The Amazing Race
The Amazing Race is a reality television game show in which teams of two people race around the world in competition with other teams. Contestants strive to arrive first at "Pit Stops" at the end of each leg of the race to win prizes and to avoid coming in last, which carries the possibility of elimination or a significant disadvantage in the following leg. Contestants travel to and within multiple countries in a variety of transportation modes, including airplanes, hot air balloons, trucks, taxicabs, trains, boats, by foot. Clues provided in each leg lead the teams to the next destination or direct them to perform a task, either together or by a single member; these challenges are related in some manner to its culture. Teams are progressively eliminated. Created by Elise Doganieri and Bertram van Munster, the original series has aired in the United States since 2001 and has earned thirteen Primetime Emmy Awards, ten of which being for the award for "Outstanding Reality-Competition Program".
Emmy-award-winning New Zealand television personality Phil Keoghan has been the host of the U. S. version of the show since its inception. The show has branched out to include a number of international versions following a similar format. Unless otherwise indicated, the seasons are referring to the U. S. version of the series, hosted by Phil Keoghan. Each cycle of the Race features eleven teams; each team is composed of two people with a pre-existing relationship, such as dating and divorced couples. However, some seasons have introduced twists on this concept: the second All-Stars season featured a team made by the production due to illness befalling an original competitor while season 26, which has a theme of only people who are dating each other competing, featured five of the teams participating in a "blind date". Dynamics of the relationship under the stress of competition is a focus of the show, are described by the teams during interviews held before and after the teams have raced, through discussion with the show's host when they arrive at the Pit Stop.
The stress of racing with one's partner, staying ahead of the competition, completing the assigned tasks, dealing with little sleep or luxury combined to create "killer fatigue", a phrase coined by fans of the show. A team's inability to cope with the fatigue is what is responsible for a team's elimination from the Race. Original Race rules required that teammates have had a pre-existing relationship longer than three years, no previous acquaintances with other racers during that cycle. However, these requirements have been dropped in some cases. Individual racers must meet specific age requirements; the team format has varied in some seasons. Four seasons featured 12 teams of two rather than the standard 11, while the "Family Edition" featured ten teams of four players, some of which were young children. Season 29 featured 22 complete strangers who chose their race partners based on first impressions made during a pre-race challenge; some formats featured as little as eight or as much as 14 teams divided into two groups of seven teams.
Unseen, a two-person audio and video production crew accompanies each team, recording them as they race. Teams may not travel without their production crew. Production crews are switched among teams each leg to avoid familiarity. At the beginning of each leg of the race, each team receives an allowance with their first clue, from which all expenses must be purchased during the Leg. Selected tasks have required the teams to use their money to complete the task. However, teams are given a credit card which they must use to purchase airline tickets, and, in the case of the "Family Edition," the purchase of gasoline. While early seasons of the U. S. version of the show allowed for teams to use the credit card to reserve flights outside of an airport or travel agency, recent seasons have prohibited this use. Allowance money is given in the same currency as the show's nation regardless of location. S. versions of the Race provide racers with U. S. dollars. The amount of money varies from leg to leg, has ranged from no dollars to hundreds of dollars.
The teams are allowed to keep any unused money for future race legs, barring certain penalties for finishing last. If team members spend all of their money or have it taken away in a non-elimination leg, they may attempt to obtain more money in any way that does not violate the local laws. Since season seven, teams have been prevented from begging at United States airports, teams may not use their personal possessions to barter payment for services. Teams have reported on the existence of an emergency fund of $200, carried by their crew and can only be used in extreme circumstances, but not as a means to pay for any activity related
Tsabong or Tshabong is the administrative centre of the Kgalagadi District, Botswana. It is located in the Kalahari Desert; the population was 8939 in 2011 census. The primary hospital in Tsabong serves a huge outlying area and includes several tuberculosis refuges where patients and their families can stay while undergoing lengthy outpatient treatment. Near the town is the Tsabong kimberlite field, one of the largest diamondiferous kimberlite fields in the world; the town is served by Tshabong Airport. The Botswana Prison Service operates the Tsabong Prison
The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a swampy inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the endorheic basin of the Kalahari. All the water reaching the delta is evaporated and transpired and does not flow into any sea or ocean; each year, about 11 cubic kilometres of water spread over the 6,000–15,000 km2 area. Some flood waters drain into Lake Ngami; the area was once part of Lake Makgadikgadi, an ancient lake that had dried up by the early Holocene. The Moremi Game Reserve, a National Park, is on the eastern side of the Delta; the Delta was named as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa, which were declared on February 11, 2013, in Arusha, Tanzania. On 22 June 2014, the Okavango Delta became the 1000th site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Over 2 million years prior the formation of the Delta, the Okavango river flowed and drained into a massive lake in what is now the Makgadikgadi Pan region. Humans have inhabited the Okavango Delta for at least 100,000 years.
