Peniche is a seaside municipality and a city in Portugal. It is located in Oeste Subregion in Estremadura Province; the population in 2011 was 27,753, in an area of 77.55 km2. The city itself has a population of about 15,600 inhabitants; the present mayor is Henrique Bertino, elected by the independent coligation GCEPP. The city was built on a rocky peninsula, considered by geologists a unique example of the Toarcian turnover during the worldwide Early Jurassic extinction. Peniche is known for its long beaches, which are popular for recreational activities and sports such as surfing, windsurfing and kite surfing; these beaches are windy and have good surf breaks with Supertubos, i.e. waves forming fast and powerful tubes, considered among the best in Europe. The area has been called the "European Pipeline", after the Banzai Pipeline in Hawaii. Peniche Fortress is a notable example of Portuguese coastal defences. During the authoritarian rule during the 20th Century, known as the Estado Novo, or Second Republic, it was used as a prison for communist and other opponents of the regime.
The Berlengas islands, about 10 kilometres offshore from the peninsula, are part of the municipality. They form one of the world's first nature reserves. In summer, the islands can be visited by taking a ferryboat from Peniche. Peniche, with its scenic harbour, white windmills and long sandy beaches has inspired famous artists like Maurice Boitel. Since ancient times Peniche has been an important fishing harbour. Besides fisheries, the economy of the Peniche municipality relies on agriculture and tourism. Besides schools for primary and vocational education, Peniche is home to a state-run polytechnic school of the Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, which through its Escola Superior de Turismo e Tecnologia do Mar de Peniche, awards academic degrees in marine technologies and tourism. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 4 civil parishes: Atouguia da Baleia Ferrel Peniche Serra d'El-Rei Streets of Peniche with pictures Peniche is one of the best surfing locations in Europe, it has beaches and breaks facing three distinctly different directions, making it a consistent destination for surfers.
Home to many surf camps/schools, it annually hosts the MEO Rip Curl Pro Portugal from the World championship tour of the World Surf League at the Supertubos beach. The football club of the city is called Grupo Desportivo de Peniche. Peniche Amigos Clube is known nationally for their Futsal teams. Clube Stella Maris is known nationally for their badminton teams; the club gives the population a pavilion. The city annually hosts the Triatlo de Peniche, which unites the Portuguese Cup and the National Universities Championships with the historical event, the first in Portugal; the best-known athletes from Peniche are Telma Santos, who has participated in the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Silvano Lourenço, the European bodyboarding champion in 2007, Victoria Kaminskaya who participated in the swimming competitions of the 2016 Summer Olympics. Municipality official website
Boulogne-sur-Mer called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, the 60th-largest in France, it is the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring. Boulogne is an ancient town, was the major Roman port for trade and communication with its Province of Britain. After a period of Germanic presence following the collapse of the Empire, Boulogne was at the centre of the County of Boulogne of the Kingdom of France during the Middle Ages, was occupied by the Kingdom of England numerous times due to conflict between the two nations. In 1805 it was a staging area for Napoleon's troops for several months during his planned invasion of the United Kingdom; the city's 12th-century belfry is recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, while another popular attraction is the marine conservation centre Nausicaa.
The French name Boulogne derives from the Latin Bononia, the Roman name for Bologna in Italy. Both places—and Vindobona —are thought to have derived from native Celtic placenames, with bona meaning "foundation", "citadel", or "granary"; the French epithet sur-Mer distinguishes the city from Boulogne-Billancourt on the edge of Paris. In turn, the Boulogne in Boulogne-Billancourt originates from a church there dedicated to Notre-Dame de Boulogne, "Our Lady of Boulogne". Boulogne-sur-Mer is in Northern France, at the edge of the Channel and in the mouth of the river "Liane"; as the crow flies, Boulogne is at 30 kilometres from Calais, 50 kilometres from Folkestone, 100 kilometres from Lille and Amiens, 150 kilometres from Rouen and 215 kilometres from Paris. Boulogne is a important city of the North, exercising an influence on the "Boulonnais" territory; the coast consists of important tourist natural sites, like the capes Gris Nez and Blanc Nez, attractive seaside resorts like Wimereux, Hardelot and Le Touquet.
The hinterland is rural and agricultural. Boulogne is close to the A16 motorway. Metropolitan bus services are operated by "Marinéo"; the company Flixbus propose a bus line connecting Paris to Boulogne. There are coach services to Dunkerque; the city has railway stations, which the most important is Boulogne-Ville station, located in the south of the city. Boulogne-Tintelleries station is used by regional trains, it is located near the city centre. The former Boulogne-Maritime and Boulogne-Aéroglisseurs stations served as a boat connection for the railway. Boulogne has no cross channel ferry services since the closure of the route to Dover by LD Lines in 2010; the regional trains are TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais run by SNCF. The principal service runs from Gare de Boulogne-Ville via Gare de Calais-Fréthun, Gare de Calais-Ville to Gare de Lille-Flandres; the city is divided into several parts: City centre: groups historic and administrative buildings, accommodations, banks, pedestrian streets and places.
