The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Emotional Rescue is the 15th British and 17th American studio album by The Rolling Stones, released in 1980. Fresh off of the success of their prior album, Some Girls, their biggest hit to date, the Rolling Stones returned to the studio in early 1979 to start writing and recording its follow-up. Full-time members Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Ronnie Wood, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts were joined by frequent collaborators Ian Stewart, Nicky Hopkins, Bobby Keys and Sugar Blue. Upon release, it topped the charts in at least six countries, including the US, UK, Canada. Hit singles from the album include the title track, which reached No. 1 in Canada, No. 3 in the US, No. 9 in Canada and "She's So Cold", a top-40 single in several countries. The recording sessions for Emotional Rescue were so productive that several tracks left off the album would form the core of the follow-up, 1981's Tattoo You. Recorded throughout 1979, first in Compass Point Studios, Bahamas Pathé Marconi, with some end-of-year overdubbing in New York City at The Hit Factory, Emotional Rescue was the first Rolling Stones album recorded following Keith Richards' exoneration from a Toronto drugs charge that could have landed him in jail for years.
Fresh from the revitalisation of Some Girls and Mick Jagger led the Stones through dozens of new songs, some of which were held over for Tattoo You, picking only ten for Emotional Rescue. Several of the tracks on the album featured just the core Rolling Stones band members: Jagger, Ronnie Wood, Charlie Watts, Bill Wyman. On others, they were joined by keyboardists Nicky Hopkins and co-founder Ian Stewart, sax player Bobby Keys and harmonica player Sugar Blue. Songs left off the album would find their way onto the next album, Tattoo You. "Think I'm Going Mad", another song from the sessions, was released as the B-side to "She Was Hot" in 1984. A cover song sung by Richards: "We Had It All", was released on the 2011 deluxe Some Girls package; the album cover for Emotional Rescue had concept origination, art direction and design by Peter Corriston with thermographic photos taken by British-born, Paris-based artist Roy Adzak using a thermo camera, a device that measures heat emissions. The original release came wrapped in a huge colour poster featuring more thermo-shots of the band with the album itself wrapped in a plastic bag.
The music video shot for "Emotional Rescue" utilised the same type of shots of the band performing. Released in June with the disco-infused hit title track as the lead single, Emotional Rescue was an immediate smash; the title track hit No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100. The album gave the Rolling Stones their first UK No. 1 album since 1973's Goats Head Soup and spent seven weeks atop the US charts. The follow-up single "She's So Cold" was a top 30 hit while "Dance Pt. 1" reached No. 9 on Billboard's Dance chart. The album went on to sell over 5.5 million copies worldwide. In 1994, Emotional Rescue was remastered and reissued by Virgin Records, again in 2009 by Universal Music. In 2011 it was released by Universal Music Enterprises in a Japanese-only SHM-SACD version; the 1994 remaster was released in a Collector's Edition CD, which replicated many elements of the original album packaging, including the colour poster. All songs composed except "Dance" co-written by Ronnie Wood. Side one "Dance" – 4:23 "Summer Romance" – 3:16 "Send It to Me" – 3:43 "Let Me Go" – 3:50 "Indian Girl" – 4:23Side two "Where the Boys Go" – 3:29 "Down in the Hole" – 3:57 "Emotional Rescue" – 5:39 "She's So Cold" – 4:12 "All About You" – 4:18 The Rolling Stones Mick Jagger – lead vocals, electric guitar, backing vocals, electric piano, percussion Keith Richards – electric guitar, backing vocals, acoustic guitar, bass guitar, lead vocals Bill Wyman – bass guitar, string synthesizer Charlie Watts – drums Ronnie Wood – electric guitar, bass guitar, pedal steel, backing vocals, saxophone Additional personnel Ian Stewart – electric and acoustic piano, percussion Nicky Hopkins – keyboards Sugar Blue – harmonica Bobby Keys – saxophone Michael Shrieve – percussion Max Romeo – backing vocals on "Dance" Jack Nitzsche – horn arrangement on "Indian Girl"Technical Chris Kimsey – associate producer and engineer Snake Reynolds – assistant engineer Sean Fullan – assistant engineer Ted Jensen – mastering engineer
Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. A product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement; the musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, its nude scene caused much comment and controversy. The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale. Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society.
Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life. After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording; some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical.
In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever." Hair was conceived by actors James Gerome Ragni. The two met in 1964 when they performed together in the Off-Broadway flop Hang Down Your Head and Die, they began writing Hair together in late 1964; the main characters were autobiographical, with Rado's Claude being a pensive romantic and Ragni's Berger an extrovert. Their close relationship, including its volatility, was reflected in the musical. Rado explained, "We were great friends, it was a passionate kind of relationship that we directed into creativity, into writing, into creating this piece. We put the drama between us on stage."Rado described the inspiration for Hair as "a combination of some characters we met in the streets, people we knew and our own imaginations. We knew this group of kids in the East Village who were dropping out and dodging the draft, there were lots of articles in the press about how kids were being kicked out of school for growing their hair long".
He recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, we thought if we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful.... We hung out with them and went to their Be-Ins let our hair grow." Many cast members were recruited right off the street. Rado said, "It was important and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips. We thought,'This is happening in the streets', we wanted to bring it to the stage."Rado and Ragni came from different artistic backgrounds. In college, Rado wrote musical revues and aspired to be a Broadway composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein tradition, he went on to study acting with Lee Strasberg. Ragni, on the other hand, was an active member of The Open Theater, one of several groups Off-off Broadway, that were developing experimental theatre techniques, he introduced Rado to the modern theatre methods being developed at The Open Theater. In 1966, while the two were developing Hair, Ragni performed in The Open Theater's production of Megan Terry's play, Viet Rock, a story about young men being deployed to the Vietnam War.
In addition to the war theme, Viet Rock employed the improvisational exercises being used in the experimental theatre scene and used in the development of Hair. Rado and Ragni brought their drafts of the show to producer Eric Blau who, through common friend Nat Shapiro, connected the two with Canadian composer Galt MacDermot. MacDermot had won a Grammy Award in 1961 for his composition "African Waltz"; the composer's lifestyle was in marked contrast to his co-creators: "I had short hair, a wife, and, at that point, four children, I lived on Staten Island." "I never heard of a hippie when I met Rado and Ragni." But he shared their enthusiasm to do a roll show. "We work independently", explained MacDermot in May 1968. "I prefer it that way. They hand me the material. I set it to music." MacDermot wrote the first score in three weeks, starting with the songs "I Got Life", "Ain't Got No", "Where Do I Go" and the title song. He first wrote "Aquarius" as an unconventional art piece, but rewrote it into an uplifting anthem.
The creators received many rejections. Joe Papp, who ran the New York Shakespeare Festival, decided he wanted Hair to open the new Public Theater in New York City's East Village; the musical was the first work by living authors. The production did not go
Plantations in the American South
Plantations are an important aspect of the history of the American South the antebellum era. The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, fertile soils of the southeastern United States allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of workers Africans held captive for slave labor, were required for agricultural production. An individual who owned a plantation was known as a planter. Historians of the antebellum South have defined "planter" most as a person owning property and 20 or more slaves; the wealthiest planters, such as the Virginia elite with plantations near the James River, owned more land and slaves than other farmers. Tobacco was the major cash crop in the Upper South; the development of cotton and sugar cultivation in the Deep South in the early 18th century led to the establishment of large plantations which had hundreds of slaves. The great majority of Southern farmers owned fewer than five slaves. Slaves were much more expensive than land. In the "Black Belt" counties of Alabama and Mississippi, the terms "planter" and "farmer" were synonymous.
