Bad Kissingen is a spa town in the Bavarian region of Lower Franconia and seat of the district Bad Kissingen. Situated to the south of the Rhön Mountains on the Franconian Saale river, it is one of the health resorts, the town was first documented in the year 801 as chizzicha and was renowned above all for its mineral springs, which are recorded from as early as 823. Kissingen was first mentioned as oppidum in 1279, the town developed to a spa in the 1500s and recorded its first official spa guest in 1520. Kissingen grew to be a resort in the 19th century. On 10 July 1866 during the Mainfeldzug of the Austro-Prussian War, imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck visited Kissingens spas many times, and in 1874 narrowly avoided assassination by Eduard Franz Ludwig Kullmann there. In 1877 the Kissingen Dictation was written here, in which Bismarck explained the principles of his foreign policy, bismarck’s former home in Kissingen is now the Bismarck Museum. Other well-known visitors to the resort included author Leo Tolstoy and artist Adolph von Menzel, the resorts clientele changed in the 20th century, with ordinary people increasingly replacing nobility as guests.
The spa suffered a one-year interruption in 1945, the closure in its history. Shortly prior to World War II Manteuffel Kaserne was established at the edge of the Bad Kissingen town center by the German military as part of Hitlers program to expand the German Wehrmacht. In 1945, the American military entered the town peacefully, and took over the Kaserne, the barracks were closed in the 1990s after the fall of the iron curtain when the american troops were withdrawn. After the war, the Department of Social Security built clinics in the town, a change in health legislation in the 1990s reduced the opportunities for German health insurance contracts to fund spa visits, which led to job losses. As a result, efforts were made to attract a new kind of clientele, in 2015, about 1.5 million overnight stays of more than 238000 visitors were registratet in the town. In addition there is one representative for Kleinbrach who has no right to vote in the council, Kissinger Piano Olympics, a competition of young pianistes, relatet to the Kissinger Sommer, is held in autumn.
Another music festival called the ‘Kissinger Winterzauber’ takes place each winter, the national German brass band contest has been hosted in Bad Kissingen in 2014 and 2016. The annual festivity ‘Rakoczy Fest’ at the last weekend of July is held to all historical figures whose lives were connected to Bad Kissingen. The highlight is a parade on the Sunday afternoon, historical figures are represented by citizens of the town during the entire weekend, and take part in town life. The Kissinger Kabarettherbst is a series of performances of artists in autumn. The old town hall is a Renaissance design from 1577, the medieval chapel Marienkapelle was renewed and enlarged by Balthasar Neumann
Gabriel von Seidl
Gabriel von Seidl was a German architect and a representative of the historicist style of architecture. Gabriel Seidl was born in Munich, Bavaria in 1848 and he was the first son of the wealthy baker Anton Seidl and his wife Therese, daughter of the well-known brewer Gabriel Sedlmayr. Seidl initially studied engineering at the Polytechnic School in Munich. He worked as an engineer in England, where he found that his real talent lay in the field of architecture. Consequently, he began studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and his studies were interrupted during 1870–1871 due to his volunteer participation in the Franco-Prussian War. After an extended period of study in Rome, he opened an interior decoration studio in 1878. Seidl was a member of the Bavarian Arts and Crafts Association founded in 1851 and quickly won the admiration of its members, including Lorenz Gedon, Rudolf von Seitz, in 1900 Gabriel Seidl was awarded the Verdienstorden der Bayerischen Krone. Thereby he was raised to the peerage and became Ritter von Seidl, in 1908 he was awarded the Pour le mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste.
In 1902 he founded the Isartalverein, an association for the preservation of the beauty of the Isar valley. Seidl was made a citizen of Speyer on 14 April 1909 because of his construction of a new building for the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer. In 1913 he was made a citizen of Munich. From 1866, like his cousin Gabriel Ritter von Sedlmayr, was a member of the Corps Germania Munich. Not only was he a faithful corps brother till his death, he drew the plans for the construction of the corps house. In 1890 Seidl married Franziska Neunzert, the daughter of a forester, five children were born of this marriage. Seidl died in 1913 in his residential and office building at 28 Mars Road in Munich, Gabriel von Seidls brother Emanuel von Seidl was an architect, but because his work focused mainly on private residential buildings, he is not as well known today. Gabriel von Seidl is buried at the Old South Cemetery in Munich, streets or squares are named after him in Bremen, Gräfelfing, Grünwald, Nuremberg and Worms.
The Isartalverein erected a pillar in his memory in Pullach in 1922. Stephan Bammer, Natur- und Heimatschützer, in Schönere Heimat,102, p. 4–12,2013
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Oschatz is a town in the district Nordsachsen, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is located 60 km east of Leipzig and 60 km west of Dresden, Oschatz lies in the Saxon Lowland and is located on the river Döllnitz, which joins the river Elbe as a left tributary 15 km away near Riesa. Oschatz is situated near the regions of the Dahlener Heath as well as the Wermsdorf Forest. Neighboring districts include, Liebschützberg, Riesa, Naundorf, the average air temperature in Oschatz is approximately 8.6 °C, the annual rainfall is about 570 millimeters
CiNii is a bibliographic database service for material in Japanese academic libraries, especially focusing on Japanese works and English works published in Japan. The database was founded in April 2005 and is maintained by the National Institute of Informatics, the database contains more than 15 million articles from more than 3600 publications. A typical month saw more than 30 million accesses from 2.2 million unique visitors, the database assigns a unique identifier, NII Article ID, to each of its journal article entries. A different identifier, NII Citation ID aka NACSIS-CAT Record ID, is used for books
The Schiller Theater is a theatre building in Berlin, Germany. It is located in the central Charlottenburg district at Bismarckstraße No.110 near Ernst-Reuter-Platz, opened in 1907, the building served as second venue of the Prussian State Theatre company in the 1920s and 1930s. After post-war rebuilding, it was the stage of the Berlin State Theatres from 1951 until in 1993 the City Senate decided to close it for financial reasons. Since then, it is rented out for performances and other events. The Schiller Theater was built from 1905 to 1906 according to plans by the Munich architect Max Littmann on behalf of Schiller-Theater company, the building complex comprised a theatre hall, a multipurpose room, as well as a restaurant. The sculptural decoration was designed by the sculptors Düll and Petzold, the decoration of the auditorium, the 1, 194-seat theatre was opened on 1 January 1907 with Die Räuber by Friedrich Schiller, and continued to be run by the Schiller-Theater-Gesellschaft with their own theatre company.
He had already inaugurated a Schiller Theater Ost in Berlins Königstadt quarter in 1894, after World War I, from June 1921, the building was the second venue of the Prussian State Theatre, whose main venue was the present-day Konzerthaus Berlin at Gendarmenmarkt in the Mitte district. After the Nazi seizure of power, the Prussian prime minister Hermann Göring had the Schiller Theater transferred into possession of the City of Berlin in December 1933, from 1937 to 1938, the theatre was extensively rebuilt according to plans designed by Paul Baumgarten. A special state box was installed in the auditorium, the sculptors Paul Scheurich and Karl Nocke and the painter Albert Birkle were involved in the conversion. From the re-opening with Schillers Kabale und Liebe in the presence of Adolf Hitler on 15 November 1938, the famous actor Heinrich George was employed as general director, acting under the pseudonym of Heinrich Schmitz. During the bombing of Berlin in World War II, the auditorium was destroyed in a RAF air strike in the night of 22/23 November 1943, performances continued on a provisional stage until the theatre finally closed in September 1944.
After the war, the Schiller Theater was rebuilt from 1950 on behalf of the city of West Berlin, according to plans by the architects Heinz Völker, some parts of the ruins of the old theatre were re-used for the new construction. The main foyer received a glass wall and the hallway was adorned with shulptures created by Bernhard Heiliger. The State Theatres used the Schiller-Theater Werkstatt in the building of the Schiller Theater, under the management of Boleslaw Barlog the Schiller Theater became the leading West Berlin stage, only rivalled by the Schaubühne ensemble around Peter Stein from the 1970s onwards. Among the famous managers of the Berlin State Theatres were Hans Lietzau, notable directors included Gustaf Gründgens, Jürgen Fehling, Samuel Beckett, Fritz Kortner, Boleslaw Barlog, Hans Lietzau, Karl Paryla, George Tabori, Hans Neuenfels, Hans Hollmann and Peter Zadek. After lengthy discussions, the Schiller Theater was closed on 3 October 1993, the last performance of the state theatre there was the premiere of the play Weißalles und Dickedumm by Coline Serreau starring Katharina Thalbach.
All permanently employed staff and artists, including Bernhard Minetti, Erich Schellow, the closure of the largest German-speaking stage sparked protest and resentment, and the Senator for Culture at that time, Ulrich Roloff-Momin, was given the name Schiller-Killer. It was used as a venue for musicals and guest theatre performances, from January to October 2000, the Maxim-Gorki-Theater used the stage of the Schiller Theater
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germanys sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony is divided into 10 districts,1. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke, in 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen. The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland, the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.
To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan region with Halle. The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt, Leipzig shares for instance an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after Saxony Anhalt, the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany and its economy grew by 1. 9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average, the eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an Objective 1 development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname Silicon Saxony, the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the development of the region.
Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - especially the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, new tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an unemployment of 8. 8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9. 8% and 6. 7% for Germany overall, the unemployment rate reached 8. 2% in May 2015. The Leipzig area, which recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, zwickau is another major Volkswagen location