F. W. Murnau
Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau was a German film director. He was influenced by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Ibsen plays he had seen at the age of 12, became a friend of director Max Reinhardt. During World War I he served as a company commander at the eastern front and was in the German air force, surviving several crashes without any severe injuries. One of Murnau's acclaimed works is an adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula. Although not a commercial success, owing to copyright issues with Stoker's novel, the film is considered a masterpiece of Expressionist film, he directed the 1924 film The Last Laugh, as well as a 1926 interpretation of Goethe's Faust. He emigrated to Hollywood in 1926, where he joined the Fox Studio and made three films: Sunrise, 4 Devils and City Girl; the first of these three is regarded as one of the greatest films made. In 1931, Murnau travelled to Bora Bora to make the film Tabu with documentary film pioneer Robert J. Flaherty, who left after artistic disputes with Murnau, who had to finish the movie on his own.
A week prior to the opening of the film Tabu, Murnau died in a Santa Barbara hospital from injuries he had sustained in an automobile accident that occurred along the Pacific Coast Highway near Rincon Beach, southeast of Santa Barbara. Of the 21 films Murnau directed, eight are considered to be lost. One reel of his feature Marizza, genannt die; this leaves only 12 films surviving in their entirety. Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe was born in Province of Westphalia. By the age of seven, he was living in Kassel, northern Hesse, he had two brothers and Robert, two stepsisters and Anna. His mother, Otilie Volbracht, was the second wife of his father, Heinrich Plumpe, an owner of a cloth factory in the northwest part of Germany, their villa was turned into a stage for little plays, directed by the young Friedrich, who had read books by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Ibsen plays by the age of 12. Plumpe would take the pseudonym of "Murnau" from the town of that name near Lake Staffel, south of Munich, where he lived for a time.
The young Murnau was 6' 4" tall, was said to have an icy, imperious disposition and an obsession with film. Some reference sources list him as being 7 feet tall, but extant photos show him to be closer to 6'4". Murnau studied philology at the University in Berlin and art history and literature in Heidelberg, where director Max Reinhardt saw him at a students' performance and decided to invite him to his actor-school, he soon became a friend of Else Lasker-Schüler and Hans Ehrenbaum-Degele. In World War I Murnau served as a company commander at the eastern front, he joined the Imperial German Flying Corps and flew missions in northern France for two years. After landing in Switzerland, he was interned for the remainder of the war. In his POW camp he wrote a film script. After World War I ended, Murnau returned to Germany where he soon established his own film studio with actor Conrad Veidt, his first feature-length film, The Boy in Blue, a drama inspired by the famous Thomas Gainsborough painting, was released in 1919.
He explored the popular theme of dual personalities, much like Robert Louis Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in 1920's Der Janus-Kopf starring Veidt and featuring Bela Lugosi. Murnau's most famous film is Nosferatu, a 1922 adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula, starring German stage actor Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok; the release would be the only one by Prana Film because the company declared itself bankrupt in order to avoid paying damages to Stoker's estate after the estate won a copyright infringement lawsuit. Apart from awarding damages, the court ordered all existing prints of the film to be destroyed. However, one copy had been distributed globally; this print, duplicated time and again by a cult following over the years, has made Nosferatu an early example of a cult film. In Murnau's filmography was The Last Laugh, written by Carl Mayer and starring Emil Jannings; the film introduced the subjective point of view camera, where the camera "sees" from the eyes of a character and uses visual style to convey a character's psychological state.
