Sydney Francis Barnes was an English professional cricketer, regarded as one of the greatest bowlers. He was right-handed and bowled at a pace that varied from medium to fast-medium with the ability to make the ball both swing and break from off or leg. In Test cricket, Barnes played for England in 27 matches from 1901 to 1914, taking 189 wickets at 16.43, one of the lowest Test bowling averages achieved. In 1911–12, he helped England to win the Ashes when he took 34 wickets in the series against Australia. In 1913–14, his final Test series, he took a world series record 49 wickets against South Africa. Barnes was unusual in that, despite a long career as a top-class player, he spent little more than two seasons in first-class cricket representing Warwickshire and Lancashire. Instead, he preferred league and minor counties cricket for professional reasons, he had two phases playing for his native Staffordshire in the Minor Counties Championship from 1904 to 1914 and from 1924 to 1935. He played for Saltaire Cricket Club in the Bradford League from 1915 to 1923.
In his wider career from 1895 to 1934, he variously represented several clubs in each of the Bradford, Central Lancashire and North Staffordshire leagues. Barnes was born on 19 April 1873 at Staffordshire, he was the second son of five children whose father, lived nearly all of his life in Staffordshire, working for 63 years at the Muntz Metal Company, based at Selly Oak in Birmingham. His father did not play much cricket and Barnes was the only one of three brothers who "touched a bat or ball". Barnes married Alice Maud Taylor in 1903 and they had one child, a son called Leslie who took the photos for Wilfrid S. White's biography of Barnes. Barnes was Alice's second husband, following her divorce from George Taylor. Outside cricket, Barnes worked as a clerk in a Staffordshire colliery until 1914, at Staffordshire County Council where he became skilful in calligraphy. Into his nineties, his skill as an inscriber of legal documents was still in demand. In 1957, he was asked to present a handwritten scroll to Elizabeth II to commemorate her visit to Stafford.
Barnes' career began in 1888 when he was fifteen and played for a small club which had a ground behind the Galton Hotel in Smethwick. Soon afterwards, he played for its third team, he was taught to bowl off spin by Billy Bird, the Smethwick professional who had played for Warwickshire, taught himself to bowl leg spin. In due course, he was selected for the second team and had earned a place in the first team, playing in the Birmingham and District Premier League, at the start of the 1893 season. In 1894, when Barnes was a 21-year-old fast bowler, he was asked to join the ground staff of Staffordshire County Cricket Club but he found the terms unattractive. Instead, he joined Rishton Cricket Club in the Lancashire League where the pay was better than in any form of county cricket because of match bonuses and collections, he played for Rishton until 1899. Wilfrid S. White commented that Barnes' career in league cricket "stands out unparalleled, unapproached, by any other player". In the 1894 season, Barnes was invited to play for Warwickshire, who were due to enter the County Championship in 1895.
His debut was in a minor match against Cheshire at Edgbaston on 20–21 August. Barnes bowled only 8 overs, taking none for 27, the match was drawn. On 23 August, Barnes made his first-class debut for Warwickshire against Gloucestershire at Clifton College Close Ground, except that he did not take the field as play was restricted by bad weather to just 72 overs of his team's first innings, in which they reached 102–2. Barnes played only three more times for Warwickshire: twice in May 1895 and once in June 1896, he took just three wickets in these matches, having conceded 226 runs. Barnes finished with Warwickshire after they invited him to play in a match and sent him a telegram telling him not to come because an amateur would be playing. So, he chose to play for Rishton from 1895 to 1899, making 38 appearances and taking 411 wickets, his best season being 1898 when he took 96 wickets at 8.46. Barnes had been a fast bowler with Warwickshire but in his time at Rishton he reduced his pace to medium fast and experimented with spin.
Barnes' association with Lancashire began in 1899 when he played for the club's Second XI against Staffordshire in a match at the County Ground, Stoke-on-Trent on 10 and 11 July. He took ten wickets in the match including a match-winning analysis of eight for 38 in the second innings. In August, he made his first-team debut for Lancashire and played in two County Championship matches against Sussex and Surrey but he had only moderate success with a best return of three for 99 against Surrey, he rejected an offer to join the Lancashire ground staff, preferring to remain in better-paid league cricket, which he could combine with full-time employment as a clerk in a Staffordshire colliery. In 1900, Barnes left Rishton and joined Burnley Cricket Club in the Lancashire League, he did not represent Lancashire that season but reappeared in 1901 when he made two Second XI appearances against Yorkshire's Second XI and one County Championship match, the last match of the season in late August against Leicestershire at Old Trafford.
This was a rain-interrupted draw but Barnes scored 32 runs and took six for 70 in the Leicestershire first innings, reducing them to an all-out 140 in response to Lancashire's total of 328–8 declared. Lancashire wanted Barnes to sign for them in 1902 but Barnes, always financially aware, was unsure as he considered first-class county cricket to be "a gre
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Harold Larwood was a professional cricketer for Nottinghamshire and England between 1924 and 1938. A right-arm fast bowler who combined unusual speed with great accuracy, he was considered by many commentators to be the finest bowler of his generation, he was the main exponent of the bowling style known as "bodyline", the use of which during the Marylebone Cricket Club tour of Australia in 1932–33 caused a furore that brought about a premature and acrimonious end to his international career. A coal miner's son who began working in the mines at the age of 14, Larwood was recommended to Nottinghamshire on the basis of his performances in club cricket, acquired a place among the country's leading bowlers, he made his Test debut in 1926, in only his second season in first-class cricket, was a member of the 1928–29 touring side that retained the Ashes in Australia. The advent of the Australian batsman Don Bradman ended a period of English cricket supremacy. Thereafter, under the guidance of England's combative captain Douglas Jardine, the fast leg theory or bodyline bowling attack was developed.
With Larwood as its spearhead the tactic was used with considerable success in the 1932–33 Test series in Australia. The Australians' description of the method as "unsportsmanlike" soured cricketing relations between the two countries, he never played for England after the 1932–33 tour, but continued his county career with considerable success for several more seasons. In 1949, after years out of the limelight, Larwood was elected to honorary membership of the MCC; the following year he and his family were encouraged by former opponent Jack Fingleton to emigrate and settle in Australia, where he was warmly welcomed, in contrast to the reception accorded him in his cricketing days. He worked for a soft drinks firm, as an occasional reporter and commentator on Tests against visiting England sides, he paid several visits to England, was honoured at his old county ground, Trent Bridge, where a stand was named after him. In 1993, at the age of 88, he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in belated recognition of his services to cricket.
He died two years later. Harold Larwood was born on 14 November 1904 in the Nottinghamshire village of Nuncargate, near the coal mining town of Kirkby-in-Ashfield, he was the fourth of five sons born to Robert Larwood, a miner, his wife Mary, née Sharman. Robert was a man of rigid principles, a disciplinarian teetotaller, treasurer of the local Methodist chapel, his chief pastime was playing cricket for the village team. Harold Larwood's biographer Duncan Hamilton writes that for Robert, cricket represented, "along with his dedication to God... the core of his life". From the age of five, Harold attended Kirkby Woodhouse school. Over the years this small village school produced, besides Larwood, four other international cricketers who became his contemporaries in the Nottinghamshire county side: William "Dodge" Whysall, Sam Staples, Bill Voce and Joe Hardstaff junior. On leaving the school in 1917, when he was 13, Harold was employed at the local miners' cooperative store, before beginning work the following year at Annesley Colliery in charge of a team of pit ponies.
He had shown an early talent for cricket, began to play for Nuncargate's second team in 1918. Playing against experienced adults, in his first season he took 76 wickets at an average of 4.9. By 1920 he was in the first team, alongside his father, playing in plimsolls because the family could not afford to buy him proper cricket boots. Despite his short stature, Larwood had acquired considerable stamina and upper body strength from his long shifts at the mine and could bowl at a disconcertingly fast speed. Among those who watched his rising prowess as a fast bowler was Joe Hardstaff senior, the Nottinghamshire and England cricketer who lived in Nuncargate. Hardstaff, who had worked with Robert Larwood at the mine, suggested to the youthful bowler that he should attend a trial at the county ground. In April 1923 father and son made the journey to Trent Bridge. In the practice nets, the county players towered over Larwood. At first he bowled badly, his efforts were unimpressive; as his confidence increased his bowling improved, committee members began to revise their initial dismissive judgement.
