House of Commons
The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada and was the name of the lower houses of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Southern Ireland. Equivalent bodies in other countries which were once part of the British Empire include the United States House of Representatives, the Australian House of Representatives, the New Zealand House of Representatives, India's Lok Sabha. In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the respective upper house of parliament; the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons becomes the prime minister. Since 2010 the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has had 650 elected members, since 2015 the House of Commons of Canada has had 338 members; the Commons' functions are to consider through debate new laws and changes to existing ones, authorise taxes, provide scrutiny of the policy and expenditure of the Government.
It has the power to give a Government a vote of no confidence. The House of Commons of the Kingdom of England evolved from an undivided parliament to serve as the voice of the tax-paying subjects of the counties and of the boroughs. Knights of the shire, elected from each county, were landowners, while the borough members were from the merchant classes; these members represented subjects of the Crown who were not Lords Temporal or Spiritual, who themselves sat in the House of Lords. The House of Commons gained its name. Members of the Commons were all elected, while members of the upper house were summoned to parliament by the monarch on the basis of a title which would be inherited after the holder's death, or because they held a position in the realm that warranted special recognition, such as the bishops of the English and Welsh dioceses. After the Reformation, these bishops were those of the Church of England. Since the 19th century, the British and Canadian Houses of Commons have become representative, as suffrage has been extended.
Both bodies are now elected via universal adult suffrage. However, from the Middle Ages until the early 20th century there was a tendency to limit the suffrage in various ways, creating by the 18th century a large number of rotten boroughs. In all countries, the House of Commons now as in the past may be prorogued for an election or some other purpose only by the Crown, represented outside the United Kingdom by the Governor General of each Commonwealth realm; the House of Commons of England sat from 1295 to 1706 The House of Commons of Great Britain 1707 to 1801 The House of Commons of the United Kingdom since 1801 House of Commons of Ireland 1297 to 1801 House of Commons of Southern Ireland 1921 to 1922 House of Commons of Northern Ireland 1921 to 1972 The House of Commons of Canada on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario since 1867 The lower house of the General Assembly of North Carolina was known as the House of Commons between 1760 and 1868. The House of Commons was the lower house of the 8-month Second Republic of South Korea House of Lords Lower House House of Assembly Legislative Assembly National Assembly Lok Sabha House of Representatives
The Northwest Passage is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The eastern route along the Arctic coasts of Norway and Siberia is accordingly called the Northeast Passage; the various islands of the archipelago are separated from one another and from the Canadian mainland by a series of Arctic waterways collectively known as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages. For centuries, European explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible trade route to Asia. An ice-bound northern route was discovered in 1850 by the Irish explorer Robert McClure; until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year. Arctic sea ice decline has rendered the waterways more navigable for ice navigation; the contested sovereignty claims over the waters may complicate future shipping through the region: the Canadian government maintains that the Northwestern Passages are part of Canadian Internal Waters, but the United States and various European countries claim that they are an international strait and transit passage, allowing free and unencumbered passage.
If, as has been claimed, parts of the eastern end of the Passage are 15 metres deep, the route's viability as a Euro-Asian shipping route is reduced. A Chinese shipping line is planning regular voyages of cargo ships using the passage to the eastern United States and Europe, after a successful passage by Nordic Orion of 73,500 tonnes deadweight tonnage in September 2013. Loaded, Nordic Orion sat too deep in the water to sail through the Panama Canal. Before the Little Ice Age, Norwegian Vikings sailed as far north and west as Ellesmere Island, Skraeling Island and Ruin Island for hunting expeditions and trading with the Inuit and people of the Dorset culture who inhabited the region. Between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Europe dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America; the Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. England called the hypothetical northern route the "Northwest Passage".
The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. There was a lack of scientific knowledge about conditions. Explorers thought; the belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries and led to numerous expeditions into the Arctic. Many ended in disaster, including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850. In 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first completed a passage from Greenland to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, several fortified ships have made the journey. From east to west, the direction of most early exploration attempts, expeditions entered the passage from the Atlantic Ocean via the Davis Strait and through Baffin Bay. Five to seven routes have been taken through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, via the McClure Strait, Dease Strait, the Prince of Wales Strait, but not all of them are suitable for larger ships.