It anticipated the cinéma vérité movement in its subject matter. The film used the "unchained camera technique", a mix of tracking shots, pans and dolly moves. Unlike the majority of Murnau's other works, The Last Laugh is considered a Kammerspielfilm with Expressionist elements. Unlike expressionist films, Kammerspielfilme are categorized by their chamber play influence, involving a lack of intricate set designs and story lines / themes regarding social injustice towards the working classes. Murnau was gay. Murnau's last German film was the big budget Faust with Gösta Ekman as the title character, Emil Jannings as Mephisto and Camilla Horn as Gretchen. Murnau's film draws on older traditions of the legendary tale of Faust as well as on Goethe's classic version; the film is well known for a sequence in which the giant, winged figure of Mephisto hovers over a town sowing the seeds of plague. Nosferatu and Faust were two of the first films to feature original film scores. Murnau emigrated to Hollywood in 1926, where he joined the Fox Studio and made Sunrise: A Song of T
Rudolstadt is a town in the German Bundesland of Thuringia, close to the Thuringian Forest to the southwest, to Jena and Weimar to the north. The former capital of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, the town is built along the River Saale inside a wide valley surrounded by woods. Rudolstadt was founded in 776 and has had municipal law since 1326; the town's landmark is the Castle Heidecksburg, enthroned on a hill above the old town. The former municipality Remda-Teichel was merged into Rudolstadt in January 2019. Rudolstadt is twinned with Co.. Donegal, Ireland. Rudolstadt became popular through the Anchor Stone Blocks of the Toy Company Richter and porcelain factories, beginning with the establishment of the Volkstedt porcelain manufacture in 1762. Rudolstadt hosts Germany’s biggest folk and world music festival, TFF Rudolstadt, taking place annually on the first full July weekend; the headquarters of the EPC Group, a global engineering and construction company, are in Rudolstadt. Since 2012 Rudolstadt hosts Gettingtough -- Europe's hardest Obstacle Race.
Hans Fallada, German writer. He went to school in Rudolstadt, it was here that he killed his friend Hans Dietrich von Necker in a duel. Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer worked here as the composer in residence for the Rudolstadt theatre Richard Wagner, German composer, worked here as the composer in residence for the Rudolstadt theatre Niccolò Paganini, Italian composer, worked here as the composer in residence for the Rudolstadt theatre Philipp Heinrich Erlebach, German composer and choirmaster in Rudolstadt Ahasverus Fritsch, German poet and composer Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, grandmother of King Leopold I of Belgium, great-grandmother to Albert, Prince Consort of the United Kingdom Official website
Gera is the third-largest city in Thuringia, with 96,000 inhabitants, located 55 kilometres south of Leipzig, 75 km east of Erfurt and 120 km west of Dresden. Gera was first developed to a city during the 13th century, it was the residence of several lines of the Reussians until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918. Over the 19th century, Gera became a centre of the textile industry and saw a period of rapid growth. In 1952, the city became an administrative centre in GDR as one of the capitals of Gera administrative district. In 1990, Gera became part of re-established Thuringia; the loss of its administrative functions as well as its industrial core precipitated the city's slide into an enduring economic crisis. Since 1990, many of Gera's buildings have been restored and big urban planning programmes like the Bundesgartenschau 2007 were implemented to stimulate Gera's economy. Sights include some retained buildings of the royal residence epoque and a large number of public and private buildings from the economic heyday between 1870 and 1930.
The famous painter Otto Dix was born in Gera in 1891. Gera lies in a hilly landscape in the east of Thuringia, within the wide valley of the White Elster river; the place name Gera referred to the area of the Elster river valley where the city stands now. The name most originated before the European Migration Period – the Slavic people who first settled the area during the 8th century adopted the name; the first known documentary mention of Gera dates from 995. In 999 Emperor Otto III assigned the "province" of Gera to the Quedlinburg Abbey. In turn, the church assigned the protectorship of this area in 1209 to the Vogts of Weida who served as its administrators; the Vogts of Weida were the ancestors of the Reussians, who ruled Gera until 1918. Gera was first mentioned as a town in 1237, though it is unclear in which year Gera got the municipal law; the small town got circumvallated in the 13th century on an area of 350 x 350 m and the Vogts' city castle was built in the south-western corner at today's Burgstraße.
