Northwest Indian War
The Northwest Indian War known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers of France and Great Britain, their colonials. Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded to the U. S. "control" of what were known as the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, which were occupied by numerous Native American peoples. Despite the treaty, the British kept forts there and continued policies that supported the Native Americans. With the encroachment of European settlers west of the Appalachians after the War, a Huron-led confederacy formed in 1785 to resist usurpation of Indian lands, declaring that lands north and west of the Ohio River were Indian territory.
President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U. S. sovereignty over the territory. The U. S. Army, consisting of untrained recruits and volunteer militiamen, suffered a series of major defeats, including the Harmar Campaign and St. Clair's Defeat. About 1,000 soldiers and militiamen were killed and the United States forces suffered many more casualties than their opponents. After St. Clair's disaster, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General "Mad" Anthony Wayne to organize and train a proper fighting force. Wayne took command of the new Legion of the United States late in 1792. After a methodical campaign up the Great Miami and Maumee River Valleys in western Ohio Country, he led his men to a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near southwestern Lake Erie in 1794. Afterward he went on to establish Fort Wayne at the Miami capital of Kekionga, the symbol of U. S. sovereignty in the heart of Indian Country. The defeated tribes were forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.
The Jay Treaty in the same year arranged for cessions of British Great Lakes outposts on the great U. S. territory. Settlement west of the Appalachians brought about a collision of differing notions of land usage and ownership between Indians and whitemen. To the Indians, land belonged to all, anyone could hunt or use it. Attempts to avoid conflict resulted in a succession of boundary lines being defined between Indian Country and whiteman's settlements. Co-operation among the Native American tribes forming the Western Confederacy had gone back to the French colonial era, it was renewed during the American Revolutionary War. The confederacy first came together in the autumn of 1785 at Fort Detroit, proclaiming that the parties to the confederacy would deal jointly with the United States, rather than individually; this determination was renewed in 1786 at the Wyandot village of Upper Sandusky. The confederacy declared the Ohio River as the boundary between their lands and those of American settlers.
The confederacy was a loose association of Algonquin-speaking tribes in the Great Lakes area. The Wyandot were the nominal "fathers," or senior guaranteeing tribe of the confederacy, but the Shawnee and Miami provided the greatest share of the fighting forces. Other tribes in the confederacy included the Delaware, Council of Three Fires, Kickapoo and Wabash Confederacy. In most cases, an entire tribe was not involved in the war. Villages and individual warriors and chiefs decided on participation in the war. Nearly 200 Cherokee warriors from two bands of the Overmountain Towns fought alongside the Shawnee from the inception of the Revolution through the years of the Indian Confederacy. In addition, the Chickamauga Cherokee leader, Dragging Canoe, sent a contingent of warriors for a specific action; some warriors of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes from the southeast, traditional enemies of the northwest tribes, served as scouts for the United States during these years. Still opposed to the US, some British agents in the region sold weapons and ammunition to the Indians and encouraged attacks on American settlers.
British Lieutenant Governor John Simcoe, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, was delighted with the United States' failures, hoped for British involvement in the creation of a neutral barrier state between the United States and Canada. In 1793, Simcoe abruptly changed policy and sought peace with the United States in order to avoid opening a new front in the French Revolutionary Wars. Simcoe treated the United States commissioners - Benjamin Lincoln, Beverly Randolph, Timothy Pickering - cordially when they arrived at Niagara in May 1793, seeking an escort by way of the Great Lakes in order to avoid the fate of John Hardin and Alexander Truman in 1792. War parties launched a series of isolated raids in the mid-1780s, resulting in escalating bloodshed and mistrust. In the fall of 1786, General Benjamin Logan led a force of Federal soldiers and mounted Kentucky militia against several Shawnee towns along the Mad River; these were defended by noncombatants while the warriors were raiding forts in Kentucky.
Logan burned the native towns and food supplies, killed or captured numerous natives, including their chief Moluntha, murdered by one of Logan's men. Logan's raid and the execution of the chief embittered the Shawnees, who retaliated by escalating their attacks on American settlers. Native American raids on both sides of the Ohio River resulted in increasing casualties. During the
Maumee is a city in Lucas County, United States. Located along the Maumee River, it is about 10 miles southwest of Toledo; the population was 14,286 at the 2010 census. Maumee was declared an All-America City by the National Civic League in June 2006. Maumee is located at 41°34′14″N 83°39′9″W, it is about 11 miles upriver of Toledo, at the mouth of the Maumee River on Maumee Bay. This is a triangle-shaped city, its borders are formed by Interstate 80/90 to the north, to the west by Interstate 475/U. S. Route 23, to the southeast by the Maumee River, it is just downriver from Waterville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.61 square miles, of which 9.89 square miles is land and 0.72 square miles is water. In pre-colonial times, Native Americans began using the rich resources at the present site of Maumee, Ohio, in the Maumee River valley. Throughout much of the eighteenth century, French and American forces struggled for control of the lower Maumee River as a major transportation artery linking East and West through Lake Erie.
Following the American Revolutionary War, Native Americans of the region, including the Odawa and Potawatomie, Shawnee, made alliances in what became called the Northwest Territory by the United States, which claimed it from the British after gaining independence. The Northwest Indian War was a series of conflicts from 1785 through 1795 between these nations and the US. Maumee is the site of Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne's final fort, Fort Deposit, built in Aug. 1794 on his way to the battle of Fallen Timbers. Together with the conclusion of the War of 1812, which preserved most US territory, the end of warfare and defeat of the Native Americans opened the way for American expansion in present-day Ohio. Promoters arrived who were eager to make a fortune in developing western lands. In 1817 a town plat was laid out at the Foot of the Rapids of the Maumee River, within a decade, the settlement was gaining recognition as a major trans-shipment point connecting Lake Erie and the land to the west; the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 in New York State stimulated migration to Ohio, as it connected Great Lakes communities to the Hudson River and port of New York City.
Completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal in 1840 further stimulated the economy. Jessup Scott, a noted town promoter, predicted that Maumee would become the "great city of the West," surpassing all rivals. By mid-century Maumee was a flourishing center of river trade and shipbuilding. Nearly twenty mercantile companies crowded the three miles of ship docks and competed for the retail and wholesale trade. In 1840 Maumee was designated as the county seat. Court days were a time of commerce, as well; the federal custom house and post office were located in Maumee. Dreams of greatness began to fade in the 1850s, when ships too large to navigate the river were introduced for use in the Great Lakes. In addition, the railroad provided faster and cheaper means of transportation than river traffic and drew off business; as the population expanded westward, Maumee lost the county seat in 1854. A "gas boom" in the 1880s was short lived, Maumee became, as one observer wrote, " a sleepy little town." Nearly a century in the 1970s, Maumee developed an economic renaissance.
Today the city is one of the largest business centers in Northwest Ohio. Together, Arrowhead Business Park and Maumee's historic business community contribute to the 30,000 plus jobs in the community. Maumee has expanded its original boundaries, the population has grown to more than 15,000 residents. Maumee's neighborhoods retain their small town flavor; as of the census of 2010, there were 14,286 people, 6,037 households, 3,854 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,444.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,435 housing units at an average density of 650.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.7% White, 1.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 6,037 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.2% were non-families.
30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 39.7 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,237 people, 6,340 households, 4,209 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,533.6 people per square mile. There were 6,613 housing units at an average density of 665.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.61% White, 1.05% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races, 0.96% f
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Eutrophication, or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of plants and algae. This process may result in oxygen depletion of the water body. One example is an "algal bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Eutrophication is induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system. Eutrophication most arises from the oversupply of nutrients, most as nitrogen or phosphorus, which leads to overgrowth of plants and algae in aquatic ecosystems. After such organisms die, bacterial degradation of their biomass results in oxygen consumption, thereby creating the state of hypoxia. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia, "the primary limiting factor for eutrophication is phosphate." The availability of phosphorus promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favouring simple algae and plankton over other more complicated plants, causes a severe reduction in water quality.
Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to live, is the limiting factor for plant growth in many freshwater ecosystems. Phosphate adheres to soil, so it is transported by erosion. Once translocated to lakes, the extraction of phosphate into water is slow, hence the difficulty of reversing the effects of eutrophication. However, numerous literature report that nitrogen is the primary limiting nutrient for the accumulation of algal biomass; the sources of these excess phosphates are phosphates in detergent, industrial/domestic run-offs, fertilizers. With the phasing out of phosphate-containing detergents in the 1970s, industrial/domestic run-off and agriculture have emerged as the dominant contributors to eutrophication. Cultural eutrophication is the process that speeds up natural eutrophication because of human activity. Due to clearing of land and building of towns and cities, land runoff is accelerated and more nutrients such as phosphates and nitrate are supplied to lakes and rivers, to coastal estuaries and bays.
Extra nutrients are supplied by treatment plants, golf courses, farms, as well as untreated sewage in many countries. When algae die, they decompose and the nutrients contained in that organic matter are converted into inorganic form by microorganisms; this decomposition process consumes oxygen. The depleted oxygen levels in turn may lead to fish kills and a range of other effects reducing biodiversity. Nutrients may become concentrated in an anoxic zone and may only be made available again during autumn turn-over or in conditions of turbulent flow; the dead algae and the organic load carried by the water inflows in to the lake settle at its bottom and undergoes anaerobic digestion releasing greenhouse gases like methane and CO2. Some part of methane gas is consumed by the anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria which in turn works as food source to the zooplankton. In case the lake is not deficit of dissolved oxygen at all depths the aerobic methane oxidation bacteria like Methylococcus capsulatus can consume most of the methane by releasing CO2 which in turn aid the production of algae.
Thus a self-sustaining biological process can take place to generate primary food source for the phytoplankton and zooplankton depending on availability of adequate dissolved oxygen in the water bodies which are subjected to higher organic pollution loads. Adequate dissolved oxygen in water bodies is crucial for fisheries production and elimination of green house gas emissions. Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive; the water becomes cloudy coloured a shade of green, brown, or red. Eutrophication decreases the value of rivers and aesthetic enjoyment. Health problems can occur. Human activities can accelerate the rate. Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewers, sewage sludge spreading, other human-related activities increase the flow of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into ecosystems.
Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability. Phosphorus is regarded as the main culprit in cases of eutrophication in lakes subjected to "point source" pollution from sewage pipes; the concentration of algae and the trophic state of lakes correspond well to phosphorus levels in water. Studies conducted in the Experimental Lakes Area in Ontario have shown a relationship between the addition of phosphorus and the rate of eutrophication. Humankind has increased the rate of phosphorus cycling on Earth by four times due to agricultural fertilizer production and application. Between 1950 and 1995, an estimated 600,000,000 tonnes of phosphorus was applied to Earth's surface on croplands. Although eutrophication is caused by human activities, it can be a natural process in lakes. Eutrophy occurs for instance. Paleolimnologists now recognise that climate change and other external influences are critical in regulating the natural productivity of lakes; some lakes demonstrate the reverse process, becoming less nutrient rich with time.
