California electricity crisis
The California electricity crisis known as the Western U. S. Energy Crisis of 2000 and 2001, was a situation in which the U. S. state of California had a shortage of electricity supply caused by market manipulations, capped retail electricity prices. The state suffered from multiple large-scale blackouts, one of the state's largest energy companies collapsed, the economic fall-out harmed Governor Gray Davis' standing. Drought, delays in approval of new power plants, market manipulation decreased supply; this caused an 800% increase in wholesale prices from April 2000 to December 2000. In addition, rolling blackouts adversely affected many businesses dependent upon a reliable supply of electricity, inconvenienced a large number of retail consumers. California had an installed generating capacity of 45 GW. At the time of the blackouts, demand was 28 GW. A demand-supply gap was created by energy companies Enron, to create an artificial shortage. Energy traders took power plants offline for maintenance in days of peak demand to increase the price.
Traders were thus able to sell power at premium prices, sometimes up to a factor of 20 times its normal value. Because the state government had a cap on retail electricity charges, this market manipulation squeezed the industry's revenue margins, causing the bankruptcy of Pacific Gas and Electric Company and near bankruptcy of Southern California Edison in early 2001; the financial crisis was possible because of partial deregulation legislation instituted in 1996 by the California Legislature and Governor Pete Wilson. Enron took advantage of this deregulation and was involved in economic withholding and inflated price bidding in California's spot markets; the crisis cost between US$40 to $45 billion. As the FERC report concluded, market manipulation was only possible as a result of the complex market design produced by the process of partial deregulation. Manipulation strategies were known to energy traders under names such as "Fat Boy", "Death Star", "Forney Perpetual Loop", "Ricochet", "Ping Pong", "Black Widow", "Big Foot", "Red Congo", "Cong Catcher" and "Get Shorty".
Some of these have been extensively described in reports. Megawatt laundering is the term, analogous to money laundering, coined to describe the process of obscuring the true origins of specific quantities of electricity being sold on the energy market; the California energy market allowed for energy companies to charge higher prices for electricity produced out-of-state. It was therefore advantageous to make it appear that electricity was being generated somewhere other than California. Overscheduling is a term used in describing the manipulation of capacity available for the transportation of electricity along power lines. Power lines have a defined maximum load. Lines must be booked in advance for transporting bought-and-sold quantities of electricity. "Overscheduling" means a deliberate reservation of more line usage than is required and can create the appearance that the power lines are congested. Overscheduling was one of the building blocks of a number of scams. For example, the Death Star group of scams played on the market rules which required the state to pay "congestion fees" to alleviate congestion on major power lines.
"Congestion fees" were a variety of financial incentives aimed at ensuring power providers solved the congestion problem. But in the Death Star scenario, the congestion was illusory and the congestion fees would therefore increase profits. In a letter sent from David Fabian to Senator Boxer in 2002, it was alleged that: "There is a single connection between northern and southern California's power grids. I heard that Enron traders purposely overbooked that line caused others to need it. Next, by California's free-market rules, Enron was allowed to price-gouge at will." On a federal level, the Energy Policy Act of 1992, for which Enron had lobbied, opened electrical transmission grids to competition, unbundling generation and transmission of electricity. On the state level, part of California's deregulation process, promoted as a means of increasing competition, was influenced by lobbying from Enron, began in 1996 when California became the first state to deregulate its electricity market. A total of 40% of installed capacity – 20 gigawatts – was sold to what were called "independent power producers."
These included Mirant, Williams, AES. The utilities were required to buy their electricity from the newly created day-ahead only market, the California Power Exchange. Utilities were precluded from entering into longer-term agreements that would have allowed them to hedge their energy purchases and mitigate day-to-day swings in prices due to transient supply disruptions and demand spikes from hot weather. In 2000, wholesale prices were deregulated, but retail prices were regulated for the incumbents as part of a deal with the regulator, allowing the incumbent utilities to recover the cost of assets that would be stranded as a result of greater competition, based on the expectation that "frozen" rates would remain higher than wholesale prices; this assumption remained true from April 1998 through May 2000. Energy deregulation put the three companies. Energy deregulation policy froze or capped the existing price of energy that the three energy distributors could charge. Deregulating the producers of energy did not lower the cost of energy.