While most Southerners were not slave-owners, while the majority of slaveholders held ten or fewer slaves, planters were those who held a significant number of slaves as agricultural labor. Planters are spoken of as belonging to the planter elite or to the planter aristocracy in the antebellum South; the historians Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman define large planters as those owning over 50 slaves, medium planters as those owning between 16 and 50 slaves. Historian David Williams, in A People's History of the Civil War: Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom, suggests that the minimum requirement for planter status was twenty negroes since a southern planter could exempt Confederate duty for one white male per twenty slaves owned. In his study of Black Belt counties in Alabama, Jonathan Weiner defines planters by ownership of real property, rather than of slaves. A planter, for Weiner, owned at least $10,000 worth of real estate in 1850 and $32,000 worth in 1860, equivalent to about the top 8 percent of landowners.
In his study of southwest Georgia, Lee Formwalt defines planters in terms of size of land holdings rather than in terms of numbers of slaves. Formwalt's planters are in the top 4.5 percent of landowners, translating into real estate worth six thousand dollars or more in 1850, 24,000 dollars or more in 1860, eleven thousand dollars or more in 1870. In his study of Harrison County, Randolph B. Campbell classifies large planters as owners of 20 slaves, small planters as owners of between 10 and 19 slaves. In Chicot and Phillips Counties, Carl H. Moneyhon defines large planters as owners of twenty or more slaves, of six hundred or more acres. Many nostalgic memoirs about plantation life were published in the post-bellum South. For example, James Battle Avirett, who grew up on the Avirett-Stephens Plantation in Onslow County, North Carolina and served as an Episcopal chaplain in the Confederate States Army, published The Old Plantation: How We Lived in Great House and Cabin before the War in 1901.
Such memoirs included descriptions of Christmas as the epitome of anti-modern order exemplified by the "great house" and extended family. On larger plantations an overseer represented the planter in matters of daily management. Portrayed as uncouth, ill-educated and low-class, he had the difficult and despised task of middleman and the contradictory goals of fostering both productivity and the enslaved work-force. Crops cultivated on antebellum plantations included cotton, sugar, rice, to a lesser extent okra, sweet potato and watermelon. By the late 18th century, most planters in the Upper South had switched from exclusive tobacco cultivation to mixed-crop production. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina before the American Revolution, planters in South Carolina owned hundreds of slaves; the 19th-century development of the Deep South for cotton cultivation depended on large tracts of land with much more acreage than was typical of the Chesapeake Bay area, for labor, planters held dozens, or sometimes hundreds, of slaves.
Antebellum architecture can be seen in many extant "plantation houses", the large residences of planters and their families. Over time in each region of the plantation south a regional architecture emerged inspired by those who settled the area. Most early plantation architecture was constructed to mitigate the hot subtropical climate and provide natural cooling; some of earliest plantation architecture occurred in southern Louisiana by the French. Using styles and building concepts they had learned in the Caribbean, the French created many of the grand plantation homes around New Orleans. French Creole architecture began around 1699, lasted well into the 1800s. In the Lowcountry of South Carolina and Georgia, the Dogtrot style house was built with a large center breezeway running through the house to mitigate the subtropical heat; the wealthiest planters in colonial Virginia constructed their manor houses in the Georgian style, e.g. the mansion of Shirley Plantation. In the 19th century, Greek Revival architecture became popular on some of the plantation homes of the deep south.
Common plants and trees incorporated in the landscape of Southern plantation manors included Southern live oak and Southern magnolia. Both of these large trees are native to the Southern United States and were classic sym
Clarendon Parish, Jamaica
Clarendon is a parish in Jamaica. It is located on the south of the island halfway between the island's eastern and western ends. Located in the county of Middlesex, it is bordered by Manchester on the west, Saint Catherine in the east, in the north by Saint Ann. Clarendon was named in Earl of Clarendon; the most recent parish was formed from a combination of three parishes: St. Dorothy's, Vere and the old parish of Clarendon. Before the merger, the capital was Chapelton. Clarendon Parish was one of the original seven Anglican parishes of Jamaica set up by Sir Thomas Modyford in 1664, it has been reorganized numerous times since. Parish registers, which are records kept by the parish church of religious events such as baptisms and burials, are still extant from Clarendon parish as far back as its foundation, with the first recorded baptism dated in 1666. Covering an area of 1,196 km², Clarendon ranks as Jamaica's third largest parish; the parish is predominantly a wide plain, marked by several rivers, including the Rio Minho, which runs the length of the parish.