The Okavango Delta was formed 50,000 years ago when the earthquake caused the Okavango river to spill out into the desert. The Okavango is produced by seasonal flooding; the Okavango River drains the summer rainfall from the Angola highlands and the surge flows 1,200 km in around one month. The waters spread over the 250 by 150 km area of the delta over the next four months; the high temperature of the delta causes rapid transpiration and evaporation, resulting in a cycle of rising and falling water level, not understood until the early 20th century. The flood peaks between June and August, during Botswana’s dry winter months, when the delta swells to three times its permanent size, attracting animals from kilometres around and creating one of Africa’s greatest concentrations of wildlife; the delta is flat, with less than 2 m variation in height across its 15,000 km2. Every year, about 11 km3 of water flow into the delta. 60% is consumed through transpiration by plants, 36% by evaporation, 2% percolates into the aquifer system.
This turgid outflow means that the delta is unable to flush out the minerals carried by the river and is liable to become salty and uninhabitable. Water salinity is reduced by salt collecting around plant roots as most of the incoming water is transpired by plants. Peat fires might contribute to deposit salt into layers below the surface; the low salinity of the water means that the floods do not enrich the floodplain with nutrients. The agglomeration of salt around plant roots leads to barren white patches in the centre of many of the thousands of islands, which have become too salty to support plants, aside from the odd salt-resistant palm tree. Trees and grasses grow in the sand around the edges of the islands that have not become too salty yet. About 70% of the islands began as termite mounds, where a tree takes root on the mound of soil. Chief’s Island, the largest island in the delta, was formed by a fault line which uplifted an area over 70 km long and 15 km wide, it was reserved as an exclusive hunting area for the chief.
It now provides the core area for much of the resident wildlife. The Delta's profuse greenery is not the result of a wet climate; the average annual rainfall is 450 mm and most of it falls between December and March in the form of heavy afternoon thunderstorms. December to February are hot wet months with daytime temperatures as high as 40 °C, warm nights, humidity levels fluctuating between 50 and 80%. From March to May, the temperature becomes far more comfortable with a maximum of 30 °C during the day and mild to cool nights; the rains dry up leading into the dry, cold winter months of June to August. Daytime temperatures at this time of year are mild to warm, but the temperature begins to fall after sunset. Nights can be cold in the delta, with temperatures above freezing; the September to November span has the heat and atmospheric pressure build up once more, as the dry season slides into the rainy season. October is the most challenging month for visitors - daytime temperatures push past 40 °C and the dryness is only broken by a sudden cloudburst.
The Okavango delta is both a permanent and seasonal home to a wide variety of wildlife, now a popular tourist attraction. Species include the African bush elephant, wildebeest, sitatunga, common eland, duiker, gemsbok, sable antelope, roan antelope, Plains zebra, South African giraffe, red lechwe, African buffalo, hippopotamus, black rhinoceros, white rhinoceros, African wild dog, wattled crane Nile crocodile, African leopard, chacma baboon, brown hyena, spotted hyena, common warthog and vervet monkey; the delta hosts over 400 bird species, including African fish eagle, Pel's fishing owl, crested crane, lilac-breasted roller and sacred ibis. The majority of the estimated 200,000 large mammals in and around the delta are not year-round residents, they leave with the summer rains to find renewed fields of grass to graze and trees to browse make their way back as winter approaches. Large herds of buffalo and elephant total about 30,000 beasts. Since 2005, the protected area is considered a Lion Conservation Unit toge
The lechwe, red lechwe or southern lechwe, is an antelope found in wetlands of south central Africa. It is native to Botswana, southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, northeastern Namibia, eastern Angola in the Okavango Delta, Kafue Flats and the Bangweulu Swamps. Lechwe weigh from 70 to 120 kg, they are golden brown with white bellies. Males are darker in colour; the long, spiral-structured horns are vaguely lyre-shaped, they are found only in males. The hind legs are somewhat longer in proportion than in other antelopes, to ease long-distance running in marshy soil. Lechwe are found in marshy areas, they use the knee-deep water as protection from predators. Their legs are covered in a water-repellant substance which allows them to run quite fast in knee-deep water. Lechwe are diurnal, they gather in herds. Herds are all of one sex, but during mating season they mix. Four subspecies of the lechwe have been recognized. Red lechwe - Widely distributed in the wetlands of Zimbabwe, Botswana and Zambia.
Kafue Flats lechwe - It is confined within the Kafue Flats. † Roberts' lechwe - Formerly found in northeastern Zambia, now extinct. Called the Kawambwa lechwe. Black lechwe - Found in the Bangweulu region of Zambia. In addition the Upemba lechwe is considered a subspecies by some authorities. Although related and sharing the name "lechwe", the Nile lechwe is recognized as a separate species. Cape lechwe, Kobus venterae Nile lechwe, Kobus megaceros ARKive - images and movies of the black lechwe
The Makgadikgadi Pan, a salt pan situated in the middle of the dry savanna of north-eastern Botswana, is one of the largest salt flats in the world. The pan is all that remains of the enormous Lake Makgadikgadi, which once covered an area larger than Switzerland, but dried up several thousand years ago; the name Makgadikgadi is derived from the same root as the name for the desert Kalahari, meaning a dry thirsty place in the languages of the San people. Lying southeast of the Okavango Delta and surrounded by the Kalahari Desert, Makgadikgadi is technically not a single pan, but many pans with sandy desert in between, the largest being the Sua and Nxai Pans; the largest individual pan is about 1,900 sq mi. In comparison, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is a single salt flat of 4,100 sq mi has much water, is claimed to be the world's largest salt pan. A dry, clay crust most of the year, the pans are seasonally covered with water and grass, are a refuge for birds and animals in this arid part of the world.
The climate with regular annual rains. The main water source is the Nata River, called Amanzanyama in Zimbabwe, where it rises at Sandown about 37 mi from Bulawayo. A smaller amount of water is supplied by the Boteti River from the Okavango Delta; these salt pans cover 6,200 sq mi in the Kalahari Basin and form the bed of the ancient Lake Makgadikgadi, which evaporated many millennia ago. Archaeological recovery in the Makgadikgadi Pan has revealed the presence of prehistoric man through abundant finds of stone tools. Pastoralists herded grazing livestock here; the lowest place in the basin is Sua Pan with an elevation of 2,920 feet. As the ancestral Lake Makgadikgadi shrank, it left relict shorelines, which are most evident in the southwestern part of the basin; as the lake shrank numerous smaller lakes formed with progressively smaller shorelines. The relict shorelines at elevations of 3100 feet and 3018 feet can be seen easily on Gidikwe Ridge, west of the Boteti River; the geologic processes behind the formation of the basin are not well understood.
It is conjectured that there was a gentle down-warping of the crust, with accompanying mild tectonics and associated faulting. The main axis of the developing graben runs northeast-southwest. Kubu Island and Kukome Island are igneous rock "islands" in the salt flat of Sua pan. Kubu Island lies in the southwestern quadrant of Sua Pan, contains a number of baobab trees, is protected as a national monument; the pans themselves are salty desert. However the fringes of the pan are salt marshes and further out these are circled by grassland and shrubby savanna; the prominent baobab trees found in the area function as local landmarks. One of them, named after James Chapman, served as an unofficial post office for 19th-century explorers. Little wildlife can exist here during the harsh dry season of strong hot winds and only salt water, but following a rain the pan becomes an important habitat for migrating animals including wildebeest and one of Africa's biggest zebra populations, the large predators that prey on them.
The wet season brings migratory birds such as ducks and great white pelicans. The pan is home of one of only two breeding populations of greater flamingos in southern Africa, only on the Soa pan, part of the Makgadikgadi pans; the other breeding population is in the Northern part of Namibia. The only birds here in the dry season are chestnut-banded plover and Kittlitz's plover; the grasslands on the fringes of the pan are home to reptiles such as tortoises, rock monitor and lizards including the endemic Makgadikgadi spiny agama. The region's salt water is home to the cladoceran crustacean Moina belli; the salt pans are inhospitable and human intervention has been minimal so they remain undisturbed, although land surrounding the pans is used for grazing and some areas have been fenced off, preventing the migration of wildlife. Modern commercial operations to extract salt and soda ash began on Sua Pan in 1991, there are plans to divert water from the Nata River for irrigation, which would cause severe damage to the salt pan ecosystem.
Another threat is the use of quad bikes and off-road vehicles by tourists, which disturbs breeding colonies of flamingos. Illegal hunting in the national parks is a persistent problem. There are some protected areas within Nxai Pan National Park; the Makgadikgadi Pans Game Reserve is the scene of large migrations of zebra and wildebeest from the Boteti River across to Nwetwe Pan, while the Nata Sanctuary in Sua Pan is a place to see birdlife and antelopes. In Nxai Pan the baobabs painted by 19th century British artist; the area can be accessed from the town of Gweta. Daphnia barbata Lovenula africana Sigara Top Gear: Botswana Special Images from the Mkgadikgadi Pans "Zambezian halophytics". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: personal banking, corporate banking, wealth management, investment management. Barclays traces its origins to a goldsmith banking business established in the City of London in 1690. James Barclay became a partner in the business in 1736. In 1896, several banks in London and the English provinces, including Backhouse's Bank and Gurney's Bank, united as a joint-stock bank under the name Barclays and Co. Over the following decades, Barclays expanded to become a nationwide bank. In 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash dispenser. Barclays has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including of London and South Western Bank in 1918, British Linen Bank in 1919, Mercantile Credit in 1975, the Woolwich in 2000 and the North American operations of Lehman Brothers in 2008. Barclays has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Qatar Holdings, an investment vehicle of the State of Qatar, is the largest shareholder of the company. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. Barclays was the most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition, with AXA and State Street Corporation taking the 2nd and 3rd positions, respectively. Barclays traces its origins back to 1690 when John Freame, a Quaker, Thomas Gould started trading as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street, London; the name "Barclays" became associated with the business in 1736, when Freame's son-in-law James Barclay became a partner. In 1728 the bank moved to 54 Lombard Street, identified by the'Sign of the Black Spread Eagle', which in subsequent years would become a core part of the bank's visual identity; the Barclay family were connected both as proponents and opponents. David and Alexander Barclay were engaged in the slave trade in 1756.
David Barclay of Youngsbury, on the other hand, was a noted abolitionist, Verene Shepherd, the Jamaican historian of diaspora studies, singles out the case of how he chose to free his slaves in that colony. In 1776 the firm was styled "Barclay and Bening" and so remained until 1785, when another partner, John Tritton, who had married a Barclay, was admitted, the business became "Barclay, Bevan and Tritton". In 1896 several banks in London and the English provinces, notably Backhouse's Bank of Darlington and Gurney's Bank of Norwich, united under the banner of Barclays and Co. a joint-stock bank. Between 1905 and 1916 Barclays extended its branch network by making acquisitions of small English banks. Further expansion followed in 1918 when Barclays amalgamated with the London and South Western Bank and in 1919 when the British Linen Bank was acquired by Barclays Bank, although the British Linen Bank retained a separate board of directors and continued to issue its own bank notes. In 1925 the Colonial Bank, National Bank of South Africa and the Anglo-Egyptian Bank were amalgamated and Barclays operated its overseas operations under the name Barclays Bank – Barclays DCO.
In 1938 Barclays acquired the first Indian exchange bank, the Central Exchange Bank of India, which had opened in London in 1936 with the sponsorship of Central Bank of India. In 1941 during the Nazi Occupation of France, a branch of Barclays in Paris headed by Marcel Cheradame worked directly with the invading force. Senior officials at the bank volunteered the names of Jewish employees as well as ceding an estimated 100 Jewish bank accounts to the Nazi occupiers; the Paris branch used its funds to increase the operational power of a large quarry that helped produce steel for the Nazis. There was no evidence of contact between the head office in London and the branch in Paris during the occupation. Marcel Cheradame was kept as the branch manager. In May 1958, Barclays was the first UK bank to appoint a female bank manager. Hilda Harding managed Barclays' Hanover Square branch in London until her retirement in 1970. In 1965, Barclays established Barclays Bank of California in San Francisco. Barclays launched the first credit card in the UK, Barclaycard, in 1966.
On 27 June 1967, Barclays deployed the world's first cash machine, in Enfield. The British actor Reg Varney was the first person to use the machine. In 1969, a planned merger with Martins Bank and Lloyds Bank was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, but the acquisition of Martins Bank on its own was permitted; that year, the British Linen Bank subsidiary was sold to the Bank of Scotland in exchange for a 25% stake, a transaction that became effective from 1971. Barclays DCO changed its name to Barclays Bank International in 1971. In August 1975, following the secondary banking crash, Barclays acquired Mercantile Credit Company. In 1980, Barclays Bank International expanded its business to include commercial credit and took over American Credit Corporation, renaming it Barclays American Corporation; the following year Barclays Bank and Barclays Bank International merged, as part of the corporate reorganisation the former Barclays Bank plc became a group holding company, renamed Barclays plc, UK retail banking was integrated under the former BBI, renamed Barclays Bank PLC from Barclays Bank Limited.
In 1986 Barclays sold its South African business operating under the Barclays National Bank name after protests against Barclays' involvement in South Africa and its apartheid government. That year Barclay