Deregulation did not encourage new producers to drive down prices. Instead, with increasing demand for electricity, the producers of energy charged more for electricity; the producers used moments of spike energy production to inflate the price of energy. In January 2001
John F. Forward Jr.
John F. Forward Jr. was an American politician from California. John F. Forward Jr. was born 1876 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to John F. Forward Sr. and Elizabeth Forward. Forward came to San Diego with his family in 1887, graduated from the public schools. In 1890, Forward started work in the title business with H. T. Company. In 1907, he started working for the Union Title and Trust Company of San Diego, founded by his father, became company president after his father's death in 1926. In the early 1930s he retired from the presidency, became chairman of the board. Forward was recognized as an expert on land titles and wrote an article on the "History of Land Titles in San Diego County", which appeared in Heilbron's History of San Diego County. Forward married Alberta Fairbanks July 29, 1901 and they had one daughter, Flora. Forward died in 1938 in San Diego at age 61. Forward served as president of the Chamber of Commerce in 1911. Forward served as a director of the 1915 Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and as city park commissioner until he resigned in 1926.
Forward was mayor of San Diego from 1932 until he resigned August 2, 1934. His father was mayor two decades earlier, they are the only father-son mayors for San Diego. In 1936, Forward was active in promoting the California Pacific International Exposition. Black, Samuel T.. San Diego County California; the S. J. Clark Publishing Company, Chicago. V. 2, pp. 539–540: "John F. Forward Jr." Heilbron, Carl. History of San Diego County. San Diego Press Club. Biography, p. 24
Charles F. O'Neall
Charles F. O'Neall was a real estate agent and an American Democratic politician from California. O'Neall was born 1875 in Birdville, Texas to Annie E. O'Neall, he attended public schools in Dallas, afterwards working at various stores at Midland, Texas raising stock. O'Neall married Annie May Townsend May 1900 at Midland, they had three children, Ella and Charles F. Jr. In 1906 he moved to San Diego, he became active in public affairs. He was president of the San Diego Realty Board during 1911–1913, served as a Fire Commissioner under Mayor John Forward, Sr. and was director of the Chamber of Commerce. He was active with the Democratic Party, serving as its County Central Committee chairman, he campaigned for Democrats President Wilson, Congressman William Kettner, was chairman of the latter campaign. O'Neall was elected mayor of San Diego and served from 1913 to 1915. With the support of the business community, defeated Department Store owner George Marston, it was a classic "Geraniums" campaign.
The tourism and parks people supported Marston and the commerce and industry people supported O'Neall. Banker Louis Wilde said: O'Neall is progressive, not narrow, conservative.... Mr. Marston... means well, but he has not got it in him to do broad things for anybody... somehow or other every time a big vital movement has been started for the advancement of the city, Marston has been against it... Four years Wilde would run for mayor and win against Marston in a similar campaign. O'Neall was mayor when the Panama-California Exposition opened in Balboa Park in 1915. O'Neall died in 1929 in California. Black, Samuel T.. San Diego County California; the S. J. Clark Publishing Company, Chicago. V. 2, pp. 133–34: "Charles F. O'Neall"
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
John F. Forward Sr.
John F. Forward Sr. was an American Republican politician from California. Forward was born 1851 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Elizabeth Forward, his grandfather Walter Forward was U. S. Secretary of the Treasury. In 1866 he continued for seven years, he joined the Pennsylvania Railroad as a fireman. Forward married Ella Dillon November 1874 in Pittsburgh, they had seven children: John F. Forward Jr., mayor, James D. Annie D. Walter L. Joseph C. Frank G. and Charles Hamilton Forward Sr. attorney, partner in Luce Forward law firm in San Diego, grandson Charles H. Forward Jr. of Hanalei Hawaii, great-grandson Charles H. Forward III of Honolulu Hawaii. Forward came to San Diego in 1887. In San Diego he worked in the San Diego County's recorder office for 19 years, from 1892, headed the office for 14 of those years. In 1903 Forward founded Union Title and Trust Company and, after resigning as recorder, directed it for nine years as its president. Forward was mayor of San Diego during 1907–1909, he was elected on an anti-establishment campaign with only 39% of the vote.