A municipal seal was first used in 1350, the council was first named in 1360 and the town hall was mentioned in 1426. The abbess of Quedlinburg remained the formal sovereign of Gera until 1358, as the Wettins followed her up; the Vogt's couldn't emancipate theirselfs from Wettin rule. In 1450, Gera was totally destroyed during the Saxon Fratricidal War, but it could recuperate quick because the starting textile manufacture brought wealth to the town; the Reformation was introduced in Gera in 1533 against the will of the Vogts by the Wettins. After the Schmalkaldic War in 1546, the Wettins lost Gera to the Bohemian Crown, who however had no influence on the city, so that the Vogts resp. the Reussians as indeed rulers were strengthened. During the 16th century, some cloth-makers from the Spanish Netherlands migrated to Gera as religious refugees at Count Henry's invitation and raised the textile business in Gera. In the 18th century, there was a first peak in this industry, which can be seen today at the large agents houses.
In 1673, the Reussians were raised to Imperial Counts which granted them full sovereignty within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1686 and 1780, big town fires destroyed most buildings in Gera; the town was rebuilt uniform during the 1780s in late-Baroque style, which marks the inner city until today. In 1806 Napoleon established his Imperial Headquarters at Gera during the War of the Fourth Coalition. From here, on October 12, 1806, the French Emperor purposely sent an arrogant and threatening letter to King Frederick William III of Prussia – a letter that enticed Prussia to war and a crushing defeat at the Battle of Jena a few days later; the Gera line of Reussians died out in 1802, so that it had no royal residence until the new one moved there from Schleiz in 1848. From 1848 to 1918 Gera served as the capital of the Principality of Reuss-Gera. With the industrial revolution in the mid-19th century, Gera grew due to its textile industry, which saw the first Power loom installed in 1836. In 1859, Gera was first connected by railway to Halle via Weißenfels.
During the following decades, rail lines in all directions made Gera to a transport hub, the town kept growing. The second electric tram in Germany was installed in Gera in 1892. After World War I, during the German Revolution of 1918–19, the prince of Reuss was forced to abdicate and as the resultant "Republic of Reuss" joined the newly founded state of Thuringia in 1920. After the incorporation of some suburbs in the 1910s and 1920s Gera, with some 80,000 inhabitants, was the largest city in Thuringia, although the more centrally located Weimar became its capital. After the Nazi takeover of Germany, the Jewish community of Gera was destroyed, the synagogue burnt down in the Kristallnacht in 1938 and the city's Jews emigrated or were murdered in concentration camps. A month before the end of World War II, on 6 April 1945, U. S. bombing killed 514 residents. Some 300 buildings were hit, including the Osterstein castle and several historic buildings in city centre, many of which weren't rebuilt after the war.
U. S. forces occupied Gera on 14 April 1945 but were replaced by the Soviets on 1 July 1945. Gera became part of the GDR in 1949 and was a flash point in the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany as thousands of workers – among them many employees of the Soviet-established Wismut uranium mining entity in the nearby Ore Mountains
Międzyrzec Podlaski is a city in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, with the population of 17,162 inhabitants as of 2006. The total area of the city is 20.03 square kilometres. Międzyrzec is located near the Krzna river, not far from the border with Belarus; the first official mention of Międzyrzec Podlaski as a town dates back to 1434, or 1455 and 1477 according to different historical sources. At that time, the newly established town was located along a busy merchant route from Lukow to Brzesc nad Bugiem. Międzyrzec developed: in 1486, a Roman Catholic church was built here, town’s owner, Jan Nassutowicz, received permission for fairs. In 1598, a salt warehouse was opened, the town was center of beer industry; the period of peace and prosperity ended in 1648, when Miedzyrzec was raided by Zaporozhian Cossacks. During the Swedish invasion of Poland, the town was ransacked and burned by Swedes, who returned in 1706 and 1708, during the Great Northern War. Furthermore, Międzyrzec was raided by Russians in 1660.
