Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Pieter Jansz Post was a Dutch Golden Age architect and printmaker. Post was baptised in Haarlem, the son of a stained-glass painter and the older brother of painter Frans Post, he is credited with the creation of the Dutch baroque style of architecture, along with his longtime collaborator Jacob van Campen. Together they designed the Mauritshuis in the Hague. According to Houbraken he was a famous architect who introduced his brother Frans to Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange while he was working on plans for the Mauritshuis. According to the RKD he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1623, became painter and architect for Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik, he was the overseer from 1640 for the new additions to Paleis Noordeinde in The Hague. From 1645 he was the architect for Frederik Hendrik for Huis ten Bosch, where he worked together with Jacob van Campen, he died in The Hague, aged 61. His son Maurits became an architect, his son Johan Post became a painter, his daughter married the anatomist and collector Frederik Ruysch.
His granddaughter Rachel Ruysch became a famous flower painter. 1642 Huis Dedel, The Hague 1643 Huis Prinsessegracht 4 1645-1650 Huis ten Bosch 1645-1648 Gemeenlandshuis Zwanenburg, Halfweg 1649-1653 Huis De Onbeschaamde, Dordrecht 1652-1657 Gebouw van de Staten van Holland, 1655 Johan de Witt Huis, 1657-1658 De Waag, Leiden 1659-1685 Stadhuis, Maastricht 1659-1662 Kruithuis, Delft 1660 Hofje van Nieuwkoop, 1661-1662 Torendeel van Lambertuskerk in Buren 1662-1665 Kasteel Heeze, Heeze 1662-1680 Hervormde Kerk, Bennebroek 1663 Kerk van Stompetoren 1668- Kaaswaag, Gouda Media related to Pieter Post at Wikimedia Commons Pieter Post on Artnet
Dutch Brazil known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654. The main cities of the Dutch colony of New Holland were the capital Mauritsstad, Nieuw Amsterdam, Saint Louis, São Cristóvão, Sirinhaém and Olinda. From 1630 onward, the Dutch Republic conquered half of Brazil's settled European area at the time, with their capital in Recife; the Dutch West India Company set up their headquarters in Recife. The governor, Johan Maurits, invited artists and scientists to the colony to help promote Brazil and increase immigration. However, the tide turned against the Dutch when the Portuguese won a significant victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes in 1649. On 26 January 1654, the Dutch surrendered and signed the capitulation, but only as a provisional pact. By May 1654, the Dutch demanded. On 6 August 1661, New Holland was formally ceded to Portugal through the Treaty of The Hague.
While of only transitional importance for the Dutch, this period was of considerable importance in the historical memory in Brazil. It did not have lasting changes on the institutional development of Portuguese Brazil. Local Portuguese settlers had to oppose the Dutch by their own resources, including mobilizing black and indigenous allies, made use of their knowledge of local conditions; this struggle is counted, in Brazilian historical memory, as laying the seeds of Brazilian nationhood. This period precipitated a decline in Brazil's sugar industry, since conflict between the Dutch and Portuguese disrupted Brazilian sugar production, amidst rising competition from British and Dutch planters in the Caribbean; the Habsburg family had ruled the Low Countries from 1482. As part of the war, Dutch raiders attacked Spanish lands and ships. In 1594 Philip II, king both of Spain and of Portugal, gave permission for Dutch ships bound for Brazil to sail together once a year in a fleet of twenty ships.
In 1609 the Habsburgs and the Dutch Republic signed a Twelve Years' Truce, during which the Dutch Republic was allowed to trade with Portuguese settlements in Brazil. Portugal's small geographic size and small population meant that it needed "foreign participation in the colonization and commerce of its empire", the Dutch had played such a role, mutually beneficial; as part of the truce of 1609-1621 the Dutch agreed to delay the establishment of a West India Company, a counterpart to the existing Dutch East India Company. By the end of the truce, the Dutch had vastly expanded their trade networks and gained over half of the carrying trade between Brazil and Europe. In 1621, the twelve-year peace treaty expired and the United Netherlands chartered a Dutch West India Company; the Dutch–Portuguese War, which had started in 1602, through the new company the Dutch now started to interfere with the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in America. As part of the Groot Desseyn plan, Admiral Jacob Willekens in December 1623 led a West Indische Compagnie force to Salvador, the capital of Brazil and the center of a captaincy famous for its sugarcane.
