Jeanne Moreau is a French actress, singer and director. She won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress for Seven Days, Seven Nights, the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress for Viva Maria. and the César Award for Best Actress for The Old Lady Who Walked in the Sea. She has been the recipient of several awards, including a BAFTA Fellowship in 1996. Moreau made her debut in 1947, and established herself as one of the leading actresses of the Comédie-Française. She began playing roles in films in 1949, impressing in a Fernandel vehicle Meutres. in 1950. She achieved prominence as the star of Elevator to the Gallows, directed by Louis Malle, most prolific during the 1960s, Moreau continued to appear in films into her eighties. Moreau was born in Paris the daughter of Katherine, a dancer who performed at the Folies Bergère, and Anatole-Désiré Moreau, moreaus father was French, her mother was English, a native of Lancashire in England, and of part-Irish descent. Moreaus father was Catholic and her mother, originally a Protestant, when a young girl, the family moved south to Vichy, spending vacations at the ancestral village of Mazirat, a town of 30 houses in a valley in the Allier.
It was wonderful there, Moreau said, every tombstone in the cemetery was for a Moreau. During the war, the family was split and Moreau lived with her mother in Paris, Moreau ultimately lost interest in school at age 16 and, after attending Jean Anouilhs Antigone, found her calling as an actor. She studied at the Conservatoire de Paris and her parents separated permanently while Moreau was at the conservatory and her mother, after 24 difficult years in France, returned to England with Jeannes younger sister, Michelle. In 1947, Moreau made her debut at the Avignon Festival. She debuted at the Comédie-Française in Ivan Turgenevs A Month in the Country and, from the late 1950s, after appearing in several successful films, she began to work with the emerging generation of French film-makers. Elevator to the Gallows with first-time director Louis Malle was followed by Malles The Lovers, the latter film, controversial in its day, led the media to tag her The New Bardot. Largely thanks to those films, Moreau went on to work many of the best known New Wave.
François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim, her biggest success internationally, is centred on her starring role. In 1983 she was head of the jury at the 33rd Berlin International Film Festival, in 2005, she was awarded with the Stanislavsky Award at the 27th Moscow International Film Festival. Moreau has had success as a vocalist and she has released several albums and once performed with Frank Sinatra at Carnegie Hall
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France and the head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, in 1958, he founded the Fifth Republic and was elected as the 18th President of France, a position he held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was an officer of the First World War, wounded several times. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions, during the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders, he was appointed Under-Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his governments armistice with Nazi Germany, de Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and he led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as the leader of the French resistance.
He became Head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the RPF party. He retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, when the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. De Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic with a presidency. He granted independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies and he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign nations, De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and the exorbitant privilege of the US dollar. In his years, his support for an independent Quebec, De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization.
He died a year at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs unfinished, many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was ranked as Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps, De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord departement, the third of five children. He was raised in a devoutly Catholic and traditional family and his father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college who eventually founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a line of parliamentary gentry from Normandy and Burgundy. De Gaulles mother, descended from a family of entrepreneurs from Lille
Order of Christ (Portugal)
Denis negotiated with Clements successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets and property. There exists a parallel Supreme Order of Christ of the Holy See, the orders origins lie in the Knights Templar, founded circa 1118. The Templars were persecuted by the king of France and eventually disbanded by the pope in 1312, king Dinis I of Portugal created the Order of Christ in 1317 for those knights who survived their mass slaughter throughout Europe. In Portugal, the Order of Christ accumulated great riches and power during the Age of Discoveries, in 1789, Queen Maria I of Portugal secularized the order. In 1910, with the end of the Portuguese monarchy, the order was extinguished, however, in 1917, the order was revived, with its Grand Master to be the President of Portugal. The Military Order of Christ, together with the Military Orders of Aviz, the badge of the Order is a gilt cross with enamel, similar to the Orders emblem illustrated here, but with a longer lower arm.
The star of the Order has 22 asymmetrical arms of rays, in gilt for Grand Cross and Grand Officer, the central disc is in white enamel, with a miniature of the modern badge in it. During the monarchy the Sacred Heart of Christ was placed at the top of the star, the ribbon of the Order is plain red. Vasco da Gama Pedro Álvares Cabral Henry the Navigator João Gonçalves Zarco Gonçalo Velho Cabral Infante Ferdinand Bartolomeu Dias D. article name needed, GUIMARÃES, J. Vieira, A Ordem de Cristo, Lisboa, I. N.1936
George R. R. Martin
George Raymond Richard Martin, often referred to as GRRM, is an American novelist and short-story writer in the fantasy and science fiction genres and television producer. He is best known for his international bestselling series of fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire. Martin serves as the series producer, and scripted four episodes of the series. In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin the American Tolkien, and the named him one of the 2011 Time 100. George Raymond Martin was born on September 20,1948, in Bayonne, New Jersey and he has two younger sisters and Janet. His father was of half Italian descent, while his mother was of half Irish ancestry and he has French, English and German roots. The family first lived in a house on Broadway, belonging to Martins great-grandmother, in 1953, they moved to a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks. The young Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included. He wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles, Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and later Marist High School.
While there he became an avid fan, developing a strong interest in the superheroes being published by Marvel Comics. A letter Martin wrote to the editor of Fantastic Four was printed in issue No,20, it was the first of many sent, e. g. FF #32, #34, and others. In 1965, Martin won comic fandoms Alley Award for Best fan fiction for his superhero story Powerman vs. In 1970, Martin earned a B. S. in Journalism from Northwestern University, Illinois, graduating cum laude, he went on to complete his M. S. in Journalism in 1971. An expert chess player, he directed chess tournaments for the Continental Chess Association from 1973 to 1976, in the mid-1970s, Martin met English professor George Guthridge from Dubuque, Iowa, at a science fiction convention in Milwaukee. Martin persuaded Guthridge not only to give speculative fiction a second look, in turn, Guthridge helped Martin find a job at Clarke University. Martin wasnt making money to stay alive, from writing. From 1976 to 1978, Martin was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke, while he enjoyed teaching, the sudden death of friend and fellow author Tom Reamy in late 1977 made Martin reevaluate his own life, and he eventually decided to try to become a full-time writer.
He resigned from his job, and being tired of the winters in Dubuque
18th-century French literature
In common with a similar movement in England at the same time, the writers of 18th century France were critical and innovative. Their lasting contributions were the ideas of liberty, humanitarianism and progress, the 18th century saw the gradual weakening of the absolute monarchy constructed by Louis XIV. France was forced to recognize the power of England and Prussia. The Monarchy finally ended with King Louis XVI, who was unable to understand or control the forces of the French Revolution. The new class began to challenge the cultural and social monopoly of the aristocracy, French cities began to have their own theaters, coffee houses and salons, the Rise of the Third Estate culminated in their political victory in the French Revolution. Faith in science and progress was the force behind the first French Encyclopedia of Denis Diderot. The Protestants achieved legal status in France in 1787, the exchange of ideas with other countries increased. British ideas were important, particularly such ideas as constitutional monarchy and romanticism.
Toward the end of the century, a sober style appeared, aimed at illustrating scenery, work. These writers, and others such as the Abbé Sieyès, one of the authors of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. They came from the upper class or Third Estate, sought a society founded upon talent and merit. Their ideas were influenced by those of John Locke in England. They introduced the values of liberty and equality which became the ideals of the French Republic founded at the end of the century and they defended the freedom of conscience and challenged the role of religious institutions in society. For them, tolerance was a value of society. When the Convention placed the ashes of Voltaire in the Pantheon in Paris, while the philosophes had widely different approaches, they all had as a common objective, both for mankind and for individuals, the ideal of happiness. Some, like Rousseau, dreamed of the happiness of the savage, rapidly disappearing, like Voltaire. The philosophes were optimists, and they saw their mission clearly, they did not simply observe, the comedies of Marivaux and of Beaumarchais played a part in this debate about and diffusion of great ideas.
The relaxing of morals under the French Regency brought the return in 1716 of the Comédie-Italienne and his major works include Les Fausses Confidences, le Jeu de lamour et du hasard, and lÎle des esclaves
The Accursed Kings
The Accursed Kings is a sequence of seven historical novels by French author Maurice Druon about the French monarchy in the 14th century. Published between 1955 and 1977, the series has adapted as a miniseries twice for television in France. American author George R. R. Martin called The Accursed Kings the original game of thrones, citing Druons novels as an inspiration for his own A Song of Ice, the succession of monarchs that follows leads France and England to the Hundred Years War. The first six novels of Les Rois maudits were published in France by Del Duca between 1955 and 1960, and the volume was released by Plon in 1977. The initial six books were first issued in English between 1956 and 1961, by Rupert Hart-Davis in the United Kingdom and by Scribners in the United States, French King Philip the Fair rules with an iron fist, but is surrounded by scandal and intrigue. Philips daughter Isabella, Queen of England, plots with the ambitious Robert of Artois to catch the wives of her three brothers—Marguerite and Blanche—in their suspected adulterous affairs.
Roberts own motive is to himself on Jeanne and Blanches mother, his great aunt Mahaut, Countess of Artois. Marguerite and Blanche are sentenced to imprisonment for their crimes. Jeanne, innocent of adultery herself but complicit in the scandal, is imprisoned indefinitely, forty days after Molays execution, Clement dies of fever, shortly thereafter, Mahauts lady-in-waiting Béatrice dHirson arranges for Nogarets painful death by means of a poisoned candle. Philip fears that Molays curse is to blame, soon enough, he suffers a hemorrhage and collapses during a hunt. Philips eldest son has been crowned Louis X, but his adulterous wife Marguerite remains imprisoned at the Château Gaillard and she refuses, and Louis plan to secure an annulment and marry the beautiful Clemence of Hungary is further stalled by the papal conclaves failure to elect a new pope. Marigny finds that his enemies—led by Charles, Count of Valois—are systematically excluding him from the new inner circle. Louis brother, Count de Poitiers, and Valois both try to assert some influence over the king, Philippe for the good of the kingdom.
Desperate for freedom, Marguerite reconsiders, but her confession never reaches Robert, when he returns to her prison, Marguerite is ill from her confinement—and on Valois orders, Roberts man Lormet strangles her to death. Though his initial efforts to destroy Marigny fail, Valois manages—with the help of the Lombard banker Tolomei—to assemble a barrage of charges that sees Marigny executed. Louis, now a widower, marries the beautiful Clemence of Hungary and her discovery of his illegitimate daughter prompts Louis to confess all of his sins to her, and he swears to do whatever penance she requires. Mahaut and Béatrice use magic to assure that Philippe takes back his wife, Mahauts daughter Jeanne, Louis uncle Charles, Count of Valois, continues grasping for influence over royal affairs by trying to secure the allegiance of the new queen, his niece by his previous marriage. Tolomeis nephew, the young banker Guccio Baglioni, marries noblewoman Marie de Cressay in secret, with encouragement from Robert of Artois, Mahauts vassal barons revolt against her
Order of the British Empire
There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership.
In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor.
The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal letters
17th-century French literature
In reality, 17th-century French literature encompasses far more than just the classicist masterpieces of Jean Racine and Madame de La Fayette. In Renaissance France, literature was largely the product of encyclopaedic humanism, a new conception of nobility, modelled on the Italian Renaissance courts and their concept of the perfect courtier, was beginning to evolve through French literature. In the mid-17th century, there were an estimated 2,200 authors in France, under Cardinal Richelieu, patronage of the arts and literary academies increasingly came under the control of the monarchy. Henry IVs court was considered by contemporaries a rude one, lacking the Italianate sophistication of the court of the Valois kings, the court lacked a queen, who traditionally served as a focus of a nations authors and poets. Henrys literary tastes were largely limited to the chivalric novel Amadis of Gaul, in the 1620s, the most famous salon was held at the Hôtel de Rambouillet by Madame de Rambouillet, a rival gathering was organized by Madeleine de Scudéry.
The word salon first appeared in French in 1664 from the Italian word sala, before 1664, literary gatherings were often called by the name of the room in which they occurred -- cabinet, réduit, alcôve, and ruelle. For instance, the term derives from literary gatherings held in the bedroom. Nobles, lying on their beds, would receive close friends, ruelle refers to the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom, it became a name for these gatherings, often under the wing of educated women in the first half of the 17th century. In the context of French scholastica, academies were scholarly societies which monitored, academies first appeared in France during the Renaissance, when Jean-Antoine de Baïf created one devoted to poetry and music, inspired by the academy of Italian Marsilio Ficino. The first half of the 17th century was marked by a growth in private academies. Academies were generally more formal and more focused on criticism and analysis than salons, certain salons were closer to the academic spirit.
In the mid-17th century, academies gradually came under government control and sponsorship, the first private academy to fall under governmental control was LAcadémie française, which remains the most prestigious governmental academy in France. Founded in 1634 by Cardinal Richelieu, LAcadémie française focuses on the French language, in certain instances, the values of 17th-century nobility played a major part in the literature of the era. Most notable of these values are the aristocratic obsession with glory, the spectacle of power and luxury found in 17th-century literature may be distasteful or even offensive. The château of Versailles, court ballets, noble portraits, triumphal arches – all of these were representations of glory, the notion of glory was not vanity or boastfulness or hubris, but rather a moral imperative for the aristocracy. Nobles were required to be generous, magnanimous and to great deeds disinterestedly. Ones status in the world demanded appropriate externalisation, nobles indebted themselves to build prestigious urban mansions and to buy clothes, silverware and other furnishings befitting their rank.
They were required to show generosity by hosting sumptuous parties, social parvenus who took on the external trappings of the noble classes were severely criticised, sometimes by legal action
Order of the Aztec Eagle
The Order of the Aztec Eagle forms part of the Mexican Honours System and is the highest Mexican order awarded to foreigners in the country. It was created by decree on December 29,1933 by President Abelardo L. Rodríguez as a reward to the given to Mexico or humankind by foreigners. It corresponds to similar distinctions given to Mexican citizens such as the Condecoración Miguel Hidalgo or the Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor and it is given by the office of the foreign minister on the instructions of a Council established for this purpose headed by the President. There is some similarity of the order with the coat of arms of Mexico, particularly the golden eagle holding a rattlesnake. All grades except the collar may be awarded, under the Councils discretion, la Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca - Apuntes para su Historia