In 1795, following the Partitions of Poland, the town was annexed by the Habsburg Empire. From 1809 until 1815, it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw, after Napoleonic Wars to Congress Poland under the control of the Russian Tsar. In 1867 it became a stop on the Polish railway system. By that time, Miedzyrzec was an important center of Greek Catholic Church: in 1772, Duke August Aleksander Czartoryski founded here Unite Church of St. Peter and Paul. Since mid-19th century, government of Russian-controlled Congress Poland initiated the process of Russification, aimed at the Uniates; as a result, two local Uniate churches were turned into Orthodox. Since the 16th century Międzyrzec was home to a large Jewish community. At the end of the 1930s in the reborn Polish Republic 12,000 inhabitants, or ¾ of its population, were Jewish. In 1939, during the Nazi–Soviet Invasion of Poland, the city was overrun by Wehrmacht on 13 September 1939, ceded to the Russians on 25 September, in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
Two weeks it was transferred back to Germany after the new Boundary Treaty. In 1940 six separate slave-labor camps were set up by the Nazis for some 2,000 local Jews; the German army entered the Soviet occupation zone on 22 June 1941 under the codename Operation Barbarossa. More Jews from the surrounding area including expellees from Kraków were shipped in. On 19 April 1942 the Jews were ordered by the Gestapo to turn over 50 kilograms of gold within 3 days; some 40 hostages were murdered on the streets. On 25–26 August 1942, the first mass deportation of Jews from Międzyrzec took place with around 10,000 prisoners forcibly put on 52 cattle cars and sent to Treblinka extermination camp. Two days the Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto was established under the management of Judenrat. Several more mass deportation actions followed. On 17 July 1943, the ghetto was liquidated, along with the local transit camp. Fewer than 1% of the Jewish population of the city survived the Nazi mass executions and deportations to death camps.
Of the 4,900 employed citizens of the city, ca. 36% work in industrial fields, 19% in trade markets, 11% in education. The unemployment rate in the city was 22% in October 2005; the town lies at the intersection of two important national roads: DK2 and DK19. In the future Expressway S19 will run just west of the town. A 6.6 km section of it constructed as the town's bypass road and opened in 2008 allows north-south traffic on DK19 road to avoid the town centre. Międzyrzec Podlaski is referred to by various names in different languages including Yiddish: מעזריטש Mezri'tsh, Latin: Meserici, Belarusian: Міжрэчча, German: Meseritz, Latvian: Meņdzižeca Podlaska, Lithuanian: Palenkės Mendzyžecas, Ukrainian: Межиріччя. Międzyrzec Podlaski is twinned with: Thouars, France Kobryn, Belarus Jan Brożek Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski August Aleksander Czartoryski Konstanty Adam Czartoryski Yehoshua Leib Diskin Morris Michael Edelstein Judah David Eisenstein Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski Jacob ben Wolf Kranz Kazimierz Kierzkowski Ryszard Kornacki Sława Przybylska Moshe Rynecki Franciszek Stefaniuk Stanisław Żmijan Rabbi Yitzhak Yaakov Wachtfogel Samson Zelig Rubinstein Międzyrzec Podlaski Home Page Portal of young people of Międzyrzec Podlaski Międzyrzec Podlaski Amateur Photography Board International Jewish Cemetery Project article Jewish Encyclopedia article Jewish Virtual Library article Międzyrzec Podlaski, Poland at JewishGen
Don Carlos is a five-act grand opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi to a French-language libretto by Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle, based on the dramatic play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien by Friedrich Schiller. In addition, it has been noted by David Kimball that the Fontainebleau scene and auto da fé "were the most substantial of several incidents borrowed from a contemporary play on Philip II by Eugène Cormon"; the opera is most performed in Italian translation under the title Don Carlo. The opera's story is based on conflicts in the life of Prince of Asturias. Though he was betrothed to Elisabeth of Valois, part of the peace treaty ending the Italian War of 1551–59 between the Houses of Habsburg and Valois demanded that she be married instead to his father Philip II of Spain, it was commissioned and produced by the Théâtre Impérial de l'Opéra and given its premiere at the Salle Le Peletier on 11 March 1867. The first Italian version given in Italy was in Bologna in March 1867. Revised again by Verdi, it was given in Naples in November/December 1872.
Two other versions were prepared: the first was seen in Milan in January 1884. That is now known as the "Milan version", while the second—also sanctioned by the composer—became the "Modena version" and was presented in that city in December 1886, it restored the "Fontainebleau" first act to the Milan four-act version. Over the following twenty years and additions were made to the opera, resulting in a number of versions being available to directors and conductors. No other Verdi opera exists in so many versions. At its full length, it is Verdi's longest opera. Pre-première cuts and first published edition Verdi made a number of cuts in 1866, after finishing the opera but before composing the ballet because the work was becoming too long; these were a duet for Elisabeth and Eboli in Act 4, Scene 1. After the ballet had been composed, it emerged during the 1867 rehearsal period that, without further cuts, the opera would not finish before midnight. Verdi authorised some further cuts, which were, the introduction to Act 1.
The opera, as first published at the time of the première, consisted of Verdi's original conception, without all of the above-named cuts, but including the ballet. After the première and before leaving Paris, Verdi authorised the Opéra authorities to end Act 4, Scene 2 with the death of Posa if they thought fit. After his departure, further cuts were made during the remaining performances. Despite a grandiose production designed by scenic artists Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Édouard Desplechin and Jean-Baptiste Lavastre, Auguste Alfred Rubé and Philippe Chaperon, it appears to have been a "problem opera" for the Opéra—it disappeared from its repertoire after 1869, it was common practice at the time for most theatres to perform operas in Italian, an Italian translation of Don Carlos was prepared in the autumn of 1866 by Achille de Lauzières. On 18 November 1866 Verdi wrote to Giovanni Ricordi, offering the Milan publisher the Italian rights, but insisting that the opera: must be performed in its entirety as it will be performed for the first time at the Paris Opéra.
Don Carlos is an opera in five acts with ballet: if the management of Italian theatres would like to pair it with a different ballet, this must be placed either before or after the uncut opera, never in the middle, following the barbarous custom of our day. However, the Italian translation was first performed not in Italy but in London at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden on 4 June 1867, where it was produced and conducted by Michael Costa. However, it was not as Verdi desired. Additionally, the duet between Philip and the Inquisitor was shortened by four lines, Elisabeth's aria in Act 5 consisted only of part of the middle section and the reprise; the production was considered a success, Verdi sent a congratulatory note to Costa. When he learned of the alterations, Verdi was irritated, but Costa's version anticipated revisions Verdi himself would make a few years in 1882–83; the Italian premiere on 27 October 1867 at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna, conducted by Verdi's close friend Angelo Mariani, was an "instant success", this version, although produced in Verdi's absence, was more complete and included the ballet.
For the Rome premiere on 9 February 1868 at the Teatro Apollo unsurprisingly, the Papal censor changed the Inquisitor into a Gran Cancelliere and the Monk/Emperor into a Solitario. This version of the opera was first performed in Milan at La Scala on 25 March 1868, prestige productions in most other Ital
Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror, or Nosferatu, is a 1922 German Expressionist horror film, directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok; the film, shot in 1921 and released in 1922, was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula. Various names and other details were changed from the novel: for instance, "vampire" became "Nosferatu" and "Count Dracula" became "Count Orlok". Stoker's heirs sued over the adaptation, a court ruling ordered that all copies of the film be destroyed. However, a few prints of Nosferatu survived, the film came to be regarded as an influential masterpiece of cinema; the film was released in the United States on 3 June 1929, seven years after its original premiere in Germany. In 1838, Thomas Hutter lives in the fictional German city of Wisborg, his mysterious employer, estate agent Herr Knock, sends Hutter to Transylvania to visit a new client named Count Orlok who plans to buy a house in Wisborg. Hutter entrusts his loving wife Ellen to his good friend Harding and Harding's sister Annie, before embarking on his long journey.
