Dirty Dancing is a 1987 American romantic drama dance film written by Eleanor Bergstein and directed by Emile Ardolino. It stars Jennifer Grey as Frances "Baby" Houseman, a young woman who falls in love with dance instructor Johnny Castle at her family's resort; the film was based on screenwriter Eleanor Bergstein's own childhood. She wrote a screenplay for the Michael Douglas film It's My Turn, but ended up conceiving a story for a film which became Dirty Dancing, she finished the script in 1985. The production company was changed to Vestron Pictures with Emile Ardolino as director and Linda Gottlieb as producer. Filming took place in Lake Lure, North Carolina, Mountain Lake, with the film's score composed by John Morris and dance choreography by Kenny Ortega. Dirty Dancing premiered at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival on May 12, 1987, was released on August 21, 1987, in the United States, earning over $214 million worldwide, it was the first film to sell more than a million copies for home video, its soundtrack created by Jimmy Ienner generating two multi-platinum albums and multiple singles, including " The Time of My Life", which won both the Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Original Song, a Grammy Award for best duet.
The film's popularity led to a 2004 prequel, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights, a stage version which has had sellout performances in Australia and North America. A made-for-TV remake was released in 2017. In the summer of 1963, 17-year-old Frances "Baby" Houseman is vacationing with her affluent family at Kellerman's, a resort in the Catskills, her father, being a friend to Max Kellerman, the resort proprietor. Exploring one night, Baby surreptitiously observes Max instructing the waiters, all Ivy League students, to romance the guests' daughters, no matter how unattractive, she sees Max's condescending attitude to the working class entertainment staff, including Johnny Castle, one of the resort's dance instructor. Baby is attracted to Johnny, dances with him when his cousin, takes her to one of the staff's secret dirty dancing parties. Baby discovers Johnny's dance partner, Penny, is pregnant by Robbie, a waiter at the resort who attends Yale medical school and who flirts with Baby's older sister, Lisa.
When Robbie refuses to help Penny, Baby borrows money from her father to pay for Penny's illegal abortion without revealing what the money is for. At first, Penny refuses an abortion as it would mean she and Johnny missing a performance at a neighboring resort, costing them the season's salary. Baby volunteers to stand in for Penny, during her dance sessions with Johnny, they develop a romantic attraction. Johnny and Baby's performance is successful except for Baby's failure to execute the climactic lift. Back at Kellerman's, Billy tells them Penny's abortion was botched and she is now gravely injured. Baby enlists her doctor father's help and he stabilizes Penny. Angry at Baby for her deception and believing Johnny to be the one who impregnated Penny, he refuses to shake Johnny's hand and orders his daughter never to see him again. Baby sneaks to Johnny’s room to apologize for her father’s behavior. Johnny feels he deserves the treatment because of his class, but Baby assures him of his worthiness and declares her feelings for him.
They fall into an intimate dance and have sex. Baby and Johnny continue seeing each other despite Baby hiding their relationship from her father, which hurts Johnny. Johnny declines to have sex with a promiscuous married guest, Vivian Pressman, who instead has sex with Robbie, foiling Lisa's plan to lose her virginity to him. Vivian catches Baby leaving Johnny's cabin one morning and attempts to get revenge by claiming Johnny stole her husband's wallet; when Max prepares to fire Johnny, Baby reveals their relationship to give Johnny an alibi. Johnny is instead fired for his relationship with Baby. Before leaving Kellerman's, Johnny attempts to apologize to Jake, but Jake accuses him of tossing Penny aside and moving on to his daughter. Baby apologizes for lying to her father, but not for her relationship with Johnny, she berates him for claiming compassion for the less fortunate but an elitist attitude when it comes to himself and his own family. At the end of the season talent show, Jake gives Robbie money for medical school, Robbie admits it was he who he got Penny pregnant, not Johnny and insults Penny and Baby.
Jake furiously snatches the money back. Johnny interrupts the final song by bringing Baby up on stage and declaring that she has made him a better person, they dance a version of the dance they'd practiced throughout the summer, ending with Baby performing the climactic lift. Jake admits he was wrong about he and Baby embrace; the staff and guests all join Baby and Johnny dancing to " The Time of My Life". Note: Actress Jane Brucker wrote the song "Hula Hana", which she performed in her role of Lisa in the show rehearsal scene. Dirty Dancing is based in large part on screenwriter Eleanor Bergstein's own childhood: she is the younger daughter of a Jewish doctor from New York and had spent summers with her family in the Catskills where she participated in "Dirty Dancing" competitions. In 1980, Bergstein wrote a screenplay for the Michael Douglas film, It's My Turn, however the producers cut an erotic dancing scene from the script, prompting her to conceive a new story that took inspiration from her youth dance competitions.