Toward the northern end of the parish lies the Mocho Mountains, Bull Head Mountain range, considered to be the geographical centre of the island. The Vere plain is another significant geographical feature. Portland Point, the southernmost point of Jamaica, is on a peninsula in Clarendon which hosts Portland Point Lighthouse. On the same peninsula are Jackson Bay beach, the flood-prone community of Portland Cottage, two different locations both called Rocky Point: a residential community on the western side of the peninsula, a port used for the export of alumina on the eastern side of the peninsula. With a population at an estimated 246,322, Clarendon is one of the most populous parishes in the island. May Pen, the capital, has a population estimated at around 60,000. Chapelton Hayes Frankfield Lionel Town May Pen Palmers Cross Race Course Rocky Point Bauxite, Jamaica's major mineral source, can be found extensively in Clarendon. Bauxite mining has been established in the parish by JAMALCO and ALCOA.
Most of the island's tobacco is grown in Clarendon, along with cotton, ginger, indigo, bananas and cocoa. May Pen is an important citrus packing centre, famous for'Trout Hall' oranges. Additionally, dairy farming, fish farming, copper mining have been carried on intermittently, the sugar-cane production contributes to the amount of sugar exported annually; the Denbigh agricultural showground is on the outskirts of May Pen. One of the top ten credit unions in Jamaica, GSB Co-operative Credit Union has a branch here. Clarendon is the location of the Milk River Bath, a mineral spa famous for the therapeutic value of its waters; the oldest church on the island is in the old capital of Vere. Halse Hall Great House is one of the island's historic houses; the land on which the house stands was given to an English officer, Major Thomas Halse, in 1655, was passed from him to Francis Sadler Halse. Halse played a leading role in the Maroon Wars; the Denbigh Agricultural Show Grounds – once a year, on the weekend prior to Independence celebrations, a national Agriculture Show is staged here.
Vernamfield was the first car-racing track established in Jamaica. The track is located on the former American lend lease air base, Vernam Field, named in honor of World War I flyer Remington de B. Vernam. Vernam Field is known for drag racing; the Woodleigh racetrack outside of May Pen is known for dirtbike racing. It is the home of the New Sevens Estate and Moneymusk Sugar factories. Halse Hall Great House Milk River Bath Rio Minho Vernam Field Birthplace of Elizabeth Home, Countess of Home Birthplace of Canadian sprinter Atlee Mahorn Birthplace of singer Liz Mitchell of Boney M. fame. Birthplace of singer Millie. Birthplace of poet Linton Kwesi Johnson Birthplace of reggae singer Cocoa Tea – Calvin George Scott Birthplace of singer Freddie McGregor Birthplace of writer Claude McKay, part of the Harlem Renaissance; the high school at his birthplace, James Hill, is named in his honour. Birthplace of singer Barrington Levy Birthplace of singer Toots Hibbert of Toots & The Maytals fame; the Earl of Carlisle, a governor of Jamaica from 1678–1680.
Birthplace of world champion boxer Glen Johnson Birthplace of Mona Hammond Birthplace of soccer player Rodolph Austin Birthplace of Fr. Raphael Morgan and first Black Orthodox priest in America. Birthplace of Super Cat Davina Bennett, Miss Universe 2017 Top 3. Birthplace of Derrick Morgan Birthplace of Dennis Alcapone Birthplace of Canadian soccer player Roger Thompson Birthplace of quarterback Rohan Davey Birthplace of Canadian football player Michael Allen Birthplace of reggae singer OMI Birthplace of Doreen Lawrence, Baroness Lawrence of Clarendon Birthplace of singer Dalton Harris Resting place of Stephen Lawrence, murdered in Eltham, London in 1993 Clarendon Guide Statistical Institute of Jamaica Clarendon Political Geography Searchable index of Jamaican parish registers with images of original documents