Since that time, runoffs have been required. Forward was a prominent citizen, "staunch republican", supported unions as the "salvation of the working man." Forward died 1926 aged 75 in San Diego. Black, Samuel T.. San Diego County California; the S. J. Clark Publishing Company, Chicago. V. 2, pp. 26–27: "John F. Forward Sr." Heilbron, Carl. History of San Diego County. San Diego Press Club. Biography, p. 23. Includes portrait
William H. Carlson
William H. "Billy" Carlson was an American land developer and Independent politician from California. He served two terms as Mayor of San Diego, he was the first developer of the San Diego neighborhood of Ocean Beach. William "Billy" Carlson was born 1864 in Sweden, he immigrated to the U. S. by 1870 and grew up in San Francisco. Carlson, a fast-talker, would often deny he was an immigrant. By 1885 he had moved to San Diego. On October 3, 1887 Carlson married Carmen Ferrer, of the wealthy Estudillo family. In San Diego he became editor for the San Diego Sun. With San Francisco associate Frank Higgins, he opened a real estate firm, Carlson & Higgins, just when the real estate boom of 1886–88 took off. Carlson and Higgins developed Ocean Beach in 1887, they gave it the name Ocean Beach. They laid out and named the streets, sold lots, constructed a fancy Victorian-style hotel called the Cliff House, they sold 2,200 lots in the first few weeks. To lure buyers they promised to build a rail line to downtown, since the development was 2½ hours from downtown by carriage.
Carlson and Higgins did develop a short rail line from Roseville, a then-independent town on the San Diego Bay side of Point Loma, to Ocean Beach in 1888. They attempted to build a rail line from Old Town to Roseville, but the project foundered in legal troubles after less than a mile of construction. Meanwhile San Diego's real estate boom had ended and the development was in financial trouble; the Cliff House Hotel burned down in 1898. His partner Higgins committed suicide in 1889. Carlson sold the Ocean Beach development to an Eastern financier, its development would wait until 1909, when D. C. Collier built a permanent railroad line. Carlson became quite well known because of the failed development, politically successful, he was first elected as a City Trustee around 1888. He lost. Next, he passed the bar, he was elected to the California State Assembly in 1893. After the legislature adjourned, he ran for mayor in March 1893 as an independent, a last-minute candidate in a five-way race. Carlson was a tall, lanky, good-natured young man with no political connections or party affiliation.
He won with less than 34% of the vote. At 28, Carlson is still the youngest person elected mayor in San Diego, he was elected and reelected on the promise to provide all sorts of civic improvements, although he did not deliver all or most of what he promised. His biggest promise unfulfilled, was to build a railroad east of San Diego. Many people voted for him "just to see what he would do."Carlson served as mayor of San Diego during 1893–1896. He pledged to remove unneeded city jobs, but the council resisted, setting a pattern of conflict for the rest of the term. Many of Carlson's public works. Carlson raised funds for a railroad to Arizona, he raised funds from thousands, but only had enough to lay 10 miles of track. Not until John D. Spreckels' San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway was this plan realized 25 years later. Towards the end of his Mayoral term, Carlson ran unsuccessfully for Congress, promising a new Post Office in every town. Sure he would win, he had his friend David C. Reed run for mayor, but after he lost the race for Congress, he kept his name on the mayoral ballot.
However, Carlson lost and his friend Reed won in a 3-way race. After losing, Carlson staged his own mock political funeral. Carlson's successes as mayor include obtaining federal funds for a jetty at the entrance to San Diego Bay, first interesting the Navy in San Diego, obtaining state funds for a Normal School, getting a Mexican right-of-way for a railroad to Yuma, mentioned earlier, which Spreckels would exploit. After his defeat, Carlson left town for several real estate and railroad schemes in Los Angeles and Cuba. In 1917 Carlson was caught in a scheme where he sold desert land multiple times to different people and was convicted of mail fraud, he served half of his sentenced time in federal prison, gaining an early release in 1920. Carlson died 1937 in Los Angeles while in the middle of another shady real estate deal. A man is honest as long. Biography by Robert W. Bogue "Political Affairs and Municipal Campaigns", History of San Diego by Smythe