a Muslim state. Alvin Robert Cornelius was born on 8 May 1903, in Agra, United Provinces of British Indian Empire and he came from a well established family of Anglo-Indian ancestry, and his parents Professor I. J. Cornelius and Tara D Rozario were the figures of the Roman Catholics community India His grandfather, Michael DRozario was Deputy-Range Officer-Forests. His father was a professor of mathematics at Holkar college and he was a close friend of lawyer Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar. Cornelius was admitted at the Allahabad University after passing the university entrance exam in 1920, after admitting at the law school of the Allahabad University, Cornelius gained his BS in mathematics and LLB in civil law, with writing a comprehensive thesis on history of religious law in 1924.
Cornelius joined the law faculty of the university, working there as a research associate, the same year, Cornelius went to United Kingdom for his higher education, he was admitted at the Cambridge University, attending the Selwyn College to study law. In 1926, Cornelius graduated with LLM in Law and Justice, after reluctantly returning to India, Cornelius took the entrance exam and given commissioned as an officer at the Indian Civil Service, joining the Department of Law of the Government of Punjab. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1926 and he served in Punjab, where he held the positions of Assistant Commissioner and District and Sessions Judge till 1943 when he joined Law Department of Government of Punjab as Legal Remembrancer. In 1946 Mr. Cornelius was elevated to the Bench of Lahore High Court, Cornelius was one of the notable Christian figures in the Pakistan Movement, closely collaborating with Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Cornelius was an active activist for the Pakistan Movement, among one of the speakers of the movement.
His activism grew strong and deeper after accepting a position in the Punjab government
University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta is a public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857. It was the first institution in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary, within India it is recognized as a Five-Star University and a Centre with Potential for Excellence by the University Grants Commission and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. There are seven Nobel laureates associated with this university including Ronald Ross, Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, the University of Calcutta was ranked 601-650 in the QS World University Rankings of 2011 and 43 in the QS University Rankings for Asia in 2012. In India, it was ranked second by India Today in its list of Top India Universities of 2012,2013 and 2014 and it is 16th Best University in All over India by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857, the land for the establishment of this university was given by Maharaja Maheshwar Singh Bahadur, who was a Maharaja of Darbhanga.
When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon, and Ceylon, the first Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University were Governor General Lord Canning and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Sir James William Colvile, respectively. In 1858, Joddu Nath Bose and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay became the first graduates of the university, on 30 January 1858, the Syndicate of the Calcutta University started functioning. Following its inauguration, many institutions came under its jurisdiction. Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi Basu became the first female graduates of the country in 1882, the Honourable Justice Gooroodas Banerjee became the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of University of Calcutta in the year 1890. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms, four Nobel laureates were associated with this university, Ronald Ross. Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen, the current university seal is the modified version of the sixth seal.
The motto Advancement of Learning has remained the same through the seals transitions, the university has a total of 14 campuses spread over the city of Kolkata and its suburbs. The major campuses are the Central Campus in College Street, Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan in Rajabazar, Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan in Ballygunge, other campuses include the Hazra Road Campus, the University Press and Book Depot, the B. T. Road Campus, the Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, the University Health Service, the Haringhata Campus, the Dhakuria Lakes, asutosh Siksha Prangan is the main campus of the university, where the administrative work is done. Located on College Street, is spread over an area of 2.7 acres. Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan at Alipore houses the department of History, Business Management, Political Science and others. The university is building a campus which is known as Technology Campus or Tech Campus, to bring together the Three engineering and technical departments, in Sector 3, JD Block, Salt Lake.
As of December 2016, most of these departments have moved to this campus
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture, an early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God, in the 17th century, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences, Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality, John Rawls used a social contract argument to show that justice, and especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists take a view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system.
Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing, restorative justice is an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs of victims and offenders. Understandings of justice differ in culture, as cultures are usually dependent upon a shared history. Each cultures ethics create values which influence the notion of justice, although there can be found some justice principles that are one and the same in all or most of the cultures, these are insufficient to create a unitary justice apprehension. In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State, Justice is a proper, harmonious relationship between the warring parts of the person or city. Hence, Platos definition of justice is that justice is the having and doing of what is ones own, a just man is a man in just the right place, doing his best and giving the precise equivalent of what he has received.
This applies both at the level and at the universal level. A persons soul has three parts – reason and desire, similarly, a city has three parts – Socrates uses the parable of the chariot to illustrate his point, a chariot works as a whole because the two horses power is directed by the charioteer. Lovers of wisdom – philosophers, in one sense of the term – should rule because only they understand what is good, if one is ill, one goes to a medic rather than a farmer, because the medic is expert in the subject of health. Similarly, one should trust ones city to an expert in the subject of the good, not to a politician who tries to gain power by giving people what they want. For Socrates, the way the ship will reach its destination – the good – is if the navigator takes charge. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice, and indeed the whole of morality, is the command of God
Inter-religious violence during the partition drove Bengali Muslims and Hindus further apart, leading to political upheaval in Bengal. From 1947 until 1954, East Bengal was an independent administrative unit which was governed by the Pakistan Muslim League led by Nurul Amin. In 1955, the Bengali Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra devolved the province of East Bengal, in the 1954 elections the Pakistan Muslim League were completely defeated by the United Front coalition of the Awami League, the Krishak Praja Party, the Democratic Party and Nizam-e-Islam. The Awami League gained the control of East Pakistan after appointing Huseyn Suhrawardy for the office of prime minister and this authoritarian period that existed from 1958 until 1971, is often regarded as period of mass repression and political neglect and ignorance. Allying with the population of West Pakistan, the Easts population unanimously voted for Fatima Jinnah during the 1965 presidential elections against Ayub Khan. The elections were widely believed to be rigged in the favour of Ayub Khan using state patronage.
The economic disparity, impression that West Pakistan, despite being less populated than East Pakistan, was ruling and prospering at its cost further popularize the Bengali nationalism. As response to this operation, the Awami League announced the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 26 March 1971, East Pakistan had an area of 147,610 km2. India bordered it on three sides with the Bay of Bengal to the South, East Pakistan was one of the largest provincial states of Pakistan, with the largest population, the largest political representation, and the largest economy. Finally, on 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was officially disestablished and was succeeded by the independent state of Bangladesh, many notable Muslim Bengali figures were among the Founding fathers of present date, State of Pakistan. The country came into existence on 14 August 1947 confronted by seemingly insurmountable problems, until 1947, the East Wing of Pakistan, separated from the West Wing by 1,600 km of Indian territory, had been heavily dependent on Hindu management.
Bengal was divided into two provinces on the midnight of 14 August 1947 following the Radcliffe Line, the two provinces each had their own chief ministers and governors. In August 1947, the West Bengal became part of India, throughout this time, the tensions between East Bengal and the West Pakistan led to the One-Unit policy by Bengali Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra. In 1955, most of the wing was combined to form a new West Pakistan province while East Bengal became the new province of East Pakistan. In 1955, Bogra appointed communist leader Abu Hussain Sarkar as chief minister, the main objective of the new government was to end disruptive provincial politics and to provide the country with a new constitution. After a revision, the Supreme Court of Pakistan declared that the Pakistan Constituent Assembly must be called, governor-General Ghulam Mohammad was unable to circumvent the order, and the new Constituent Assembly, elected by the provincial assemblies, met for the first time in July 1955.
Bogra, who had support in the new assembly, fell in August and was replaced by Choudhry. Ghulam Mohammad, plagued by health, was succeeded as governor-general in September 1955 by Mirza
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume.
It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935