Fortified town: old-town where are a lot of historic monuments and the city hall and the courthouse. It is surrounded by 13th-century ramparts appreciated today by walkers. Gambetta-Sainte-Beuve: tourist area situated in the northwest of the city, on the edge of the beach and the recreational harbour. Capécure: economic and industrial area, situated in the west of the city, around the harbour. Saint-Pierre: former neighborhood of the fishermen, destroyed during World War II and reconstructed after. Chemin Vert: zone created in the 1950s, knowing today poverty and unemployment, it is the neighborhood of Franck Ribéry. Dernier Sou: residential area situated in the east of the city. Beaurepaire: residential area situated in the north of the city. Bréquerecque: residential area situated in the south of the city. Boulogne-sur-Mer has an oceanic climate that has chilly winters not far above freezing and cool summers tempered by its exposure to the sea. Considering its position, the climate is quite cold in relation to south and east coast locations in England year round.
Precipitation is higher than in said southern English locations. The foundation of the city known to the Romans as Gesoriacum is credited to the Celtic Boii. In the past,it was sometimes conflated with Caesar's Portus Itius, but, now thought to have been a site near Calais which has since silted up. From the time of Claudius's invasion in AD 43, Gesoriacum formed the major port connecting the rest of the empire to Britain, it was the chief base of the Roman navy's Britannic fleet until the rebellion of its admiral Carausius in 286. As part of the imperial response, the junior emperor Constantius Chlorus besieged it by land and sea in 293; the name of the settlement was changed to Bononia at some point between the sack of Gesoriacum and 310 as a consequence of its refounding or by the replacement of the sacked and lower-lying city by another nearby community. The city was an important town of the Morini, Zosimus called it Germanorum at the end of the 4th century. In the Middle Ages Boulogne wa
The Salon d'Automne, or Société du Salon d'automne, is an annual art exhibition held in Paris, France since 1903. The first Salon d'Automne was created under the initiative of the Belgian architect, literary man and art collector Frantz Jourdain, along with the architect Hector Guimard, the painters George Desvallières, Eugène Carrière, Félix Vallotton, Édouard Vuillard and the Maison Jansen, a Paris-based interior decoration office founded in 1880 by Dutch-born Jean-Henri Jansen. Perceived as a reaction against the conservative policies of the official Paris Salon, this massive exhibition immediately became the showpiece of developments and innovations in 20th-century painting, sculpture, engraving and decorative arts. During the Salon's early years, established artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir threw their support behind the new exhibition and Auguste Rodin displayed several works. Since its inception, works by artists such as Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, Paul Gauguin, Georges Rouault, André Derain, Albert Marquet, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Marcel Duchamp have been shown.
In addition to the 1903 inaugural exhibition, three other dates remain significant for the Salon d'Automne: 1905 bore witness to the birth of Fauvism. The aim of the salon was to encourage the development of the fine arts, to serve as an outlet for young artists, a platform to broaden the dissemination of Impressionism and its extensions to a popular audience. Choosing the autumn season for the exhibition was strategic in several ways: it not only allowed artists to exhibit canvases painted outside during the summer, it stood out from the other two large salons which took place in the spring; the Salon d'Automne is distinguished by its multidisciplinary approach, open to paintings, photographs, engravings, applied arts, the clarity of its layout, more or less per school. Foreign artists are well represented; the Salon d'Automne boasts the presence of a politician and patron of the arts, Olivier Sainsère as a member of the honorary committee. For Frantz Jourdain, public exhibitions served an important social function by providing a forum for unknown, emerging artists, for providing a basis for the general public's understanding of the new art.
This was the idea behind Jourdain's dream of opening a new "Salon des Refusés" in the late 1890s, realized in the opening the Salon d'Automne in 1903. Providing a venue where unknown artists could be recognized, while'wrestling' the public out of its complacency were, to Jourdain, the greatest contributions to society the critic could make; the platform of the Salon d'Automne was based on an open admission, welcoming artists in all areas of the arts. Jurors were members of society itself, not members of the Academy, the state, or official art establishments. Refused exhibition space in the Grand Palais, the first Salon d'Automne was held in the poorly lit, humid basement of the Petit Palais, it was backed financially by Jansen. While Rodin applauded the endeavor, submitted drawings, he refused to join doubting it would succeed. Notwithstanding, the first Salon d'Automne, which included works by Matisse and other progressive artists, was unexpectedly successful, was met with wide critical acclaim.
Jourdain, familiar with the multifaceted world of art, predicted the triumph would arouse animosity: from artist who resented the accent on Gauguin and Cézanne, from academics who resisted attention given to the decorative arts, soon, from the Cubists, who suspected the jurors favoring of Fauvism at their expense. Paul Signac, president of the Salon des Indépendants, never forgave Jourdain for having founded a rival salon. What he had not predicted was a retaliation that threatened the future of the new salon. Carolus-Duran threatened to ban from his Société established artists who might consider exhibiting at the Salon d'Automne. Retaliating in defense of Jourdain, Eugène Carrière issued a statement that if forced to choose, he would join the Salon d'Automne and resign from the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts; the valuable publicity generated by the press articles on the controversy worked in favor of the Salon d'Automne. Thus, Eugène Carrière saved the burgeoning salon. Henri Marcel, sympathetic to the Salon d'Automne, became director of the Beaux-Arts, assured it would take place at the prestigious Grand Palais the following year.
