Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is now part of the new region of Hauts-de-France and it is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched from north of Noyon to Calais, via the whole of the Somme department, the province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. From the 5th century the area was part of the Frankish Empire, and in the period it encompassed the six countships of Boulogne, Ponthieu, Amiénois, Vermandois. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region part of West Francia. The name Picardy was not used until the 12th or 13th century, during this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a Picard Nation of students at Sorbonne University, during the Hundred Years War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358.
From 1419 onwards, the Picardy counties were gradually acquired by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good, in 1477, King Louis XI of France led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy, in the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created. This became a new region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the half of the Aisne département. In 1557, Picardy was invaded by Habsburg forces under the command of Emmanuel Philibert, after a seventeen-day siege, St. Quentin would be ransacked, while Noyon would be burned by the Habsburg army. In the 17th century, a disease similar to English sweat originated from the region. It was called Suette des picards or Picardy sweat, the sugar industry has continued to play a prominent role in the economy of the region. One of the most significant historical events to occur in Picardy was the series of battles fought along the Somme during World War I.
From September 1914 to August 1918, four major battles, including the Battle of the Somme, were fought by British and German forces in the fields of Northern Picardy. In 2009, the Regional Committee for local government reform proposed to reduce the number of French regions, Picardy would have disappeared, and each department would have joined a nearby region. The Oise would have incorporated in the Île-de-France, the Somme would have been incorporated in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti. Bugatti cars were known for their beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 Royale, the Type 57 Atlantic and the Type 55 sports car. The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, no more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, in the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by German automobile manufacturing group Volkswagen, the company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettores family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and to Paris and he exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1, 368cc engine with four valves per cylinder.
Smallest of the three was a Type 13 with a body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase. The others were a Type 22 and a Type 23 with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm respectively, the company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing, in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice, Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race, the 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is probably the most successful racing car of all time, with over 2,000 wins. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon, Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S.
named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane and this would be the Bugatti 100P, which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his Type 7.5 lifting body, Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti. The death of Ettore Bugattis son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a point in the companys fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory, World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the worlds oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is one of the most prestigious races in the world and is often called the Grand Prix of Endurance. The event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, other events being the Indianapolis 500, since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship. In 2017, it will be the round of the season. The race has over the years inspired imitating races all over the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at places like Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, and Bathurst. The American Le Mans Series and Europes Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test. Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines and this encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible.
At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics, while this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability. The oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduced time spent during pit stops. Such technological innovations have had an effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop road cars in order to develop them into even faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have changed to their benefit.
The race is held in June, leading at times to very hot conditions for drivers, particularly in closed vehicles with poor ventilation, the race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors often cover distances well over 5,000 km, the record is 2010s 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or approximately 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding damage, as well as managing the cars consumables, primarily fuel, tires
Scuderia Serenissima and Scuderia SSS Republica di Venezia were names used by Giovanni Volpi to enter his own cars in Formula One and sports car racing in the early 1960s. Scuderia Serenissima was an auto racing team in the early 1960s. Funded by Giovanni Volpi, Serenissima used Ferraris to much success until the founder financed the exiled Ferrari company, Enzo Ferrari would no longer sell his cars to Serenissima, so the company turned to De Tomaso, ATS, and Maserati. Volpi, and thus Serenissima, halted operations in 1970. In 1961, Scuderia Serenissima entered the Formula One World Championship and they first entered a Cooper T51 for Maurice Trintignant at the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix, where he finished seventh. In Belgium, Trintignant retired on lap 23 with a gearbox after having qualified his car in 19th place. At the 1961 French Grand Prix, Scuderia Serenissima entered two cars, again the Cooper for Trintignant and a De Tomaso for Giorgio Scarlatti. Trintignant finished in 13th place while Scarlatti retired on lap 15 when his engine broke down, at the German Grand Prix Trintignant retired on lap 12 when his engine broke down.
In the 1961 Italian Grand Prix, Scuderia Serenissima again entered two cars, the Cooper for Trintignant and a De Tomaso for Nino Vaccarella, Trintignant finished the race in ninth place and Vaccarella retired on lap 13 when his engine broke down. In 1962, now called Scuderia SSS Republica di Venezia, they entered cars for Nino Vaccarella, in Monaco, Vaccarella failed to qualify for the race. Three races in Germany, Vaccarella finished in 15th place, at the last race for the Scuderia in Italy Vaccarella finished in 9th place. In 1966 Serenissima supplied engines to McLaren, and at the 1966 British Grand Prix Bruce McLaren finished in sixth place, scoring one World Championship point. In 1963, Volpi began developing his own prototype GT car and it used a new V8 engine, designed by Alberto Massimino, with closed bodywork by Francesco Salomone. A open version was built by Fantuzzi, history of the Serenissima Ghia Coupé
The BRM P57, was a Formula One racing car built to race in Formula One from 1962 to 1965. Like the other British teams, BRM were caught off-guard by new regulations for the 1961 Formula 1 season that limited engines to 1.5 litres. They had a new 1.5 liter V8 engine on the drawing board, the Coventry Climax 4-cylinder unit used by Cooper and Team Lotus was chosen as a stopgap solution. It was installed in the first BRM spaceframe chassis, based on the 1960 BRM P48 Mark II designed by Tony Rudd, the P48 Mark II had abandoned the single rear disc brake introduced by the P25 in favor of a more conventional 2 disc layout at the rear. At 450 kg, the new BRM P57 was heavier than its British rivals, the V8-powered version of the P57 was originally designated the P578, but both types have since been commonly referred to as the P57. The P578s design can be traced back to the Climax powered P57 raced in 1961, the cars chassis, a tubular spaceframe, and suspension remained unchanged. The underpowered Coventry Climax engine was replaced with BRMs own V8, new for BRM was a Lucas fuel injection system.
Although it produced about the power as the Climax, BRMs unit revved up to 11,000 rpm. Mounted to the back of the engine was Colottis new 6 speed gearbox, reliability problems forced BRM to revert to their own, older specification,5 speed unit. The original eight exhausts were mounted vertically, but they were prone to working loose and were replaced by a conventional horizontal layout. With Joakim Bonnier and Dan Gurney leaving to drive for the new Porsche team, the cars proved able to last for the Grand Prix distance, but they were not competitive. Points were not gained until the race of the season. BRM finished with only 7 points, good for fifth and last of the runners in the constructors championship. Graham Hill was retained for the seasons, but veteran Tony Brooks retired from Formula One. His replacement was Richie Ginther, a young American coming off a year with Ferrari. The season began with Hill taking a well-deserved first victory at the 1962 Dutch Grand Prix, the championship proved to be a season-long battle between Hill and Jim Clark, driving the revolutionary monocoque Lotus 25.
Clarks Lotus was the faster, but Hills BRM was the more reliable, Clark took 6 poles and 3 victories, but only finished in the points 4 times. Hills BRM remarkably finished every race and won 3 of the last 4 races of the season in Germany, Ginthers year proved disappointing, taking just two podiums and retiring 4 times
The Vaucluse is a department in the southeast of France, named after the famous spring, the Fontaine-de-Vaucluse. The name Vaucluse derives from the Latin Vallis Clausa as the valley ends in a cliff face from which emanates a spring whose origin is so far in. Vaucluse was created on 12 August 1793 out of parts of the departments of Bouches-du-Rhône, Drôme, the rural department was, like the nearby city of Lyon, a hotbed of the French Resistance in World War II. Vaucluse is bordered by the Rhône to the west and the River Durance to the south, mountains occupy a significant proportion of the eastern half of the department, with Mont Ventoux, known as the Giant of Provence, dominating the landscape. Other important mountain ranges include the Dentelles de Montmirail, the Monts de Vaucluse and vegetables are cultivated in great quantities in the lower-lying parts of the department, on one of the most fertile plains in southern France. The Vaucluse département has a large exclave within the Drôme department.
Vaucluse is known for its karst, including the karst spring Fontaine de Vaucluse after which Vauclusian Risings are named, important urban centres include Avignon, Carpentras and Apt
Languedoc-Roussillon is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Occitanie and it is the southernmost region of mainland France. The region is made up of the historical provinces,68. The former province of Languedoc extends over what is now the Midi-Pyrénées region,17. 9% of Languedoc-Roussillon was formerly the province of Gévaudan, now the department of Lozère. A small part of the former Gévaudan lies inside the current Auvergne region, Gévaudan is often considered to be a sub-province inside the province of Languedoc, in which case Languedoc would account for 86. 6% of Languedoc-Roussillon. These pays were part of the Ancien Régime province of Roussillon, owning its name to the largest and most populous of the five pays, llívia is a town of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Spain, that forms a Spanish exclave surrounded by French territory. At the regional elections in March 2004, the socialist mayor of Montpellier Georges Frêche, since then, Georges Frêche has embarked on a complete overhaul of the region and its institutions.
Georges Frêche wanted to change the name of the region, wishing to erase its duality, thus, he wanted to rename the region Septimanie. This name, has not been in use since the 9th century, strong opposition of the population led to Georges Frêche giving up on his idea. He declared that he believed in it but could not go ahead without a mandate. This idea has minimal popular support, on the other hand, there are some who would like to merge the Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées regions, thus reunifying the old province of Languedoc, and creating a large region. Prior to the 20th century, Occitan was the language spoken in Languedoc, both have been under pressure from French. In 2004, research conducted by the Government of Catalonia showed that 65% of adults over the age of 15 in Roussilon could understand Catalan whereas 37% stated they were able to speak it. In recent years there have been attempts at reviving of both languages, including Catalan-medium schooling through the La Bressola schools, Occitan literature — still sometimes called Provençal literature — is a body of texts written in Occitan in what is nowadays the South of France.
It originated in the poetry of the eleventh- and twelfth- century troubadours, aimeric de Peguilhan, Giraut de Bornelh and Bertran de Born were major influences in troubadour composition, in the High Middle Ages. The troubadour tradition is considered to have originated in the region, the Romantic music composer Déodat de Séverac was born in the region, following his schooling in Paris, returned to the region to compose. He sought to incorporate the music indigenous to the area in his compositions, grapevines are said to have existed in the South of France since the Pliocene period - before the existence of Homo sapiens. The first vineyards of Gaul developed around two towns, Béziers and Narbonne, several entrepreneurs such as Robert Skalli and James Herrick drastically changed the face of the region, planting more commercially viable grape varieties and pushing for new AOC classifications
This is a list of prototype vehicles created by Bugatti that never reached full production. The Type 36 racer, produced in 1925, introduced a new 1.5 L straight-8 engine, with a 60 by 66 mm bore and stroke, the engine found a place in the Type 39A, though the Type 36 project was more of an experiment. At first, the axle was bolted directly to the frame with no springs. In 1926, Bugatti added both springs and a supercharger to the Type 36 and this was the experimental base for the Type 35C. The 16-cylinder Type 45 racing car and similar Type 47 Grand Sport were to become a new generation of cars from Bugatti, the engine, a 3-valve SOHC design, was based on the 3-valve straight-8 from the Type 35. Two versions were made, A3.0 L version fitted to a Type 47 prototype shared the Type 36s 60 by 66 mm dimensions, output would have been 200 to 250 hp with a Roots-type supercharger in play. The entire vehicle was unique, including its chassis, the Type 45 used a 102.2 in wheelbase, while the Type 47 was stretched to 108.3 in.
Both had a 49.2 in track, the Type 56 was an electric vehicle like some of Ettore Bugattis earliest designs. The number built is controversial, six seems the most likely answer, the first 56 was used as Bugattis personal runabout at the Molsheim factory. The Type 56 was originally designed for use by Ettore Bugatti as a factory runabout. The Type 56 was a tiny 2-seat open car very much in the style of turn-of-the-century horseless carriages or voiturettes, power came from a single 28 amp electric motor producing 1 hp. Energy was stored in six 6 volt accumulators in series for a total of 36 volts, the motor was mounted directly to the frame and drove the rear wheels through gears. Electric braking was allowed, and both hand- and foot-brakes operated on rear wheel drums, four forward speeds were available, and the vehicle could accelerate to 28 km/h. Ettore Bugattis personal Type 56 is part of the collection at the Musée National de lAutomobile de Mulhouse, the Bugatti Type 64 was an Atlantic-style coupe produced in 1939 with gull-wing doors, designed by Jean Bugatti.
It was fitted with a 4.4 L 2-valve DOHC straight-8 engine, three cars were started, but only one body was finished, although the car was not completed. Begun in 1943 and completed in 1947 after the war, the Type 73C was to be a comeback for Bugatti, but the death of Ettore Bugatti in August of that year doomed the project. An engine-less Type 73 was shown at the 1947 Paris Motor Show two months later, although five 73C chassis had been constructed in Paris, Only one body was completed for these cars and at least three engines and one complete car were assembled and tested by the factory. Serge Pozzoli stated that he visited the Bugatti factory at Rue Debarcadere in Paris where he saw a car which was fitted with a scaled down body similar to the pre-war Type 50BIII
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars