Maus is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Art Spiegelman, serialized from 1980 to 1991. It depicts Spiegelman interviewing his father about his experiences as a Polish Jew and Holocaust survivor; the work employs postmodernist techniques and represents Jews as mice, Germans as cats, Poles as pigs. Critics have classified Maus as memoir, history, autobiography, or a mix of genres. In 1992, it became the first graphic novel to win a Pulitzer Prize. In the frame-tale timeline in the narrative present that begins in 1978 in New York City, Spiegelman talks with his father Vladek about his Holocaust experiences, gathering material for the Maus project he is preparing. In the narrative past, Spiegelman depicts these experiences, from the years leading up to World War II to his parents' liberation from the Nazi concentration camps. Much of the story revolves around Spiegelman's troubled relationship with his father, the absence of his mother, who committed suicide when he was 20, her grief-stricken husband destroyed her written accounts of Auschwitz.
The book uses a minimalist drawing style and displays innovation in its pacing and page layouts. A three-page strip called "Maus" that he made in 1972 gave Spiegelman an opportunity to interview his father about his life during World War II; the recorded interviews became the basis for the graphic novel, which Spiegelman began in 1978. He serialized Maus from 1980 until 1991 as an insert in Raw, an avant-garde comics and graphics magazine published by Spiegelman and his wife, Françoise Mouly, who appears in Maus. A collected volume of the first six chapters that appeared in 1986 brought the book mainstream attention. Maus was one of the first graphic novels to receive significant academic attention in the English-speaking world. Most of the book weaves out of two timelines. In the frame tale of the narrative present, Spiegelman interviews his father Vladek in the Rego Park neighborhood of New York City in 1978–79; the story that Vladek tells unfolds in the narrative past, which begins in the mid-1930s and continues until the end of the Holocaust in 1945.
In Rego Park in 1958, a young Art Spiegelman complains to his father that his friends have left him behind. His father responds in broken English, "Friends? Your friends? If you lock them together in a room with no food for a week you could see what it is, friends!"As an adult, Art visits his father, from whom he has become estranged. Vladek has remarried to a woman called Mala since the suicide in 1968 of Art's mother Anja. Art asks Vladek to recount his Holocaust experiences. Vladek tells of his time in the Polish city of Częstochowa and how he came to marry into Anja's wealthy family in 1937 and move to Sosnowiec to become a manufacturer. Vladek begs Art not to include this in the book and Art reluctantly agrees. Anja suffers a breakdown due to postpartum depression after giving birth to their first son Richieu, the couple go to a sanitarium in Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia for her to recover. After they return and anti-Semitic tensions build until Vladek is drafted just before the Nazi invasion.
Vladek is forced to work as a prisoner of war. After his release, he finds Germany has annexed Sosnowiec and he is dropped off on the other side of the border in the German protectorate, he sneaks across reunites with his family. During one of Art's visits, he finds that a friend of Mala's has sent the couple one of the underground comix magazines Art contributed to. Mala had tried to hide it. In "Prisoner on the Hell Planet", Art is traumatized by his mother's suicide three months after his release from the mental hospital, in the end depicts himself behind bars saying, "You murdered me, left me here to take the rap!" Though it brings back painful memories, Vladek admits that dealing with the issue in such a way was for the best. In 1943, the Nazis move the Jews of the Sosnowiec Ghetto to Srodula and march them back to Sosnowiec to work; the family splits up -- Anja send Richieu to Zawiercie to stay with an aunt for safety. As more Jews are sent from the ghettos to Auschwitz, the aunt poisons herself, her children and Richieu to escape the Gestapo.
In Srodula, many Jews build bunkers to hide from the Germans. Vladek's bunker is discovered and he is placed into a "ghetto inside the ghetto" surrounded by barbed wire; the remnants of Vladek and Anja's family are taken away. Srodula is cleared except for a group Vladek hides with in another bunker; when the Germans depart, the group leaves the ghetto. In Sosnowiec and Anja move from one hiding place to the next, making occasional contact with other Jews in hiding. Vladek disguises hunts for provisions; the couple arrange with smugglers to escape to Hungary, but it is a trick—the Gestapo arrest them on the train and take them to Auschwitz, where they are separated until after the war. Art asks after Anja's diaries, which Vladek tells him were her account of her Holocaust experiences and the only record of what happened to her after her separation from Vladek at Auschwitz and which Vladek says she had wanted Art to read. Vladek comes to admit. Art is enraged and calls Vladek a "murderer"; the story jumps to 1986.
Art is overcome with the unexpected attention the book receives and finds himself "totally blocked". Art talks about the book with a Czech Holocaust survivor. Pavel suggests that, as those who perished in the camps can ne
This is a list of retronyms used in the English language. A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a subsequent one. Analog Describes non-digital devices:Analog clock: Before digital clocks, most clocks had faces and hands. See also: Analog watch. Analog synthesizer: Before synthesizers contained microchips, every stage of the internal electronic signal flow was analogous to a sound that would be produced at the output stage, this sound was shaped and altered as it passed through each filter and envelope. Analog watch: Before the advent of the digital watch, all watches had faces and hands. After the advent of the digital watch, watches with faces and hands became known as analog watches. Analog recordingConventional, classic, or traditional Describes devices or methods that have been replaced or supplemented by new ones. For example, conventional oven, or conventional weapon. Classic Doctor Who: Used to distinguish the original series of the classic show from the 21st century sequel, New Doctor Who.
This retronym is used by the BBC. Classic Leave It To Beaver: Used to distinguish the original series of the classic sitcom from the 1980s sequel, The New Leave It To Beaver; this retronym was used by TBS. Coca-Cola Classic: Originally called Coca-Cola, the name was changed when the original recipe was reintroduced after New Coke failed to catch on; this is an example of a retronym coined by a product's manufacturer. Conventional airplane: In the late 1940s and early 1950s, this term was used to distinguish piston-engined aircraft from the new jet types. Conventional landing gear: Term used in the 1940s to distinguish the traditional landing gear arrangement of two main wheels and a tail wheel from the newly introduced tricycle landing gear. Conventional memory: term coined when MS-DOS and other operating systems for the IBM PC and other IBM-like x86 machines went over the 640k memory limit with tricks to access extra memory with different code to address it. Conventional oven: Before the development of the microwave oven, this term was not used.
Now it is found in cooking instructions for prepared foods. Conventional war: Before the development of nuclear weapons, this term was not used. IPod Classic: The original iPod in its latest generation has now been called the iPod classic, as every other iPod model uses a suffix to define itself. Traditional braces: Used to refer to braces that are metal and crafted by hand, as opposed to SureSmile and other new technologies. "Traditional Chinese characters": Used to contrast with Simplified Chinese characters. Civilian Used to refer to items that are not of military quality or for military use, to differentiate them from the military version. First, I or 1 part 1, version 1, etc. Senior, the Elder Used when there is a second, fourth, etc. version/incarnation of something. This is not a retronym; when a dynastic ruler has or adopts the same name as a predecessor, the original is retrospectively given the Roman numeral I if he did not use one in his lifetime. For example, the Dutch prince William I of Orange was just William during his lifetime.
On the other hand, e.g. emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria was so entitled though there were no subsequent emperors of that name. In the United States, names may follow this convention, or the father may be given the suffix Senior, with Junior for the son. In some cases, such as US President George Bush and Major League Baseball player Ken Griffey, well-known people have become retroactively referred to as "Senior" after namesake sons rose to prominence in their own right. Sometimes used to refer to the first incarnation of a movie, video game, etc. after sequels have been created, although such works are renamed in this way officially. When Sony released the PlayStation 2, a redesigned version of the original PlayStation was released under the name PSone. However, the word "One" doesn't always refer to version 1 such as in Xbox One. Manual Used to distinguish from electric versions. Manual transmissions in vehicles were just called "transmissions" until the invention of automatic transmissions.
Sometimes they are called "standard" transmissions, but that adjective has become a misnomer in the United States since automatic transmissions have become the standard feature for most models today. Manual typewriters were just called "typewriters" until the invention of electric typewriters. Old Naturally used when there is a "new" version of anything, to refer to the previous version. For example, when British money was decimalised and the new penny of 1/100 pound was adopted, the previous penny of 1/240 pound became known as the old penny. Old-fashioned refers to any practice, no longer customary, e.g. in the context of dress sense, hairstyle or wording, as opposed to fashion, which refers to anything, at present customary. In popular music and the wider popular culture, the term old school has developed a similar meaning, this has spread to other areas as well. Offline Computer users will sometimes agree to meet offline, i.e. face to face in the real world, as opposed to online in an Internet-based chat room or other such means of electronic comm
Wołów County is a unit of territorial administration and local government in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998; the county covers an area of 675 square kilometres. Its administrative seat is the town of Wołów, although the county contains the larger town of Brzeg Dolny; as of 2019 the total population of the county is 46,914, out of which the population of Wołów is 12,373, the population of Brzeg Dolny is 12,511, the rural population is 22,030. Wołów County is bordered by Góra County to the north, Trzebnica County to the east, Środa Śląska County to the south, Legnica County and Lubin County to the west; the county is subdivided into three gminas. These are listed in the following table, in descending order of population