The expedition consisted of 3,300 men. They arrived there on May 8, 1624, whereupon the Portuguese Governor Diogo Tristão de Mendonça Furtado surrendered. However, on April 30, 1625, the Portuguese recaptured the city with the help of a combined Spanish and Portuguese force consisting of 52 ships and 12,500 men; the city would play a critical role as a base of the Portuguese struggle against the Dutch for the control of Brazil. In 1628, the seizure of a Spanish silver convoy by Piet Heyn in Matanzas Bay provided the Dutch WIC the funds for another attempt to conquer Brazil at Pernambuco. In the summer of 1629, the Dutch coveted a newfound interest in obtaining the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, the largest and richest sugar-producing area in the world; the Dutch fleet of 65 ships was led by Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq. Matias de Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor, led a strong Portuguese resistance which hindered the Dutch from developing their forts on the lands which they had captured. By 1631, the Dutch left Olinda and tried to gain control of the Fort of Cabedello on Paraíba, the Rio Grande, Rio Formoso, Cabo de Santo Agostinho.
These attempts were unsuccessful, however. Still in control of António Vaz and Recife, the Dutch gained a foothold at Cabo de Santo Agostinho. By 1634 the Dutch controlled the coastline from the Rio Grande do Norte to Pernambuco's Cabo de Santo Agostinho, they still maintained control of the seas as well. By 1635 many Portuguese settlers were choosing Dutch-occupied land over Portuguese-controlled land; the Dutch offered freedom of security of property. In 1635 the Dutch conquered three strongholds of the Portuguese: the towns of Porto Calvo, Arraial do Bom Jesus, Fort Nazaré on Cabo de Santo Agostinho; these strongholds gave the Dutch increased sugar lands. In 1637, the WIC gave control of its Brazilian conquests, now called "Nieuw Holland," to Johan Maur
Frans Janszoon Post was a painter during the Dutch Golden Age. He was the first European artist to paint landscapes of the Americas and after the period of Dutch Brazil In 1636 he traveled to Dutch Brazil in northeast of South America at the invitation of the governor Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, his works were collected in The Netherlands and Brazil, with the works showing an idealized vision of Dutch colonial rule. Post was born in Haarlem and was the son of Jan Janszoon Post, a regarded glass painter trained in Leiden, Francijntje Verbraken of Haarlem, his older brother was one of the most important architects of Dutch classicism. Little is known of his life before his trip to Brazil, he was born in Haarlem, circa 1612 and he most received his early training from his father and his older brother. He was a contemporary of Frans Hals, who painted his portrait, prominent Haarlem landscape painters such as the brothers Jacob & Salomon van Ruysdael, Adriaen & Isaac van Ostade, in particular Pieter de Molijn.
It is that a Dutch master taught him before he left for Brazil, though he was not registered in the guild until after his return. Although not universally accepted, Post scholar Erik Larsen believes De Molijn was the master under whom Post studied, because Molyn is mentioned in Houbraken as the teacher of several other landscape painters, such as Allart van Everdingen. Post won a commission at court through the connections of his older brother and was encouraged to travel abroad by John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen. At the time, Haarlem experienced an outbreak of the plague, so that his going to Brazil may have seemed a good option. Post lived in Brazil from 1637-1644, he received 800 guilders for a landscape painting in the West Indies commissioned by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, leading Larsen to believe that Post set out for The Netherlands via Africa shortly before Nassau departed Brazil. After he returned to The Netherlands, he joined the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1646, was appointed officer in 1656-7 and 1658.
In 1650, he married Jannetje Bogaert, the daughter of Professor Salomon Bogaert of the Haarlem ‘Latijnsche School’. He had two sons, who died before his death and one daughter that did survive him, but died shortly thereafter. Post continued to paint Brazilian scenes until 1669, the lack of dated paintings in the 1670s suggests he stopped ten years before his death. Whitehead and Boeseman claim that Post developed an alcohol problem, which may be the reason so little is known of the last decade of his life, he died in Haarlem and was buried in the St. Bavochurch on February 17, 1680. Post produced 140 paintings during his lifetime. Of these, nearly half are dated, making it possible to track the evolution of his work between 1637, the day he landed in Brazil, 1669, the date of his last letter; the paintings Post produced while he was in Brazil drastically differ from those he painted after he left Brazil. While he was in Brazil, he produced a large number of sketches and etchings, but only completed six paintings.
They are the paintings dated from 1637–1640, presented by Nassau to Louis XIV in 1679. His Brazilian works resemble the landscapes by his Haarlem contemporaries in terms of composition and technique. Wolfgang Stechow describes Post’s landscapes as ‘the old bottle filled with new wine’; these works depict specific locations in Dutch Brazil, identifiable because of the representation of recognizable topography and buildings. Post includes a selection of Brazilian vegetation, features birds and other small animals in the foreground; these may have been inspired by the naturalist Georg Marcgraf. The skies are a curious gray heavy with rain, an aspect, emphasized by the fact that they take up at least half the canvas; the subdued color scheme when compared to his post-Brazilian production, lends them a somber reverential quality characteristic of Dutch tonal landscapes from the 1620s to the 1640s. Post continued to paint images of Brazil upon his return to The Netherlands in 1642. In addition to Post’s wonderful imagination, the evolution of his work may be consequent of a change in popular style.
The further he was from Brazil, in both time and space, the more imaginary his paintings became as he incorporated bright colors and exotic elements. Those paintings executed in The Netherlands have brighter colors with dark foliage framing an idealized baroque composition; these works are in striking contrast to the realistic qualities of his early work. The landscapes are open, full of resources, most important, conquered, they evolve to show a more condensed view and desired depth with greener flora, bluer skies, brighter horizons. However, the horizontal blues advancing towards the middle distance accentuate the difference in color; this deep blue may be a disintegration of the green pigment, which results from the disappearance of yellows, while the blues remain. Upon Post’s return to The Netherlands, he increased the number of figures and incorporated greater diversity into his work. Nearly every painting he completed in The Netherlands includes a large group of people interacting in some way, whether they are dancing or working in the sugar mills.
These figures are slaves. Unlike his Brazilian work, the figures are no longer subjects placed in the foreground. Four of the six paintings completed in Brazil only have a few figures, with the exception of Porto Calvo depicting more, The River of São Francisco, which doe
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane, it was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean, it is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs; the many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco. With fiscal incentives by the government, many industrial companies were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial hub of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil, with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife plus 32,500 in the Metro Area, totaling more than 85,000. A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical hub. Recife stands out as a major tourist attraction of the Northeast, both for its beaches and for its historic sites, dating back to both the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization of the region; the beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers south of the city, has been awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists. The Historic Centre of Olinda, 7 kilometers north of the city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982, both cities' Brazilian Carnival are among the world's most famous.
The city is an education hub, home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife for their studies. Recife and Natal are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, a World Heritage Site; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Recife hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup; the city, despite having a higher crime rate than the southern region of Brazil, is considered the safest state capital in northeastern region. It has a much lower crime than other regional capitals, such as Salvador or São Luís, yet despite that crime rose 440% in 2015. Recife began as a collection of fishing shacks and warehouses on the delta between the Capibaribe and Beberibe Rivers in the captaincy of Pernambuco, sometime between 1535 and 1537 in the earliest days of Portuguese colonisation of Terra de Santa Cruz called Brazil, on the northeast coast of South America.
It was way station for Portuguese sailors and passing ships. The first documented reference to the settlement with its "arrecife dos navios" was in the royal Charter Act of March 12, 1537, establishing Olinda, 6 kilometres to the north, as a village, with its port where the Beberibe River meets the sea. Olinda had been settled in 1536 by Captain General Duarte Coelho, a Portuguese nobleman and administrator of the captaincy of Pernambuco; the city is named for the long reef recife running parallel to the shoreline which encloses its harbour. The reef is not as sometimes stated, a coral reef, but a consolidated ancient beach, now as firm and hard as stone. In 1541, Coelho returned from the Kingdom of Portugal with the machinery for an engenho, with it, his brother-in-law established the first mill named Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, in the floodplain of the Beberibe River at Recife. At that time the banks of the Capibaribe River were covered by sugar cane. Recife was capital of the 17th century New Holland established by the Dutch West India Company and was called Mauritsstad.
