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Mauthausen concentration camp

Mauthausen was a Nazi concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen. It was the main camp of a group with nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany; the three Gusen concentration camps in and around the village of St Georgen/Gusen, just a few kilometres from Mauthausen, held a significant proportion of prisoners within the camp complex, at times exceeding the number of prisoners at the Mauthausen main camp. The Mauthausen main camp operated from the time of the Anschluss, when Austria was annexed to Nazi Germany on 8 August 1938, to 5 May 1945, at the end of the Second World War. Starting with the camp at Mauthausen, the number of subcamps expanded over time and by the summer of 1940 Mauthausen and its subcamps had become one of the largest labour camp complexes in the German-controlled part of Europe; as at other Nazi concentration camps, the inmates at Mauthausen and its subcamps were forced to work as slave labour, under conditions that caused many deaths.

Mauthausen and its subcamps included quarries, munitions factories, arms factories and plants assembling Me 262 fighter aircraft. In January 1945, the camps contained 85,000 inmates; the death toll remains unknown, although most sources place it between 122,766 and 320,000 for the entire complex. Mauthausen was one of the first massive concentration camp complexes in Nazi Germany, the last to be liberated by the Allies; the two largest camps and Gusen I, were classed as "Grade III" concentration camps, which meant that they were intended to be the toughest camps for the "incorrigible political enemies of the Reich". Mauthausen never lost this Stufe III classification. In the offices of the Reich Main Security Office it was referred to by the nickname Knochenmühle – the bone-grinder. Unlike many other concentration camps, which were intended for all categories of prisoners, Mauthausen was used for extermination through labour of the intelligentsia – educated people and members of the higher social classes in countries subjugated by the Nazi regime during World War II.

The Mauthausen main camp is now a museum. On 9 August 1938, prisoners from Dachau concentration camp near Munich were sent to the town of Mauthausen in Austria, to begin the construction of a new slave labour camp; the site was chosen because of the nearby granite quarry, its proximity to Linz. Although the camp was controlled by the German state from the beginning, it was founded by a private company as an economic enterprise; the owner of the Wiener-Graben quarry was a DEST Company: an acronym for Deutsche Erd– und Steinwerke GmbH. The company was led by Oswald Pohl, a high-ranking official of the Schutzstaffel, it rented the quarries from the City of Vienna in 1938 and started the construction of the Mauthausen camp. A year the company ordered the construction of the first camp at Gusen; the granite mined in the quarries had been used to pave the streets of Vienna, but the Nazi authorities envisioned a complete reconstruction of major German towns in accordance with plans of Albert Speer and other proponents of Nazi architecture, for which large quantities of granite were needed.

The money to fund the construction of the Mauthausen camp was gathered from a variety of sources, including commercial loans from Dresdner Bank and Prague-based Escompte Bank. Mauthausen served as a strictly-run prison camp for common criminals and other categories of "Incorrigible Law Offenders". On 8 May 1939 it was converted to a labour camp, used for the incarceration of political prisoners; the three Gusen concentration camps held a significant proportion of prisoners within the Mauthausen-Gusen complex. For most of its history, this exceeding the number of prisoners at the Mauthausen main camp itself. DEST began purchasing land at St Georgen/Gusen in May 1938. During 1938 and 1939, inmates of the nearby Mauthausen makeshift camp marched daily to the granite quarries at St Georgen/Gusen, which were more productive and more important for DEST than the Wienergraben Quarry. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, the as-yet unfinished Mauthausen camp was overcrowded with prisoners; the numbers of inmates rose from 1,080 in late 1938 to over 3,000 a year later.

At about that time, the construction of a new camp "for the Poles" began in Gusen about 4.5 kilometres away. The new camp became operational in May 1940; the first inmates were put in the first two huts on 17 April 1940, while the first transport of prisoners – from the camps in Dachau and Sachsenhausen – arrived just over a month on 25 May. Like nearby Mauthausen, the Gusen camps rented inmates out to various local businesses as slave labour. In October 1941, several huts were separated from the Gusen subcamp by barbed wire and turned into a separate Prisoner of War Labour Camp; this camp had many prisoners of war Soviet officers. By 1942 the production capacity of Mauthausen and the Gusen camps had reached its peak; the Gusen site was expanded to include the central depot of the SS, where various goods, seized from occupied territories, were sorted and dispatched to Germany. Local quarries and businesses were in constant need of a new source of labour as more and more Austrians were drafted into the Wehrmacht.

In March 1944, the former SS depot was converted to a new subcamp, named Gusen II, which served as an improvis


Mesch is a village in the Dutch province of Limburg. It is located in the municipality of Eijsden-Margraten, quite near to the southerly border with Belgium, on the other side of which the neighbouring village of Moelingen is situated. In its northwest Mesch borders to Eijsden, whereas the town of Maastricht lies about 10 km more northerly; the history of Mesch goes back to the 9th century, when a settlement grew around a church founded by canons from Aachen. The current church still holds fragments from this early church, making it one of the oldest churches in the Netherlands. Mesch was a separate municipality until 1943. On September 12, 1944 it was the first village in The Netherlands, liberated from German occupation in the second world war; the small Voer river, coming from Belgium, passes among others through this village, before draining into the Meuse river at Eijsden. The touristic Mergellandroute passes through this place. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Mesch". Map of the former municipality, around 1868.

Historical pictures of Mesch on old postcards

Indio Hills Palms

Indio Hills Palms Park Property and the Coachella Valley Preserve, located in the Indio Hills, contain the 1,000 Palms Oasis and are a protected area in the Coachella Valley, located east of Palm Springs near Palm Desert, California. The Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge is contained within the Coachella Valley Preserve, all are in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert and adjacent to the Lower Colorado River Valley region; the Indio Hills Palms Park Property is managed by the California Department of Recreation. The Coachella Valley Preserve, a 2,206-acre area, is maintained by the non-profit Nature Conservancy and is one of the few in the desert with an oasis fed by natural springs that supports the only California native palm, the Washingtonia filifera, or California Fan Palm; the San Andreas Fault, visible from the valley floor as a line of greenery along the base of the hills, captures groundwater that nurtures the palms. The 1,000 Palms Oasis grove is reached by foot from the trailhead.

Occurring artesian ponds provide habitat for the Desert pupfish, a small, endangered species of freshwater fish - the size of a young goldfish. These ponds are part of the self-guided tour among the California Fan Palm groves; the Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge is a restricted access habitat for the Coachella Valley Fringe-toed Lizard, listed as an endangered species in California, a threatened species in the United States and the IUCN classifies it as endangered. Category:Geography of the Colorado Desert Category:Fauna of the Colorado Desert List of Sonoran Desert wildflowers Official Coachella Valley Preserve website Coachella Valley Preserve: McCallum trail hiking 1,000 Palms Oasis historical photographs 1,000 Palms Oasis birds checklist Indio Hills Palms State Park Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge Map Center for Natural Lands Management: Coachella Valley Preserve U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Indio Hills U.

S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Coashella Balley Fringe-Toes Lizard Preserve

Gary C. Kelly

Gary Clayton Kelly is an American business executive. He is the chairman at Southwest Airlines. Kelly was born in San Antonio on March 12, 1955. Kelly received a Bachelor of Business Administration in Accounting from the University of Texas at Austin, he is a Certified Public Accountant. Kelly first met his wife Carol in eighth grade, they married in 1976. Together, they have two daughters. Prior to his work at Southwest, Kelly worked as an Audit Manager for Arthur Young & Co. and a Controller for Sterling Software. Kelly first joined Southwest Airlines in 1986 Controller. In 1989, Kelly was promoted to Chief Financial Vice President of Finance. In 2001, he was promoted to Executive Vice President. Kelly spent 3 years in this role until he was promoted to his current position as CEO and vice chairman in 2004 replacing James Parker who succeeded Herb Kelleher in 2001. Kelly was named Chairman of the Board of Directors of Southwest Airlines on May 21, 2008, replacing co-founder Herb Kelleher. Gary Kelly became president of Southwest Airlines the same year, replacing Colleen Barrett when her contract expired on July 15, 2008.

As CEO, Kelly has guided the airline to become the largest carrier of domestic passengers in the United States. He has led the company through a number of transformative, large-scale initiatives including the revamp of the airline’s Rapid Rewards program, the introduction of the Boeing 737-800 and 737 MAX aircraft to Southwest’s fleet, the acquisition of AirTran Airways, the launching of Southwest's first international service, an update to the airline’s branding, the adoption of the Amadeus reservation system, large expansion projects at the company’s corporate headquarters in Dallas. On January 10, 2017, Kelly announced changes to the Company's executive Leadership ranks with Thomas M. Nealon named as President and Michael G. Van de Ven named as the airline's Chief Operating Officer; these changes were effective immediately. Kelly retained the title of Chief Executive Officer. Kelly was named one of the best CEOs in America for 2008, 2009 and 2010 by Institutional Investor magazine and serves on the President's Council of Jobs and Competitiveness.

In 2014, Kelly received the Advertising Marketing Excellence Award. Kelly was the 2016 recipient of the Tony Jannus Award for distinguished achievement in commercial air transportation. In 2017, Fortune named Kelly the #3 most underrated CEO in America based on a survey of Fortune 500 CEOs asking them which of their fellow CEOs do not get enough credit. Kelly received 85 votes. Gary C. Kelly's executive profile CEO of the Year: Gary Kelly of Southwest Airlines Nuts About Southwest Blog Gary C. Kelly Shares His Views on Leadership Gary C. Kelly on Becoming CEO of Southwest Airlines Gary C. Kelly Describes A Story of Caring Southwest Airlines Employee Testimonials

Antoni Dunin

Antoni Dunin was a Polish nobleman, a Hrabia, an army officer who received the Virtuti Militari award. Dunin was born on June 5, 1907, the youngest child of Lucia Taczanowska and her second husband Count Rodryg Dunin, he grew up at the Granówko estate near the youngest of ten children. He had six older siblings by his mother's first marriage to Stanisław Niezychowski, two full sisters and one full brother, children of his own father Rodryg; the Dunin family crest is the Łabędź. On December 28, 1933, Dunin married Zofia Helena Werner, daughter of Poland's vice-Finance Minister Edward Werner, great-niece of Saint Raphael Kalinowski, they had three children: Krystyna and Magda. Between 1933 and 1934 he served as an NCO in the Polish Army and graduated from the Cavalry Training Centre, where he was awarded with the memorial badge of his home unit, the 15th Poznań Uhlan's Regiment. Mobilized prior to the outbreak of World War II, Dunin was drafted into the Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade under Gen. Roman Abraham.

Serving in the rank of Porucznik he commanded the march squadron of the 15th Poznań Uhlan's Regiment. He joined the regiment with his unit on September 8, 1939, took part in the Battle of Bzura. Dunin was killed in combat at the age of 32 on September 16, 1939, his wife was killed the next day, at the age of 29. Dunin's descendants were able to escape Poland to France and to the United States in the 1940s. Dunin is one of the characters in the Italian novel "Il Guardiano dei Sogni" by Paolo Maurensig. Dunin, other figures who share the family name

Cynthia Phaneuf

Cynthia Phaneuf is a Canadian former competitive figure skater. She is the 2004 Four Continents silver medallist, 2004 Skate Canada International champion, 2004 Skate America silver medallist, a two-time Canadian national champion, a four-time Canadian silver medallist, she finished in fifth place at the 2010 World Championships and represented Canada at the 2010 Winter Olympics. Cynthia Phaneuf began skating at age four after watching her cousin skating, she landed a salchow, at the age of eleven. Phaneuf was coached by Annie Barabé and Sophie Richard in Contrecœur, Quebec from the age of nine until November 2011, her programs were choreographed by David Wilson. In domestic Canadian competitions, she represented CPA Sorel. Phaneuf withdrew from the 2005 Skate Canada International due to a minor stress fracture in her right ankle. Considered a threat to qualify for the 2006 Canadian Olympic team due to her two previous national medals, she was forced to withdraw from the 2006 Canadian Championships due to an injury to her right knee.

In 2007, she earned a spot on the Canadian ladies' world team by finishing fourth in that year's national championships. In 2008, she continued her comeback with a third place showing in the national championships, a seventh place at the Four Continents Championships. In 2010, at the World Championships, she placed fifth, she was 4th in 8th in the short program. Had she scored 1.09 more points, she would have won a bronze medal. During the 2010–11 season, she placed fourth in her two Grand Prix events. At the 2011 Canadian Championships, she won her second national title. In November 2011, Phaneuf left Quebec and longtime coaches Annie Barabé and Sophie Richard to move to Toronto to train with Brian Orser. Phaneuf won the silver medal at the 2012 Canadian Championships, second to Amelie Lacoste by 1.57 points. At the 2012 Four Continents, the two skaters competed for a berth to the 2012 World Championships – Phaneuf finished 0.18 points behind Lacoste. In July 2012, it was reported. On September 26, 2012, Phaneuf announced her retirement from competitive skating.

She stated, "I've done everything. I'm ready to move on." Cynthia is the daughter of the late Barrie Phaneuf. She has two living siblings - Wyatt and Sébastien, two deceased - Cedric and Penelopie. Phaneuf met hockey player Maxime Talbot in Montreal, where they shared the same massage therapist, they began dating in 2012. Following her retirement from skating, Phaneuf moved to Philadelphia, where Talbot was playing for the NHL, she began coaching at Isabelle Brasseur's skating school there. After Talbot was traded to the Colorado Avalanche in October 2013, Phaneuf moved with him to Denver, Colorado. Phaneuf and Talbot married on July 11, 2014, they have three children, as of 2019. Phaneuf is a fourth cousin of Canadian ice hockey player Dion Phaneuf. GP: Grand Prix.