The success of the Salon d'Automne was not, due to such controversy. Success was due to the tremendous impact of its exhibitions on both the art world and the general public, extending from 1903 to the outset of the First World War; each successive exhibition denoted a significant phase in the development of modern art: Beginning with retrospectives of Gauguin, Cézanne and others. In his defense of artistic liberty, Jourdain attacked not individuals, but institutions, such as the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, the Société des Artistes Français, the École des Beaux-Arts, r
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region of Hauts-de-France, it is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched from north of Noyon to Calais, via the whole of the Somme department and the north of the Aisne department; the province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. From the 5th century the area was part of the Frankish Empire, in the feudal period it encompassed the six countships of Boulogne, Ponthieu, Amiénois and Laonnois. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region became part of West Francia, the Kingdom of France; the name "Picardy" was not used until the 13th century. During this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a "Picard Nation" of students at Sorbonne University, most of whom came from Flanders.
During the Hundred Years' War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358. From 1419 onwards, the Picardy counties were acquired by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good, confirmed by King Charles VII of France at the 1435 Congress of Arras. In 1477, King Louis XI of France occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control most of Artois. In the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created; this became a new administrative region of France, separate from what was defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the northern half of the Aisne département, a small fringe in the north of the Oise département. In 1557, Picardy was invaded by Habsburg forces under the command of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. After a seventeen-day siege, St. Quentin would be ransacked, while Noyon would be burned by the Habsburg army. In the early 18th century, an infectious disease similar to English sweat originated from the region and spread across France.
It was called Picardy sweat. Sugar beet was introduced by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars in the 19th century, in order to counter the United Kingdom, which had seized the sugar islands possessed by France in the Caribbean; the sugar industry has continued to play a prominent role in the economy of the region. One of the most significant historical events to occur in Picardy was the series of battles fought along the Somme during World War I. From September 1914 to August 1918, four major battles, including the Battle of the Somme, were fought by British and German forces in the fields of Northern Picardy. In 2009, the Regional Committee for local government reform proposed to reduce the number of French regions and cancel additions of new regions in the near future. Picardy would have disappeared, each department would have joined a nearby region; the Oise would have been incorporated in the Île-de-France, the Somme would have been incorporated in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Aisne would have been incorporated in the Champagne-Ardenne.
The vast majority of Picards were opposed to this proposal, it was scrapped in 2010. Today, the modern region of Picardy no longer includes the coastline from Berck to Calais, via Boulogne, now in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, but does incorporate the pays of Beauvaisis, Noyonnais, Soissonnais, among other departments of France; the older definition of Picardy survives in the name of the Picard language, which applies not only to the dialects of Picardy proper, but to the Romance dialects spoken in the Nord-Pas de Calais région, north of Picardy proper, parts of the Belgian province of Hainaut. Between the 1990 and 1999 censuses, the population of Oise increased 0.61% per year, while the Aisne department lost inhabitants, the Somme grew with a 0.16% growth per year. Today, 41.3% of the population of Picardy live inside the Oise department. Picardy stretches from the long sand beaches of the Somme estuary in the west to the vast forests and pastures of the Thiérache in the east and down to the châteaux of Chantilly or Pierrefonds near the Paris Area and vineyards of the border with Champagne to the south.
The president of the regional council is Claude Gewerc, a Socialist in office since 2004. That year he defeated longtime UDF incumbent Gilles de Robien. Since 2008, the mayor of the city of Amiens, the regional capital, has been Socialist Gilles Demailly, he defeated longtime mayor Gilles de Robien of the New Centre party. The region of Picardy has a strong and proud cultural identity; the Picard cultural heritage includes some of the most extraordinary Gothic churches, distinctive local cuisine and traditional games and sports, such as the longue paume, as well as danses picardes and its own bagpipes, called the pipasso. The villages of Picardy have a distinct character, with their houses made of red bricks accented with a "lace" of white bricks. A minority of people still speak the Picard language, one of the languages of France, spoken in Artois. "P'tit quinquin", a Picard song, is a symbol of the local culture
Institut de France
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, including the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit, it awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of over €27 million per year in 2017. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies; the building was constructed as the Collège des Quatre-Nations by Cardinal Mazarin, as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV. The Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. In 2017, Xavier Darcos was named the Institut de France's chancellor. Académie française – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture Académie de musique and Académie d'architecture Académie des sciences morales et politiques – initiated 1795, suppressed 1803, reestablished 1832.
The Royal Society of Canada, initiated 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London. The Lebanese Academy of Sciences, known by its French name "Académie des Sciences du Liban", is broadly fashioned after the French Academy of Sciences, with which it continues to develop joint programs. Collège des Quatre-Nations National academy List of museums in Paris List of honorary societies Media related to Institut de France at Wikimedia Commons Official website Notes on the Institut de France from the Scholarly Societies project
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No