Maurice Rouvier was a French statesman of the "Opportunist" faction, who served as the Prime Minister of France. He is best known for his financial policies and his unpopular policies designed to avoid a rupture with Germany, he was born in Aix-en-Provence, spent his early career in business at Marseille. He supported Léon Gambetta's candidature there in 1867, in 1870 he founded an anti-imperial journal, L'Egalité, he belonged to the same masonic lodge as Gambetta, "La Réforme" in Marseille. Becoming secretary general of the prefecture of Bouches-du-Rhône in. 1870-71, he refused the office of prefect. In July 1871 he was returned to the National Assembly for Marseille at a by-election, voted with the Republican party, he became a recognized authority on finance, served on the Budget Commission as reporter or president. At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Jules Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, the imposition of an income-tax.
He joined Gambetta's cabinet as minister of commerce and the colonies, in the 1883-85 cabinet of Jules Ferry he held the same office. He became premier and minister of finance on 31 May 1887, with the support of the moderate republican groups, the Radicals holding aloof in support of General Boulanger, who began a violent agitation against the government. Came the scandal of the decorations in which President Grévy's son-in-law Daniel Wilson figured, the Rouvier cabinet fell in its attempt to screen the president. Rouvier's opposition in his capacity of president of the Budget Commission was one of the causes of the defeat of Charles Floquet's cabinet in February 1889. In the new Tirard ministry formed to combat the Boulangist agitation, he was minister of finance, he kept the same post in the Freycinet and Ribot cabinets of 1890-93. Accusations that he accepted bribes from Cornelius Herz and the baron de Reinach compelled his resignation from the Ribot cabinet during the Panama scandals in December 1892.
He became a successful banker and was known for his thorough familiarity with financial and budgetary issues. Again, in 1902, he became minister of finance, after nearly ten years in exclusion from office, in the Radical cabinet of Émile Combes. In this cabinet he at first held the ministry of finance. In his initial declaration to the chamber the new premier had declared his intention of continuing the policy of the late cabinet, pledging the new ministry to a policy of conciliation, to the consideration of old age pensions, an income-tax, separation of Church and State. Under a law passed in April 1905, for instance, a certain credit was earmarked in the French budget for the purpose of public subsidies for unemployment benefit funds. Public attention, was chiefly concentrated on foreign policy. During the Combes ministry Theophile Delcassé had come to a secret understanding with Spain on the Moroccan question, had established an understanding with Britain, his policy had aroused German jealousy, which became evident in the asperity with which the question of Morocco was handled in Berlin.
At a cabinet meeting on 5 June Rouvier reproached the Foreign Minister with imprudence over Morocco, after a heated discussion Delcassé resigned. Rouvier himself took the portfolio of foreign affairs at this crucial point. After critical negotiations, he secured on 8 July an agreement with Germany accepting the international conference proposed by the sultan of Morocco on the assurance that Germany would recognize the special nature of the interest of France in maintaining order on the frontier of her Algerian empire. Lengthy discussions resulted in a new convention in September, which contained the programme of the proposed conference, in December Rouvier was able to make a statement of the whole proceedings in the chamber, which received the assent of all parties. Rouvier's government did not long survive the presidential election of 1906. In 1905, the government introduced the law on the separation of Church and State supported by Emile Combes, enforcing the 1901 voluntary association law and the 1904 law on religious congregations' freedom of teaching.
On 10 February 1905, the Chamber declared that "the attitude of the Vatican" had rendered the separation of Church and State inevitable and the law of the separation of church and state was passed in December, 1905. The disturbances arising in connection with the Separation Law were skillfully handled by Georges Clemenceau to discredit the ministry, which gave place to a cabinet under the direction of Sarrien, he died in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Maurice Rouvier – President of the Council and Minister of Finance Émile Flourens – Minister of Foreign Affairs Théophile Adrien Ferron – Minister of War Armand Fallières – Minister of the Interior Charles Mazeau – Minister of Justice Édouard Barbey – Minister of Marine and Colonies Eugène Spuller – Minister of Public Instruction, Fine Arts, Worship François Barbé – Minister of Agriculture Severiano de Heredia – Minister of Public Works Lucien Dautresme – Minister of Commerce and IndustryChanges 30 November 1887 – Armand Fallières succeeds Mazeau as interim Minister of Justice, remaining Minister of the Interior.
Steven Stefan Fabrice Mouyokolo is a French footballer who last played for Celtic in 2014 as a centre back. He is a free agent. Mouyokolo was born in France to Congolese parents, he began his senior football career at Ligue 2 side LB Châteauroux. He made his way up to the first team in 2006, but never made a first team appearance for the club, in 2007 he joined fellow Ligue 2 side FC Gueugnon, he made 22 first team appearances for his new club, his impressive displays from central defence earned him a move to US Boulogne of Ligue 2. The defender made a bright start to the 2008–09 Ligue 2 season, helping his team to second in the table by December, his performances caught the attention of English Premier League teams Newcastle United, Wigan Athletic, Bolton Wanderers and Arsenal. However, it was Hull City who agreed a fee with Boulogne for the defender on 30 January 2009, but the transfer would not take place until the summer. Mouyokolo signed a four-year deal for his new club on 2 June 2009, after helping his former club to promotion to French Ligue 1 for the first time in their history.
He scored to earn a 1–1 draw against eventual champions Chelsea on 2 February 2010, but was part of the team that ended up relegated to The Championship. Mouyokolo remained in the English Premier League when he moved to Wolverhampton Wanderers on 18 June 2010 in a four-year deal for a fee, undisclosed but reported in the local media as being £2.5 million. His Wolves debut came in the League Cup tie with Notts County at Molineux on 21 September 2010, he struggled to make an impression in his first season, making only seven appearances in all competitions. With opportunities limited at Wolves, in June 2011 Mouyokolo was sent on loan to Ligue 1 side Sochaux, with the option to buy the player at the end of the loan. Wolves manager Mick McCarthy said at the time: "We saw huge potential in Steven but he has had injury problems that have limited his opportunities." However, Mouyokolo only managed four appearances for Sochaux in a season marred by injury, including a ruptured cruciate ligament suffered in February 2012, before he returned to Wolves at the end of the season.
On 30 January 2013 his contract at Wolves was terminated by mutual consent, making him a free agent after just seven appearances for the club. Mouyokolo says. On 16 July 2013, Mouyokolo signed for Scottish Premier League champions Celtic, after impressing on trial in a series of pre-season games. Mouyokolo says, he made his Celtic debut in a 2–0 win against Aberdeen. Mouyokolo went on to make his European debut for the club only three days against Shakhtar Karagandy in the first leg of the UEFA Champions League play off round. Soon his career at Celtic wasn't as he planned when he sustained Achilles tendon after picking up the injury in training. After a six-month out, Mouyokolo returns to first team action, coming on as a late substitute, in a 2–0 victory against Dundee United on 5 April 2014. After an injury stricken season with Celtic, Mouyokolo left the club during the summer transfer window after his one-year contract expired. Steven Mouyokolo at Soccerbase Profile on l'Equipe
Barbara Mary Steyning Everard was a botanical illustrator whose work encompassed books, private commissions, botanical publications, gardening magazines, greetings cards and commemorative plates. Barbara Beard was born the eldest daughter of three to Charles and Rosalie Beard at Telscombe Manor, Near Brighton, Sussex on 27 July 1910. In 1936 Barbara obtained work at a fake antique business in Deans Yard in Soho, owned by Ernest and Walter Thornton-Smith. Here, while others copied Canalettos and minute Chinese mirror paintings, she learned the art of making fake Chinese wallpapers. Paid 30 shillings a week as a beginner, she soon rose to a senior position, being commissioned to work at Fortnum and Masons to do murals, decorate teatables and a curtain for the new Dominion Theatre in Tottenham Court Road, touch up furniture and gilding in the homes of the wealthy; the training she received, together with night classes at Ealing School of Art, contributed to her botanical watercolour work in life.
During the Great Depression work dried up. In 1938 while working as a lady's companion to Lady Davis at Chilham Castle, Barbara married in secret to Raymond Wallace Everard. Shortly after their wedding her husband was appointed to an assistant-manager's job in Singapore part of Malaya. However, he had not told his employers he was married so Barbara was forced to stay in England, only joining him when the pressure of separation grew too much. With the outbreak of war in Europe, the couple felt. A son, was born on 7 July 1940. In February 1942, Singapore fell to the Japanese and Raymond, having joined the Malacca Volunteer Force, was taken prisoner. Barbara and Martin escaped on the last boat, the SS Duchess of Bedford to evade the Japanese and returned safely to England. Raymond survived three and a half years of being a prisoner of war, being forced to work on the Burma Railway and the infamous Bridge on the River Kwai. After a short repatriation to England to recuperate he returned to Malaya to help open up rubber plantations for Dunlop.
Barbara and Martin sailed on the RMS Mauretania to join him in 1946. While living on the rubber estates around Malacca, Barbara began collecting and painting tropical plants and orchids. Estate bungalows were large, ill-decorated and with bare walls, so inspired by a friend she started painting large watercolour still lifes to fill the empty spaces, she began to exhibit at flower shows in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, expanding her collection of living plants and her portfolio. Barbara returned to England with her husband in 1952, Martin having been sent to boarding school three years earlier. On her return she exhibited a collection of studies of Malayan orchids at the Royal Horticulture Hall in Vincent Square and was awarded the first Grenfell Gold Medal. At Royal Horticultural Society exhibitions she would be awarded many more. For the next thirty years Barbara Everard embarked on a career as a commercial botanical artist, completing many private commissions of floral paintings together with illustrations on a number of coffee table books, botanical publications, gardening magazines, greetings cards and commemorative plates.
One of these commissions was for Mr John Gurney at the Medici Society to paint the studies of wild flowers of Britain, a task that took ten years and resulted in around 950 plates being completed. This work, designed to be a companion to the Bentham & Hooker's Field Guide, has never been published, she added to the family with the birth of a second son, Anthony, in 1963. In 1975, with a Winston Churchill Travelling Fellowship, Barbara travelled back to Malaysia to create botanical paintings of endangered plant species, including the Rafflesia on Mt Kinabalu, on completion of the project, was made a Lifetime Member of the Trust. By the time of her death on 17 June 1990, Barbara had become one of the world's leading botanical artists. A number of paintings and drawings have been donated to various botanical societies including some 250 plates and sketches given to the Library and Archive at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; the centenary of her birth was celebrated with an exhibition of some of her work dating from the 1950s to the 1980s at the RHS Botanic Art exhibition in March 2011, together with the publication of her autobiography, Call Them the Happy Years.
Wild Flowers of the World by Brian D Morley and published by Rainbird Trees and Bushes of Europe and Flowers of Europe - a Field Guide by Oleg Polunin, both published by Oxford University Press Flowers of the Mediterranean by Oleg Polunin and Anthony Huxley, published by Chatto and Windus. Call Them the Happy Years by Barbara Everard and edited by Martin Everard, pub. FastPrint, 2011 ISBN 978-1-84426-987-7 Virtual gallery of selected work