He accepted instantly. Robert Larwood was angry that his son had not asked for more generous terms, but according to Hamilton, Harold would have agreed to anything to escape from the mine for a single summer. In the 1923 season, under the eye of the county's coach, James Iremonger, Larwood concentrated on building his physique and on learning bowling skills, he grew a few inches in height, although he remained short for a fast bowler, under Iremonger's regime of diet and exercise he gained weight. Besides his physical development, he learned by incessant practice various bowling arts, among them accuracy in line and length, variation of pace and grip, deviating the ball in the air to produce swing; that year he played intermittently for the county's Second XI, in a match against Lancashire Seconds took 8 wickets for 44 runs. Larwood was first called for full county duty on 20 August 1
George Herbert Hirst was a professional English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1891 and 1921, with a further appearance in 1929. He played in 24 Test matches for England between 1909, touring Australia twice. One of the best all-rounders of his time, Hirst was a left arm medium-fast bowler and right-handed batsman, he completed the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in an English cricket season 14 times, the second most of any cricketer after his contemporary and team-mate Wilfred Rhodes. One of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year for 1901, Hirst scored 36,356 runs and took 2,742 wickets in first-class cricket. In Tests, he captured 59 wickets. Born in Kirkheaton, Hirst first achieved success for Yorkshire as a bowler. Over his first few seasons, his batting developed at the expense of his bowling until he was regarded as a specialist batsman. Around 1900, his bowling re-emerged when he discovered a method to make the ball swing in the air after he released it.
He was one of the first bowlers to control the swing of the ball. From 1903 he achieved 11 consecutive doubles, he set records in 1905, when he scored 341 runs in an innings against Leicestershire—still the highest total for Yorkshire as of 2015—and in 1906, when he completed an unprecedented and unrepeated double of 2,000 runs and 200 wickets. In many seasons, he battled injury which reduced his effectiveness, but his bowling remained successful until shortly before the First World War. Hirst played in all England's home Test series between 1899 and 1909, but his record for England was less impressive than his record for Yorkshire and he may have suffered from playing in Australia where playing conditions did not suit him. Hirst returned to play for Yorkshire after the war, but became a cricket coach at Eton College in 1920, where he remained until 1938. After making occasional appearances in 1920 and 1921, he retired from regular first-class cricket, he maintained his connections with Yorkshire for the rest of his life, coached young players and established an excellent reputation for developing players of all social backgrounds.
A popular player and personality with cricketers and spectators, Hirst died in 1954, aged 82. Hirst was born on 7 September 1871 in the Brown Cow Inn, Kirkheaton, a village close to Huddersfield, he was the last of 10 children born to his wife Sarah Maria Woolhouse. When his father died in 1880, Hirst lived with his sister Mary Elizabeth Woolhouse and her husband John Berry in Kirkheaton. After leaving school at 10 years of age, Hirst first worked for a hand-loom weaver in a local cottage, at a dyeing firm, he played rugby football as a full back during winter, cricket with his friends and brothers in summer. By the age of 15, Hirst was playing for the Kirkheaton cricket team and his batting and bowling performances won prizes from a local newspaper, his reputation grew. In the final, watched by players from Yorkshire County Cricket Club, he took five wickets for 23 runs. Days invited to take part along with another local player, he appeared for Yorkshire against Cheshire in a non-first-class match in Huddersfield.
He scored six runs in his only innings, took three wickets in the match. Hirst played only intermittently for Yorkshire over the next couple of seasons, but continued to develop as a cricketer, signing as a professional for Elland Cricket Club for the 1890 season before joining Mirfield in 1891. During that season, he made his first-class debut for Yorkshire against Somerset in the County Championship. For the 1892 season, Hirst joined Huddersfield. Yorkshire gave him a longer run in the first team. Early in the season, Hirst appeared for Yorkshire against the Marylebone Cricket Club. Not considered a good batsman at this stage, he batted at number 11 in the first innings, scored 20 and 43 not out and, as a bowler, took four wickets for 29 runs and two for 58, his bowling performance impressed Sydney Pardon, the editor of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. Yorkshire, needing to fill a vacant place in the team, played Hirst 13 times in first-class matches in 1892, he averaged 16.15 with the bat. With the ball, he took 30 wickets at an average of 20.56 with a best performance of six for 16 against Sussex.
Wisden noted that Hirst, until he tired in the season and was dropped from the team, "bowled up to a certain point with excellent results". Over the next few seasons, Hirst became a regular member of the Yorkshire side, but although his performances were good enough to keep him in the team, he had few outstanding successes. Wisden noted: "For some time after his first season Hirst's career was one of steady progress rather than of brilliant achievement." Hirst's batting remained undeveloped in 1893. He averaged only 15.04 with the bat. He took 99 wickets at an average of 14.39, placing him third in the Yorkshire averages for the season. In 1894, Hirst scored his maiden first-class century against Gloucestershire, hitting an unbeaten 115 out of a partnership of 176 for the ninth wicket. Although this was his only score over fifty, Wis
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
England cricket team
The England cricket team represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been governed by Marylebone Cricket Club from 1903 until the end of 1996. England, as a founding nation, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status; until the 1990s, Scottish and Irish players played for England as those countries were not yet ICC members in their own right. England and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first ODI on 5 January 1971. England's first T20I was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia; as of 12 March 2019, England has played 1010 Test matches, winning 365 and losing 300. The team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions. England has played 726 ODIs, winning 362, its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, in two ICC Champions Trophys.
England has played 108 T20Is, winning 53. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, were runners-up in 2016; as of 12 March 2019, England are ranked fifth in Tests, first in ODIs and third in T20Is by the ICC. Though the team and coaching staff faced heavy criticism after their Group Stage exit in the 2015 Cricket World Cup, it has since adopted a more aggressive and modern playing style in ODI cricket, under the leadership of captain Eoin Morgan and head coach Trevor Bayliss; the first recorded incidence of a team with a claim to represent England comes from 9 July 1739 when an "All-England" team, which consisted of 11 gentlemen from any part of England exclusive of Kent, played against "the Unconquerable County" of Kent and lost by a margin of "very few notches". Such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven; this team competed against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856.
These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players. The first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America; this team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861–62 with this first tour organised as a commercial venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond, restaurateurs of Melbourne. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were "against odds", with the opposing team fielding more than 11 players to make for a more contest; this first Australian tour were against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a second tour in 1863–64. James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876, they played a combined Australian XI, for once on terms of 11 a side.
The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match. The combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhite's XI v Combined Victoria and New South Wales; the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter, 1877, when Lillywhite's team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious. G. Grace included in the team. England lost their first home series 1–0 in 1882 with The Sporting Times printing an obituary on English cricket: In Affectionate Remembrance of ENGLISH CRICKET, which died at the Oval on 29th AUGUST 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing friends and acquaintances R. I. P. N. B. – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of this loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as "the quest to regain the ashes".
England with a mixture of amateurs and professionals won the series 2–1. Bligh was presented with an urn that contained some ashes, which have variously been said to be of a bail, ball or a woman's veil and so The Ashes was born. A fourth match was played which Australia won by 4 wickets but the match was not considered part of the Ashes series. England dominated many of these early contests with England winning the Ashes series 10 times between 1884 and 1898. During this period England played their first Test match against South Africa in 1889 at Port Elizabeth. England won the 1890 Ashes Series 2–0, with the third match of the series being the first Test match to be abandoned. England lost 2 -- 1 in the 1891 -- 92 series. England again won the 1894 -- 95 series. In 1895 -- 96 England played Test South Africa; the 1899 Ashes series was the first tour where the MCC and the counties appointed a selection committee. There were three active players: Lord Hawke, W. G. Grace and Herbert Bainbridge, the captain of Warwickshire.
Prior to this, England teams for home Tests had been chosen by the club on whose ground the match was to be played. England lost the 1899 Ashes series 1–0, with WG Grace making his final Test appearance in the first match of the series; the start of the
Percy George Herbert Fender was an English cricketer who played 13 Tests and was captain of Surrey between 1921 and 1931. An all-rounder, he was a middle-order batsman who bowled leg spin, completed the cricketer's double seven times. Noted as a belligerent batsman, in 1920 he hit the fastest recorded first-class century, reaching three figures in 35 minutes which remains a record in 2016. On the basis of his Surrey captaincy, contemporaries judged him the best captain in England; as early as 1914 Fender was named one of Wisden's Cricketers of the Year. After war service in the Royal Flying Corps he re-established himself in the Surrey team and became captain in 1921, his captaincy inspired the team to challenge for the County Championship over the course of several seasons, despite a shortage of effective bowlers. Alongside his forceful though sometimes controversial leadership, Fender was an effective performer with bat and ball, although he lacked support as a bowler. From 1921, he played in Tests for England but was never successful.
Despite press promptings, he was never appointed Test captain, following a clash with the influential Lord Harris in 1924, his England career was ended. Further disagreements between Fender and the Surrey committee over his approach and tactics led the county to replace him as captain in 1932 and to end his career in 1935. A recognisable figure, Fender was popular with his team and with supporters. Cartoonists enjoyed caricaturing his distinctive appearance, but he was well known outside cricket for his presence in society. In addition to his cricket career, Fender worked in the wine trade, had a successful career in journalism, wrote several well-received books on cricket tours, he worked well into the 1970s after going blind. He died in 1985. Fender was the elder son of Percy Robert Fender, the director of a firm of stationers, Lily, née Herbert. Born in Balham, Surrey, in 1892, he was encouraged to play cricket by his mother's family who were involved in Brighton club cricket, from the age of eight he attended cricket matches to watch Sussex when visiting them.
First educated at St George's College, Weybridge at St Paul's School, Fender did not excel academically, but was proficient in many sports. At St Paul's, Fender began to attract attention as a cricketer. Awarded his school colours in 1908, he remained in the school team for three years. In 1909, he topped the school's batting averages, scoring a century in one match against Bedford School. In the same game, he was criticised by his schoolmaster for bowling lobs. Fender's success led to his selection for a representing Public Schools XI against the Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's, his success for St Paul's continued in 1910, but his school career came to an abrupt end following an argument between his father and the High Master of the school. The dispute concerned a cricket match which Fender had played without parental permission, his father was unhappy that cricket was taking precedence over academic studies. Fender was removed from the school immediately. Despite his successes, St Paul's cricket masters did not consider him a reliable cricketer.
Fender's biographer, Richard Streeton, observes that "Fender's experiments were frowned upon from his earliest days but... there was never any shortage of ideas in his cricket thinking." While at school, Fender spent his summers with his grandparents in Brighton, which qualified him to play County Cricket for Sussex. When he left school in 1910, he attracted the interest of the club and, after success in both local cricket and second-team matches, he made his first-class debut on 21 July as an amateur in Sussex's County Championship match against Nottinghamshire, he played one other game that season, against Worcestershire, where he was shaken by the pace of two opposing bowlers. In the two games, Fender took one wicket. After the 1910 cricket season, Fender worked in a paper mill in Horwich, Lancashire, to experience paper manufacturing—his father's line of business—at first hand. While feeding paper into a machine, his left hand was injured. Three of his fingers were crushed at the tips. Fender remained in Horwich at the start of the 1911 cricket season and played several times for Manchester Cricket Club.
He was on the verge of selection for Lancashire. That season he played twice for Sussex, he followed this by taking five for 42 against Surrey. After these successes, Fender played for the remainder of the 1912 season. In total, he scored 606 runs at an average of 24.24, bowling medium pace, took 16 wickets at an average of 25.50. In 1913, Fender was a regular member of the Sussex county side. In the first two months of the season, he made a considerable impact, his reputation as an exciting, big-hitting batsman grew and he was chosen in the representative Gentlemen v Players matches at Lord's and The Oval. His performances for the Gentlemen, a team of amateurs, were unsuccessful, the failure affected his form for the rest of the season. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack commented that he was not worth his pla