The main difference between natural and anthropogenic eutrophication is that the natural process is slow, occurring on geological time scales. Eutrophication is a common phenomenon i
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
New Haven, Indiana
New Haven is a city in Adams, St. Joseph townships, Allen County, United States, it the only suburb of the city of Fort Wayne, the second largest city in Indiana, is situated along the southern banks of the Maumee River. The population was 15,709 as of the 2015 estimate. New Haven was platted in 1839 by Henry Burgess and was incorporated as a town under Indiana law in 1865, it became incorporated as a city in 1963. Several homes built by the Burgess family remain in New Haven. A Burgess home on Summit Street is the oldest brick structure in Jefferson Township. Henry Burgess' son-in-law, E. W. Green built a large frame Greek Revival house on the hill above what is now Central Lutheran School. Another Burgess structure remains at the corner of Eben Streets. In 1845 the Swiss Amish arrived in the region, what makes them distinct is that they speak an Alsatian German Language. New Haven's history has been shaped by transportation, it was located along the Erie Canal. The city was served by the Wabash and Nickel Plate Railroads.
Norfolk Southern Railway maintains a significant operation in New Haven today. U. S. Routes 24 and 30, as well as Interstate 469, serve residents; the Fort Wayne Railroad Historical Society operates east of New Haven on Edgerton Road. The society has restored Nickel Plate 765 built by the Lima Locomotive Works of Lima and restored the Craigville Depot, which are housed at the New Haven site; the historic French settlement of Besançon is on the eastern edge of New Haven along the Lincoln Highway. Saint Louis Catholic Church at Besançon is now on the National Register of Historic Places. Listed is the Wabash Railroad Depot. New Haven was the home of a weekly newspaper, Allen County Times, until the summer of 2002; the paper served New Haven, Leo-Cedarville, Harlan, Woodburn and Monroeville. New Haven is located at 41°4′4″N 85°1′17″W. According to the 2010 census, New Haven has a total area of 9.875 square miles, of which 9.87 square miles is land and 0.005 square miles is water. New Haven was the westernmost point of prehistoric glacial Lake Maumee, an extension of Lake Erie.
The bed of Lake Maumee became the Great Black Swamp, which covered an area between New Haven and present-day Toledo, Ohio. The route of the old Lincoln Highway east of New Haven follows the southern lakebank of glacial Lake Maumee, a notable geological feature; as of the census of 2010, there were 14,794 people, 200 households, 3,986 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,498.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,328 housing units at an average density of 641.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.2% White, 3.3% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races,0.16 MLG, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 5,839 households of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.7% were non-families.
26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,406 people, 4,900 households, 3,415 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,522.0 people per square mile. There were 5,141 housing units at an average density of 630.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.03% White, 0.67% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.95% of the population. There were 4,900 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families.
25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,802, the median income for a family was $49,597. Males had a median income of $36,370 versus $25,280 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,960. About 4.9% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. New Haven is governed by Mayor-council government; the present Mayor is Republican Terry McDonald. Mayor McDonald was elected as a Democrat.
Past mayors include Republican Terry Werling, Democrat Eugene Taylor, Republican Lynn Shaw. City Council President Is 5
The Miami are a Native American nation speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory, now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, western Ohio. By 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory; the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe; the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribe's autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have been derived from an older term meaning "downstream people." Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee an onomatopoeic reference to their sacred bird, the sandhill crane. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, a name of unknown etymology; some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, not their autonym. They called themselves Mihtohseeniaki.
The Miami continue to use this autonym today. Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture. Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive regional trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns, other factors; the historical Miami engaged in hunting. During historic times, the Miami were known to have migrated south and eastwards from Wisconsin from the mid-17th century to the mid-18th century, by which time they had settled on the upper Wabash River in what is now northwestern Ohio; the migration was a result of their being invaded during the protracted Beaver Wars by the more powerful Iroquois, who traveled far in strong organized groups from their territory in central and western New York for better hunting during the peak of the eastern beaver fur trader days. The Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand; the warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations, but the major factor were fatalities from infectious diseases for which they had no immunity.
Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the indigenous people were living around the western shores of Lake Michigan. The Miami had moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a loose confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. At this time, the major bands of the Miami were: Atchakangouen, Atchatchakangouen, Greater Miami or Crane Band Kilatika, Kiratika called by the French known by the English as Eel River Band of Miamis.