From there ships passed through waterways through the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait, into the Pacific Ocean. In the 21st century, major changes to the ice pack due to climate change have stirred speculation that the passage may become clear enough of ice to permit safe commercial shipping for at least part of the year. On August 21, 2007, the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute, this was the first time the Passage has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972; the Northwest Passage opened again on August 25, 2008. It is reported in mainstream medias that ocean thawing will open up the Northwest Passage for various kind of ships, making it possible to sail around the Arctic ice cap. and cutting thousands of miles off shipping routes. Warning that the NASA satellite images indicated the Arctic may have entered a "death spiral" caused by climate change, Professor Mark Serreze, a sea ice specialist at the U.
S. National Snow and Ice Data Center said: "The passages are open. It's a historic event. We are going to see this more and more as the years go by."On the other hand, some thick sections of ice will remain hard to melt in the shorter term. Such drifting and large chunks of ice in springtime, can be problematic as they can clog entire straits or damage a ship's hull. Cargo routes may therefore be slower and uncertain, depending on prevailing conditions and the ability to predict them; because a plurality of containerized traffic operates in a just-in-time mode and the relative isolation of the passage, the Northwest
Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG, known as Lord Burghley from 1598 to 1605, was an English politician and soldier. Thomas Cecil was the elder son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, by his first wife, Mary Cheke, daughter of Peter Cheke of Cambridge, Esquire Bedell of the University from 1509 until his death in 1529, he was the half-brother of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, Anne Cecil, Elizabeth Cecil. It has been said that William Cecil considered Thomas to be, "hardly fit to govern a tennis court"; this quotation is both unfair. Whilst Thomas's career may have been overshadowed by those of his illustrious father and half-brother, he was a fine soldier and a useful politician and had a good deal of influence on the building, not only of Burghley itself, but two other important houses: Wothorpe Towers and Wimbledon Palace. Cecil was educated and at Trinity College, where he matriculated in 1558, being admitted to Gray's Inn in the same year. In 1561–62 he was sent with a guardian to Europe to improve himself, at first to Paris, where he applied himself more to social pleasures than to his studies.
He was removed from this environment first to Antwerp and to Germany, might have proceeded to Italy but for the death of his stepbrother William, which led to his being recalled to England. He served in government under Queen Elizabeth I of England, sitting in the House of Commons first for Stamford, Lincolnshire, in the parliaments of 1563, 1571 and 1572, he was knighted in 1575 and appointed High Sheriff of Northamptonshire for 1578. He accompanied Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester to the Dutch Republic, where he was distinguished for his bravery. In 1584 and 1586 he was Member of Parliament for Lincolnshire, in 1585 was appointed governor of Brielle – an English Cautionary Town, he did not have good relations with Dudley, but he was loyal to Sir John Norreys. In 1588, Cecil completed the building of Wimbledon Palace in Wimbledon Park, London, a leading example of the Elizabethan prodigy house, he returned again to the Commons as member for Northamptonshire in 1592 and 1597. His father's death in 1598, brought him a seat in the House of Lords, the 2nd Lord Burghley, as he was, served from 1599 to 1603 as Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire and Lord President of the Council of the North.
It was during this period, that Queen Elizabeth I made him a Knight of the Garter in 1601. During the early reign of King James I of England, he was created Earl of Exeter on 4 May 1605, the same day his younger half-brother, Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cranborne, was created 1st Earl of Salisbury. Unlike his brother, however, he did not become a government minister under King James's rule, he attempted to build up a family alliance with one of King James's leading ministers, Sir Thomas Lake, by marrying his grandson, William Cecil, 16th Baron de Ros, to Lake's daughter, Anne Lake, in 1615, but the marriage collapsed amidst a welter of allegations and counter-allegations of adultery and incest. The ensuing scandal fascinated the Court and dragged on for years, until in 1621, the Star Chamber found that Anne, her mother, other members of the Lake family, had fabricated all of the original allegations; the Cecil family fostered arts. The latter, in his youth, was in the service of Thomas Cecil.
Thomas Cecil married, Dorothy Neville, the daughter of John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer and Lady Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester. By his first wife, Thomas Cecil had ten children who survived to adulthood: William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter. Lady Lucy Cecil, who married William Paulet, 4th Marquess of Winchester. Lady Mildred Cecil, who married firstly, Sir Thomas Reade, married secondly, Sir Edmund Trafford. Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley. Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon. Lady Mary Cecil, who married Edward Denny, 1st Earl of Norwich. Lady Dorothy Cecil, who married Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, their daughter, Mary Alington, married Sir Thomas Hatton. Lady Elizabeth Cecil, who married, Sir William Newport alias Hatton, secondly, Sir Edward Coke of Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire. Thomas Cecil, esquire. Lady Frances Cecil, who married Nicholas Tufton, 1st Earl of Thanet; the Earl of Exeter was buried in Westminster Abbey, London. Wimbledon Palace - The house Sir Thomas Cecil built Foster, Joseph.
The Royal Lineage of Our Noble and Gentle Families. London: Hazell and Viney. P. 93. Retrieved 22 March 2013
Barsham is a village and civil parish in the Waveney district of the English county of Suffolk. It is about 2 miles west of Beccles south of the River Waveney on the edge of the Broads, it is dispersed along the B1062 Beccles to Bungay road, 1 mile north-west of Ringsfield. Barsham Holy Trinity is one of 38 existing round-tower churches in Suffolk and a Grade I listed building. Horatio Nelson's mother Catherine Suckling was born in the former rectory on 9 May 1725, she was important to him, despite her death when he was just nine years old — "the thought of former days brings all my mother to my heart, which shows itself in my eyes," he recorded. The house is near the main road, close to the church, which has a stained glass window commemorating the Battle of Trafalgar. Website with photos of Barsham Holy Trinity, a round-tower church Barsham in the Domesday Book
Robert Monckton was an officer of the British Army and a colonial administrator in British North America. He had a distinguished military and political career, being second in command to General Wolfe at the battle of Quebec and being named the Governor of the Province of New York. Monckton is remembered for his role in a number of other important events in the French and Indian War, most notably the capture of Fort Beausejour in Acadia, the island of Martinique in the West Indies, as well as for his role in the deportation of the Acadians from British controlled Nova Scotia and from French-controlled Acadia; the city of Moncton, New Brunswick, Fort Monckton in Port Elgin, New Brunswick, are named for him. He sat in the British House of Commons between 1774 and 1782. Although never married, he raised and was survived by three sons and a daughter. Robert Monckton was the second son of Elizabeth Manners and John Monckton and, like many second sons of British aristocrats, he entered military service.
He received a commission in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards. He saw action in the War of the Austrian Succession staying on in Flanders after the bulk of the British Army had been recalled in 1745 to deal with the Jacobite Rebellion, he rose through the ranks becoming lieutenant colonel in charge of the 47th Foot in early 1752. Monckton's father died that year and he subsequently inherited the family controlled seat of Pontefract in Parliament, he resigned his parliamentary seat however within less than a year, after receiving a military posting in Nova Scotia as commander of Fort Lawrence, located on the frontier with Acadia, facing Fort Beausejour across the Missaguash River. Monckton stayed in this posting for less than a year; the frontier between Nova Scotia and Acadia was calm during this time. Monckton and the French commander of Fort Beausejour exchanged notes and runaway horses during this time but intelligence was gathered that would prove valuable to him during subsequent events. Monckton was called to Halifax in 1753 to preside over a court martial but was asked to stay on as a member of the colonial council.
In 1753, Monckton deftly handled a minor uprising by German settlers near Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Monckton investigated and found the source of the conflict between the German settlers and the colonial authorities to be a simple misunderstanding, advocated forgiveness for the rebellious settlers. Monckton's superior, Lieutenant Governor Charles Lawrence however was less inclined to forgiveness, warning Monckton "....tho the merciful part is always the most agreable in disturbances of this nature, yet it is the most effectual.” This conflict between Monckton's decency and humanity and Lawrence's intransigence and cruelty would be revisited on subsequent occasions. In the winter of 1754, Governor Charles Lawrence of Nova Scotia and Massachusetts Governor William Shirley, under a general British directive, made plans to deal with French "encroachments" on the frontier of the British North American colonies; this process led to the beginning of the final French and Indian War and the onset of the Seven Years' War in North America.
One of the first actions of this war was to be at Fort Beausejour and Robert Monckton, with his intimate knowledge of the terrain and the local fortifications, was invited to spend the winter in Boston to assist in the planning process. See main article at Battle of Fort Beauséjour In June 1755, commanding a fleet of 31 transports and three warships carrying 270 British regular troops and 2,000 New England militia, entered Cumberland Basin; the ships dropped anchor at the mouth of the Missaguash River and the British forces were able to land unopposed. Using Fort Lawrence as a staging area, Monckton surrounded Fort Beausejour and began a careful advancement on the fort from the north by moving along the top of Aulac Ridge. A two-week siege ensued. During this time sappers were used to dig zig-zag offensive trenches until they were close enough to the fort to allow for bombardment by 13-inch mortars; the French commander of the fort, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor, being outnumbered more than four to one, realised that his position was untenable.
Morale in the fort deteriorated once word was received that reinforcements would not be arriving from Fortress Louisbourg. Desertions within the Acadian irregular ranks became a major problem. After one of the British mortar rounds hit the officers mess killing several French soldiers, Vergor decided to capitulate; the British forces occupied the fort and renamed it Fort Cumberland. Following the capitulation, Monckton treated the defeated French generously and offered the garrison passage to Fortress Louisbourg, he pardoned the Acadian irregulars. The French commander of Fort Gaspareaux, on the opposite side of the Isthmus of Chignecto, was offered the same terms on the following day, thus securing the frontier of Nova Scotia. Fort Gaspareaux was subsequently renamed Fort Monckton. Following the capture of Fort Beausejour, Governor Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council decided that the presence of Acadian irregulars helping in the defence of the fort constituted a "violation" of Acadian neutrality.
This of course ignored the fact that the vast majority of the Acadians in the fort were from French controlled Acadia a
An ordinary seaman is a naval rating of the deck department of a ship. The position is an apprenticeship to become an able seaman, has been for centuries. In modern times, an OS is required to work on a ship for a specific amount of time, gaining what is referred to as "sea time". For centuries, the term ordinary seaman was used to refer to a seaman with between one and two years' experience at sea, who showed enough seamanship to be so rated by their captain. An OS is not required to stand watch, but must pass examinations on watchstanding skills such as performing lookout duty and being a helmsman, thus an OS will be found on a ship's bridge after working hours taking a turn at the ship's wheel or being familiarized with bridge equipment. During the apprenticeship, an OS performs a variety of duties concerned with the operation and upkeep of deck department areas and equipment; these duties vary with the type of ship, the type of voyage, the number of crewmembers, the weather, the supervisor, any number of other variables.
However, in most cases, one can expect an ordinary seaman to clean, to perform maintenance, to work with deck equipment, to undergo on-the-job-training under the supervision of senior deck department members. As an ordinary seaman, one's duties may include the following: On specialized vessels, an OS may have unique duties. For example, on research vessels, an OS may rig and operate hydrographic and other specialty winches; the next step on the career ladder for the ordinary seaman is to become an able seaman. This advancement is based on a number of factors laid out in the Code of Federal Regulations; the Code of Federal Regulations establishes in 46 CFR 12.05 four categories of able seaman for the United States Merchant Marine: Able Seaman—Any Waters, Unlimited. Requires three years service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans or the Great Lakes. Able Seaman—Limited. Requires 18 months service on deck in vessels of 100 gross tons or more which operate in a service not confined to the rivers and smaller inland lakes of the United States.
Able Seaman—Special. Requires 12 months service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans, or the navigable waters of the United States including the Great Lakes. Able Seaman—Special. Requires six months service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans, or the navigable waters of the United States including the Great Lakes. Time served in certain training programs and school ships may be substituted for the time of service listed above. Special certificates of service are available for Great Lakes -- 18 months service. For the United States Merchant Marine, the Code of Federal Regulations establishes in 46 CFR 12.05 examination requirements for the certification of able seamen, which includes: Competence as a lifeboatman, including showing:training in all the operations connected with the launching of lifeboats and life-rafts, in the use of oars. An examination, conducted only in English, consisting of questions regarding:lifeboats and life-rafts, the names of their essential parts, a description of the required equipment.
In the actual demonstration, the applicant shall show ability by taking command of a boat and directing the operation of clearing away, swinging out, lowering the boat into the water, acting as coxswain in charge of the boat under oars. The AB shall demonstrate ability to row by pulling an oar in the boat; the applicant shall demonstrate knowledge of the principal knots, bends and hitches in common use by tying them. The applicant must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, knowledge of pollution laws and regulations, procedures for discharge containment and cleanup, methods for disposal of sludge and waste material from cargo and fueling operations. Seafarer's professions and ranks Able Seaman STCW Merchant Mariner's Document International Labour Organization. "Seaman, Merchant Marine". International Hazard Datasheets on Occupation. Retrieved 2007-05-26
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, known between 1725 and 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman, regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Although the exact dates of Walpole's dominance, dubbed the "Robinocracy", are a matter of scholarly debate, the period 1721–1742 is used, he dominated the Walpole–Townshend ministry and the subsequent Walpole ministry and holds the record as the longest-serving British prime minister in history. Speck says that Walpole's uninterrupted run of 20 years as Prime Minister "is rightly regarded as one of the major feats of British political history... Explanations are offered in terms of his expert handling of the political system after 1720, his unique blending of the surviving powers of the crown with the increasing influence of the Commons", he was a Whig from the gentry class, first elected to Parliament in 1701 and held many senior positions. He looked to country gentlemen for his political base. Historian Frank O'Gorman says his leadership in Parliament reflected his "reasonable and persuasive oratory, his ability to move both the emotions as well as the minds of men, above all, his extraordinary self-confidence".
Hoppit says Walpole's policies sought moderation: he worked for peace, lower taxes and growing exports and allowed a little more tolerance for Protestant Dissenters. He avoided controversy and high-intensity disputes as his middle way attracted moderates from both the Whig and Tory camps. H. P. Dickinson sums up his historical role by saying that "Walpole was one of the greatest politicians in British history, he played a significant role in sustaining the Whig party, safeguarding the Hanoverian succession, defending the principles of the Glorious Revolution He established a stable political supremacy for the Whig party and taught succeeding ministers how best to establish an effective working relationship between Crown and Parliament". Walpole was born in Houghton, Norfolk in 1676. One of 19 children, he was the third son and fifth child of Robert Walpole, a member of the local gentry and a Whig politician who represented the borough of Castle Rising in the House of Commons, his wife Mary Walpole, the daughter and heiress of Sir Geoffrey Burwell of Rougham, Suffolk.
Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole was his younger brother. As a child, Walpole attended a private school at Norfolk. Walpole entered Eton College in 1690 where he was considered "an excellent scholar", he matriculated at King's College, Cambridge on the same day. On 25 May 1698, he left Cambridge after the death of his only remaining elder brother, Edward, so that he could help his father administer the family estate to which he had become the heir. Walpole had planned to become a clergyman but as he was now the eldest surviving son in the family, he abandoned the idea. In November 1700 his father died, Robert succeeded to inherit the Walpole estate. A paper in his father's handwriting, dated 9 June 1700, shows the family estate in Norfolk and Suffolk to have been nine manors in Norfolk and one in Suffolk; as a young man, Walpole had bought shares in the South Sea Company, which monopolized trade with Spain, the Caribbean and South America. The speculative market for slaves and mahogany spawned a frenzy that had ramifications throughout Europe when it collapsed.
However, Walpole had bought at the bottom and sold at the top, adding to his inherited wealth and allowing him to create Houghton Hall as seen today. Walpole's political career began in January 1701 when he won a seat in the general election at Castle Rising, he left Castle Rising in 1702 so that he could represent the neighbouring borough of King's Lynn, a pocket borough that would re-elect him for the remainder of his political career. Voters and politicians nicknamed him "Robin". Like his father, Robert Walpole was a member of the Whig Party. In 1705, Walpole was appointed by Queen Anne to be a member of the council for her husband, Prince George of Denmark, Lord High Admiral. After having been singled out in a struggle between the Whigs and the government, Walpole became the intermediary for reconciling the government to the Whig leaders, his abilities were recognised by Lord Godolphin and he was subsequently appointed to the position of Secretary at War in 1708. Despite his personal clout, Walpole could not stop Lord Godolphin and the Whigs from pressing for the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell, a minister who preached anti-Whig sermons.
The trial was unpopular with much of the country, causing the Sacheverell riots, was followed by the downfall of the Duke of Marlborough and the Whig Party in the general election of 1710. The new ministry, under the leadership of the Tory Robert Harley, removed Walpole from his office of Secretary at War but he remained Treasurer of the Navy until 2 January 1711. Harley had first attempted to entice him and threatened him to join the Tories, but Walpole rejected the offers, instead becoming one of the most outspoken members of the Whig Opposition, he defended Lord Godolphin against Tory attacks in parliamentary debate, as well as in the press. In 1712, Walpole was accused of venality and corruption in the matter of two forage contracts for Scotland. Although it was proven that he had retained none of the money, Walpole was pronounced "guilty of a high breach of trust and notorious corruption", he was found guilty by the House of Lords. While in the T