In 1984, she pitched the idea to MGM executive Eileen Miselle, who liked it and teamed Bergstein with producer Linda Gottlieb. They set the film in 1963, with the character
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na
Lancaster, South Carolina
The city of Lancaster is the county seat of Lancaster County, South Carolina, United States, located in the Charlotte Metropolitan Area. As of the United States Census of 2010, the city population was 9,134 but due to South Carolina's strict annexation laws its actual population is well over twenty thousand people; the city was named after the famous House of Lancaster. The Robert Barnwell Allison House, Craig House, Cureton House, Thomas Walker Huey House, Lancaster Cotton Oil Company, Lancaster County Courthouse, Lancaster County Jail, Lancaster Downtown Historic District, Lancaster Presbyterian Church, Mount Carmel A. M. E. Zion Campground, North Carolina-South Carolina Cornerstone, Perry-McIlwain-McDow House, Leroy Springs House, Wade-Beckham House, Waxhaw Presbyterian Church Cemetery are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lancaster is located at 34°43′16″N 80°46′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles, of which 5.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 10,160 people, 5,396 households, 3,115 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,406.2 people per square mile. There were 3,778 housing units at an average density of 649.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 49.49% African American, 47.54% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.15% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.25% of the population. There were 3,396 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,650, the median income for a family was $33,380. Males had a median income of $27,090 versus $22,382 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,828. About 18.0% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.2% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. Lancaster is home to the Lancaster County School District, SC which has around 11 elementary schools, 5 middle schools, 4 high schools. In 2008 South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford named Andrew Jackson Middle School, located in nearby Kershaw, as the recipient of the state's Best Special Education School Award; the city of Lancaster is home to the University of South Carolina at Lancaster known as USCL. Public Schools Located in Lancaster: Lancaster High School Andrew Jackson High School Andrew Jackson Middle School A.
R. Rucker Middle School Erwin Elementary School South Middle School North Elementary School McDonald Green Elementary School Brooklyn Springs Elementary School Clinton Elementary School Discovery Elementary School Southside Pre-SchoolPrivate Schools Carolina Christian AcademyUniversities: USC Lancaster Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States. J. Marion Sims, controversial founder of gynecology; the J. Marion Sims Foundation is located in Lancaster. Cathy Smith Bowers and professor. Julie Roberts, country music singer Aaron Robinson, was a professional Baseball Player with the Yankees and Detroit. Shawn Crawford, from nearby Van Wyck, won gold at the 2004 Summer Olympics and silver at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the 200 meters. Maurice Williams & the Zodiacs, singer Maurice Williams Tom Addison, former professional football player and team captain of the Boston Patriots 1960-1968 Sindarius Thornwell, basketball player. Jim Hodges, former Governor of South Carolina Angelica Cebanu, former singer,and beauty queen of South Carolina.
Official website Lancaster Police Department
Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record. In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation also by mechanical devices. Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
The Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, music boxes. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb; the fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music; the most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music.
This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A 1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced; the first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857, they consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Though no trace of a working paleophone was found, Cros is remembered as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine; the first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s; the development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated simi
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Dirty Dancing (soundtrack)
Dirty Dancing is the original soundtrack of the 1987 film Dirty Dancing. The album became a huge commercial success, it is one of the best-selling albums of all time. In the United States the album spent 18 weeks at #1 on the Billboard 200 album sales charts and went multi-platinum. There was a follow-up album entitled More Dirty Dancing; the album Ultimate Dirty Dancing, released in 2003, contains every song from the motion picture Dirty Dancing in the order it appears in the film. " The Time of My Life" – 4:47 "Be My Baby" – 2:37 "She's Like the Wind" – 3:53 "Hungry Eyes" – 4:06 "Stay" – 1:34 "Yes" – 3:15 "You Don't Own Me" – 2:59 "Hey! Baby" – 2:21 "Overload" – 3:39 "Love Is Strange" – 2:52 "Where Are You Tonight?" – 3:59 "In the Still of the Night" – 3:03 On October 15, 2007, RCA Records released a 20th anniversary edition of the soundtrack, containing remastered versions of the original album's songs plus additional tracks, as well as a DVD featuring promotional videos and photo material.
Disc one "Be My Baby" "Where Are You Tonight?" "Stay" "Hungry Eyes" "Overload" "Hey! Baby" "Love Is Strange" "You Don't Own Me" "Yes" "In the Still of the Night" "She's Like the Wind" " The Time of My Life" "Big Girls Don't Cry" "Merengue" "Some Kind of Wonderful" "Johnny's Mambo" "Do You Love Me" "Love Man" "Gazebo Waltz" "Wipe Out" "These Arms of Mine" "De Todo Un Poco" "Cry to Me" "Trot the Fox" "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" "Kellerman's Anthem" "Time of My Life" Disc two "She's Like the Wind" video "Yes" video "Hungry Eyes" video "Do You Love Me" video " The Time of My Life" video " The Time of My Life" karaoke version Photo gallery List of best-selling albums List of best-selling albums in Australia List of best-selling albums in France List of best-selling albums in Germany List of best-selling albums in the United Kingdom List of best-selling albums in the United States List of diamond-certified albums in Canada
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i