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Mawangdui

Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty: Marquis Li Cang, his wife and a male believed to have been their son; the site was excavated from 1972 to 1974. Most of the artifacts from Mawangdui are displayed at the Hunan Provincial Museum, it was called "King Ma's Mound" because it was thought to be the tomb of Ma Yin, a ruler of the Chu kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The original name might have been the similarly-sounding "saddle-shaped mound"; the tombs were made of large cypress planks. The outside of the tombs were layered with white charcoal. White clay layering originated with Chu burials, while charcoal layering was practiced during the early western Han dynasty in the Changsha area; the tombs contained a Chu burial custom. The tombs followed the burial practices dictated by Emperor Wen of Han, containing no jade or precious metals.

The eastern tomb, Tomb no. 1, contained the remains of a woman in her fifties. Her mummified body was so well-preserved that researchers were able to perform an autopsy on her body, which showed that she died of a heart attack, her diet was too rich in sugars and meats, she suffered from arterial-coronary problems. Buried with her were skeletons of various food-animals, lotus soup, grains and a complete meal including soup and meat skewers on a lacquer set. Researchers found honeydew melon seeds in her stomach, she outlived the occupants of the other two tombs. Xin Zhui's tomb was by far the best preserved of the three. A complete cosmetic set, lacquered pieces and finely woven silk garments with paintings are perfectly preserved, her coffins were painted according to Chu customs and beliefs, with whirling clouds interwoven with mystical animals and dragons. The corpse was bound in layers of silk cloth and covered with a wonderfully painted T-shaped tapestry depicting the netherworld and heavens with Chinese mythological characters as well as Xin Zhui.

There was a silk painting showing a variety of exercises that researchers have called the forerunner of Tai ji. The western tomb, Tomb no. 2, was the burial site of the first Marquis of Li Cang. He died in 186 BC; the Han dynasty had appointed Li Cang as the chancellor of the Kingdom of Changsha, an imperial fiefdom of Han. This tomb had been plundered several times by grave robbers. Tomb 3 was directly south of Tomb 1, contained the tomb of a man in his thirties who died in 168 BC; the occupant is believed to have been a relative of his wife. This tomb contained a rich trove of military and astronomical manuscripts written on silk. Regarded artifacts in particular were the lacquered wine-bowls and cosmetic boxes, which showcased the craftsmanship of the regional lacquerware industry. Of the more famous artifacts from Mawangdui were its silk funeral banners; the banners depicted the Chinese abstraction of the cosmos and the afterlife at the time of the western Han dynasty. A silk banner of similar style and function were found in Tomb 3.

The T-shaped silk funeral banner in the tomb of the Marquise is called the "name banner" with the written name of the deceased replaced with a portrait. We know the name because the tomb's original inventory is still intact, this is what it is called on the inventory; the Marquise was buried in four coffins. On the T-shaped painted silk garment, the uppermost horizontal section of the T represents heaven; the bottom of the vertical section of the T represents the underworld. The middle represents earth. In heaven we can see Chinese deities such as Nuwa and Chang'e, as well as Daoist symbols such as cranes. Between heaven and earth we can see heavenly messengers sent to bring Lady Dai to heaven. Underneath this are Lady Dai's family offering sacrifices to help her journey to heaven. Beneath them is the underworld - two giant sea serpents intertwined; the contents of Tomb 2 had been removed by robbers. An excavation report has been published within the last 5 years in Chinese. Tomb 3 contained a silk name banner and three maps drawn on silk: a topographic map, a military map and a prefecture map.

The maps display the Hunan and Guangxi region and depict the political boundary between the Han dynasty and Nanyue. At the time of discovery, these were the oldest maps yet discovered in China, until 1986 when Qin State maps dating to the 4th century BC were found. Tomb 3 contained a wealth of classical texts; the tomb contained texts on astronomy, which depicted the planetary orbits for Venus, Mercury and Saturn and described various comets. The Mawangdui texts of the Yijing are hundreds of years earlier than those known before, are now translated by Edward Shaughnessy The tomb contained a rich collection of Huang-Lao Taoist texts, as well a copy of the Zhan Guo Ce; the tomb contained various medical texts, including depictions of tao yin exercises, as well as a historical text, the Chunqiu shiyu. Book of Silk Mawangdui Silk Texts Changsha Kingdom Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng List of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad Han dynasty tomb architecture BooksLee, Sherman E

1992–93 Slovenian Hockey League season

The 1992–93 Slovenian Ice Hockey League was the second season of the Slovenian Hockey League. At the end of the regular season the playoffs were held. Jesenice were the winners. Bled Celje Jesenice Olimpija Slavija Triglav Kranj Olimpija defeated Celje 3-0 in a best of five series. Olimpija – Celje 14–1 Celje – Olimpija 1–7 Olimpija – Celje 8–5Jesenice defeated Bled 3–2 in a best of five series. Jesenice – Bled 2–0 Bled – Jesenice 4–1 Jesenice – Bled 5–1 Bled – Jesenice 5–2 Jesenice – Bled 7–1 Jesenice defeated Olimpija 4–3 in a best of seven series. Olimpija – Jesenice 5–2 Jesenice – Olimpija 5–3 Olimpija – Jesenice 9–5 Jesenice – Olimpija 9–6 Olimpija – Jesenice 6–2 Jesenice – Olimpija 4–3 Olimpija – Jesenice 6–7

Grand Slam (NASCAR)

The Grand Slam in NASCAR is the achievement of winning all of the NASCAR Cup Series majors in a calendar year. In 1984, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company announced at the Waldorf Astoria New York during the annual year end awards banquet two new events that would define NASCAR for years to come; the first was an invitation only, "all-star" exhibition race called The Winston. The other announcement was that they were formally elevating the sport's four majors into a formal Grand Slam with a cash prize bonus, known as the Winston Million; the long established and recognized major events were as follows: Daytona 500 – held in February at Daytona International Speedway GEICO 500 – held in late April or early May at Talladega Superspeedway Coca-Cola 600 – held Memorial Day weekend at Charlotte Motor Speedway Southern 500 – held at Darlington Raceway on Labor Day weekend. The Southern 500 was moved to November in 2004 eliminated by the Ferko settlement in 2005. Winners of the 500-mile spring races at Darlington were retroactively named winners of the Southern 500, the Southern 500 returned to Labor Day weekend in 2015.

Prior to 1985, no driver had won all four races in the same season. Only once had a driver claimed a "Small Slam", winning three out of the four races: David Pearson in 1976. LeeRoy Yarbrough won Daytona and Darlington in 1969, although it was considered a "Triple Crown" at the time as the Talladega event was not established until 1970. From 1985 to 1997, R. J. Reynolds and brand sponsor Winston offered a US$1 million bonus to any driver who won three out of the four races in a single calendar year season. If there was no million-dollar winner, a $100,000 consolation bonus would be given to the first driver to win two of the four races. If a driver went into the Coca-Cola 600 or the Southern 500 with a chance to win the million, the race was advertised as the "Winston Million Running of the Coca-Cola 600" or the "Winston Million Running of the Southern 500". From 1994–1996, the program was advertised as the "Winston Select Million", as R. J. Reynolds elected to promote Winston's "Select" brand of cigarettes.

In the Winston Million program's first year, Bill Elliott captured the million-dollar bonus, the victory thrust him into super-stardom. He dominated the season-opening Daytona 500 won the Winston 500 at an all-time NASCAR record speed, he remarkably came back from two laps down, having lost the laps due to having to pit due to a broken oil fitting, he subsequently made the laps up under green. After suffering mechanical problems at Charlotte, Elliott captured the million dollar bonus at Darlington, taking command after Cale Yarborough lost power steering. Elliott appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated. Following Elliott's success in the Winston Million in 1985, over a decade of failure followed; the relative ease with which Elliott had won the bonus led many to believe that the prize would be awarded often in subsequent seasons. It would prove untrue, as the award was difficult to win, at times, difficult to have a racer in contention to win. In 1989, Darrell Waltrip became the first driver since Elliott to have a chance at the million, after he won at Daytona and Charlotte.

Waltrip, was never a factor at Darlington, hitting the notorious Turn 4 wall at the Southern 500. He settled for the $100,000 consolation prize. In 1990, Dale Earnhardt was leading the Daytona 500 on the final lap when he cut a tire and failed to win the race, he went on to win at Talladega and Darlington, meaning that he would have won the million-dollar bonus had he held on to win Daytona. In 1992, the Southern 500 was cut short by rain, robbing Davey Allison of a chance to clinch the million, as well as the Career Grand Slam. Allison had been in contention much of the race, but settled for fifth after a late pit stop shuffle; that race ended on fuel strategy as Waltrip stayed out on the track and was leading when rain stopped the race on lap 293. With the win, Waltrip finished off a Career Grand Slam. In 1996, Dale Jarrett had a chance to win the million, he won at Daytona and Charlotte, had finished just 0.22 seconds shy of winning at Talladega. Jarrett hit the wall early in the notoriously narrow Turn 3 at Darlington, which led to a 14th-place finish.

It would not be until 1997. Jeff Gordon prevailed, holding off a hard charging Jeff Burton on the final lap at Darlington to win; the two cars touched coming around Turn 4 to take the white flag side-by-side, with Gordon holding on to win his third of four consecutive Southern 500 wins, a record in NASCAR majors. A Brinks truck led him around the victory lap. Elliott and Gordon won the only two Winston Million bonuses in its first year in 1985, in its final year in 1997. In 1998, in preparations for the 50th anniversary of NASCAR, R. J. Reynolds decided to revamp and reintroduce the million dollar award program. Several factors contributed to the change. After thirteen seasons, the Winston Million had been won only twice, several times, no driver won two events. R. J. Reynolds, along with NASCAR, the drivers, fans, wanted a new format for the award, which allowed it to be won more and have more drivers involved; the four established crown jewels on the circuit were experiencing worthy competition.

In 1994, the inaugural Brickyard 400 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was held, for sev