The Mascate War of 1710–1711 pitted merchants of Recife against those of nearby Olinda. Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife's weather is warm, it has a number of islands, rivers and bridges that crisscross the city and has been called "The Venice of Brazil". The city is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels, resulting in poor soil quality as the heavy dense rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and the area enjoys a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the South Atlantic Ocean to the east. Recife has a tropical climate, more a tropical monsoon climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by pleasant westwardly trade winds blowing in from the ocean. January and February are the warmest months, with mean temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 22 °C, with sun. July
History of Brazil
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to colonize what is now the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil. A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic; the country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government.
When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais". The dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists; the earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture". The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both; the Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture.
For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers. Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives, but the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans.
Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks; the extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos.
She concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil. Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Colombus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, having arrived in today's Pernambuco region on 26 January 1500 but was unable to claim the land because of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In April 1500, Brazil was claimed for Portugal on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
The Portuguese encountered stone-using natives d
Caspar Barlaeus was a Dutch polymath and Renaissance humanist, a theologian and historian. Born Caspar van Baerle in Antwerp, Barlaeus' parents fled the city when it was occupied by Spanish troops shortly after his birth, they settled in Zaltbommel, where his father would become head of the Latin school. Caspar studied philosophy at the University of Leiden. After his study, he preached for 1.5 years in the village of Nieuwe-Tonge, before returning to Leiden in 1612 as an under-regent of a college. From 1617 he was professor in philosophy at the university; because of his remonstrant sympathies, he was forced out of this job in 1619. He studied and graduated in medicines, but never practiced professionally. From 1631, he was professor of philosophy and rhetoric at the Amsterdam Athenaeum, Athenaeum Illustre), regarded as the predecessor of the University of Amsterdam. In January 1632, along with Gerard Vossius, held his inaugural speech at the Amsterdam Atheneum. Barlaeus encouraged Martinus Hortensius to lecture –and give an inaugural speech- at the same institution.
Barlaeus published many volumes of poetry Latin poetry. He wrote the eulogy that accompanies the 1622 portrait of cartographer Willem Blaeu. Barlaeus was involved in various aspects of history, he translated Antonio de Herrera's Description of the West Indies in 1622. In 1627, Barlaeus provided the text for the atlas of Italy created by Jodocus Hondius. In 1647, he wrote an account of the Dutch colonial empire in Brazil, inspired by the leadership of John Maurice of Nassau at Recife; the Rerum per octennium in Brasilia et alibi nuper gestarum sub praefectura, as it is called, contains numerous maps and plates of the region. The engravings of Brazilian northeastern locales, fleets and maps were for 160 years the main references to Brazilian landscapes available in Europe, are well known by Brazilians today as the most important examples of pre-national art. Franciscus Plante wrote a similar work in the same year called Mauritias, included the maps published in Barlaeus' work; these were maps of Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco Borealá.
Plante incorporated a portrait of John Maurice, included in Barlaeus' work. In 1638, Barlaeus wrote Medicea Hospes, sive descriptio publicae gratulationis, qua... Mariam de Medicis, excepit senatus populusque Amstelodamensis. Published by Willem Blaeu, it includes two large folding engraved views of the ceremonies on the occasion of the French queen mother Marie de Medici's triumphal entry into Amsterdam in 1638. Considered an important moment in Dutch history, Marie's visit lent de facto international recognition of the newly formed Dutch Republic. Marie de Medici traveled to the Netherlands as exile, but spectacular displays and water pageants took place in the city's harbor in celebration of her visit. There was a procession led by two mounted trumpeters; this building was designed to display a series of dramatic tableaux in tribute to her once she set foot on the floating island and entered its pavilion. Barlaeus died at Amsterdam. Franciscus Plante wrote Barlaeus' obituary and epitaph in 1648.
Barlaeus Gymnasium, in Amsterdam, is named after him. There is a Van Baerle Street in both Nieuwe-Tonge. Manes Auriaci Hymnus ad Christum Poemata Medicea hospes Faces augustae Rerum in Brasilia et alibi gestarum Verscheyde Nederduytsche gedichten Mercator sapiens, sive Oratio de coniungendis mercaturae et philosophiae studiis Barron Maps, barron.co.uk Barlaeus Poemata, let.leidenuniv.nl Barlaeus: Bibliographia, let.leidenuniv.nl Biography and Works: Caspar Barlaeus, dbnl.org Plante's obituary and epitaph, let.leidenuniv.nl Festival Books, libraries.rutgers.edu Historia naturalis Brasiliae, pernambuco.com The Correspondence of Caspar van Baarle in EMLO