Nearing his destination in the Carpathian Mountains, Hutter stops at an inn for dinner. The locals become frightened by the mere mention of Orlok's name and discourage him from traveling to his castle at night, warning of a werewolf on the prowl; the next morning, Hutter takes a coach to a high mountain pass, but the coachman declines to take him any further than the bridge as nightfall is approaching. A black-swathed coach appears after Hutter crosses the bridge and the coachman gestures for him to climb aboard. Hutter is welcomed at a castle by Count Orlok; when Hutter is eating dinner and accidentally cuts his thumb, Orlok tries to suck the blood out, but his repulsed guest pulls his hand away. Hutter wakes up to a deserted castle the morning after and notices fresh punctures on his neck which, in a letter he sends by courier on horseback to be delivered to his devoted wife, he attributes to mosquitoes; that night, Orlok signs the documents to purchase the house across from Hutter's own home in Wisborg and notices a photo of Hutter's wife, remarking that she has a "lovely neck."
Reading a book about vampires that he took from the local inn, Hutter starts to suspect that Orlok is Nosferatu, the "Bird of Death." He cowers in his room as midnight approaches. The door opens by itself and Orlok enters, his true nature revealed, Hutter hides under the bed covers and falls unconscious. At the same time this is happening, his wife awakens from her sleep, in a trance walks towards the balcony and onto the railing. Alarmed, Harding shouts Ellen's name and she faints while he asks for a doctor. After the doctor arrives, she shouts Hutter's name, remaining in the trance and able to see Orlok in his castle threatening her unconscious husband; the doctor believes this trance-like state is due to "blood congestion". The next day, Hutter explores the castle. In its crypt, he finds the coffin. Hutter dashes back to his room. Hours from the window, he sees Orlok piling up coffins on a coach and climbing into the last one before the coach departs. Hutter escapes the castle through the window, but is knocked unconscious by the fall and awakens in a hospital.
When he is sufficiently recovered, he hurries home. Meanwhile, the coffins are shipped down river on a raft, they are transferred to a schooner, but not before one is opened by the crew, revealing a multitude of rats. The sailors on the ship get sick one by one. Suspecting the truth, the first mate goes below to destroy the coffins. However, Orlok awakens and the horrified sailor jumps into the sea. Unaware of his danger, the captain becomes Orlok's latest victim; when the ship arrives in Wisborg, Orlok leaves unobserved, carrying one of his coffins, moves into the house he purchased. The next morning, when the ship is inspected, the captain is found dead. After examining the logbook, the doctors assume; the town is stricken with panic, people are warned to stay inside. There are many deaths in the town. Knock, committed to a psychiatric ward, escapes after murdering the warden; the townspeople give chase, but he eludes them by climbing a roof using a scarecrow. Meanwhile, Orlok stares from his window at the sleeping Ellen.
Against her husband's wishes, Ellen had read the book. The book claims that the way to defeat a vampire is for a woman, pure in heart to distract the vampire with her beauty all through the night, she faints. When Hutter revives her, she sends him to fetch Professor Bulwer. After he leaves, Orlok comes in, he becomes so engrossed drinking her blood. Knock, recaptured, senses what is happening to Orlok, but is restrained from breaking out of his cell to warn him; when a rooster crows, Orlok vanishes in a puff of smoke as he tries to flee, which Knock senses as he dies. Ellen lives just long enough to be embraced by her grief-stricken husband; the last scene shows Count Orlok's ruined castle in the Carpathian Mountains, symbolizing the end of his reign of terror. Max Schreck as Count Orlok Gustav von Wangenheim as Thomas Hutter Greta Schröder as Ellen Hutter Alexander Granach as Knock Georg H. Schnell as Shipowner Harding Ruth Landshoff as Annie John Gottowt as Professor Bulwer Gustav Botz as Professor Sievers Max Nemetz as The Captain of The Empusa Wolfgang Heinz as First Mate of The Empusa Hardy von Francois as mental hospital doctor Albert Venoh
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia