Max Stirner

Johann Kaspar Schmidt, better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher, seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, psychoanalytic theory and individualist anarchism. Stirner's main work, The Ego and Its Own known as The Unique And Its Property, or, more colloquially, The Individual and His Property, was first published in 1845 in Leipzig and has since appeared in numerous editions and translations. Stirner was born in Bavaria. What little is known of his life is due to the Scottish-born German writer John Henry Mackay, who wrote a biography of Stirner, published in German in 1898 and translated into English in 2005. Stirner was the only child of Sophia Elenora Reinlein, his father died of tuberculosis on 19 April 1807 at the age of 37. In 1809, his mother settled in West Prussian Kulm; when Stirner turned 20, he attended the University of Berlin, where he studied philology and theology. He attended the lectures of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, to become a source of inspiration for his thinking.

He attended Hegel's lectures on the history of philosophy, the philosophy of religion and the subjective spirit. Stirner moved to the University of Erlangen, which he attended at the same time as Ludwig Feuerbach. Stirner returned to Berlin and obtained a teaching certificate, but he was unable to obtain a full-time teaching post from the Prussian government. While in Berlin in 1841, Stirner participated in discussions with a group of young philosophers called Die Freien and whom historians have subsequently categorized as the Young Hegelians; some of the best known names in 19th century literature and philosophy were involved with this group, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Bruno Bauer and Arnold Ruge. Contrary to popular belief, Feuerbach was not a member of Die Freien, although he was involved in Young Hegelian discourse. While some of the Young Hegelians were eager subscribers to Hegel's dialectical method and attempted to apply dialectical approaches to Hegel's conclusions, the left-wing members of the group broke with Hegel.

Feuerbach and Bauer led this charge. The debates would take place at Hippel's, a wine bar in Friedrichstraße, attended by among others Marx and Engels, who were both adherents of Feuerbach at the time. Stirner met with Engels many times and Engels recalled that they were "great friends", but it is still unclear whether Marx and Stirner met, it does not appear that Stirner contributed much to the discussions, but he was a faithful member of the club and an attentive listener. The most-often reproduced portrait of Stirner is a cartoon by Engels, drawn forty years from memory at biographer Mackay's request, it is likely that this and the group sketch of Die Freien at Hippel's are the only firsthand images of Stirner. Stirner worked as a teacher in a school for young girls owned by Madame Gropius when he wrote his major work, The Ego and Its Own, which in part is a polemic against Feuerbach and Bauer, but against communists such as Wilhelm Weitling and the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he resigned from his teaching position in anticipation of controversy from this work's publication in October 1844.

Stirner married twice. His first wife was Agnes Burtz, the daughter of his landlady, whom he married on 12 December 1837. However, she died from complications with pregnancy in 1838. In 1843, he married an intellectual associated with Die Freien, they divorced in 1846. The Ego and Its Own was dedicated "to my sweetheart Marie Dähnhardt". Marie converted to Catholicism and died in 1902 in London. After The Ego and Its Own, Stirner wrote Stirner's Critics and translated Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations and Jean-Baptiste Say's Traite d'Economie Politique into German to little financial gain, he wrote a compilation of texts titled History of Reaction in 1852. Stirner died in 1856 in Berlin from an infected insect bite and it is said that Bruno Bauer was the only Young Hegelian present at his funeral, held at the Friedhof II der Sophiengemeinde Berlin; the philosophy of Stirner is credited as a major influence in the development of nihilism and post-modernism as well as individualist anarchism, post-anarchism and post-left anarchy.

Stirner's main philosophical work was Its Own. Stirner argues that individuals are impossible to comprehend. All mere concepts of the self will always be inadequate to describe the nature of our experience. Stirner has been broadly understood as a proponent of both psychological egoism and ethical egoism, although the latter position can be disputed as there is no claim in Stirner's writing in which one ought to pursue one's own interest and further claiming any ought could be seen as a new Fixed Idea. Stirner's Egoism is purely descriptive and must be understood in the Dialectical context to which it refers. Stirner's egoism is an attempt to surpass the idea of'ought' itself. To try to fit Stirner into the contemporary mindset misses the point. Hence this self-interest is subjective, allowing both selfish and altruistic normative claims to be included. Individual self-realization rests on each individual's desire to fulfill their egoism; the difference between an unwilling and a willing egoist is that the former will be possessed by an "empty idea" and believe that they are fulfilling a higher cause, but being unaware that they are only fulfilling their own desires to be happy or secure.


Bannister is a variant spelling of banister. However, it is a common proper name as well. People whose surname is or was Bannister include: Alan Bannister, British silver medallist at the 1948 Summer Olympics Alan Bannister, American retired professional baseball player Alex Bannister, American former football player Arthur Bannister, English cricketer Billy Bannister, English professional footballer Brian Bannister, American baseball player Brown Bannister, music producer and songwriter Bruce Bannister, British retired professional football player Calvin Bannister, Canadian footballer Carys Bannister, British neurosurgeon Charles Bannister, British stage actor Charlie Bannister, English footballer Drew Bannister, Canadian ice hockey player Edward Bannister QC, British judge Edward Mitchell Bannister, Canadian-American painter Ernest Bannister, English footballer Floyd Bannister, American former baseball player Freddy Bannister, British concert promoter in the 1960s and 1970s Gary Bannister, English former football player Geoffrey Bannister, English-American educator and geographer Grace Bannister, Northern Ireland politician Harry Bannister, American stage and television actor Jack Bannister, English cricketer and sports reporter Jack Bannister, English footballer Jarrod Bannister, Australian javelin thrower Jenny Bannister Australian fashion designer Jim Bannister, English footballer Jimmy Bannister English football player Jo Bannister, British crime fiction novelist John Bannister Jordan Bannister, Australian rules football umpire and former player Joseph Bannister, English pirate Keith Bannister, English former professional footballer Keith Bannister, English former professional footballer Ken Bannister, American retired professional basketball player Matthew Bannister, British media executive and broadcaster.

Matthew Bannister, New Zealand musician and academic Michael Bannister, Scottish musician Mike Bannister, former chief pilot of British Airways' Concorde fleet Miriam Bannister, English-American supercentenarian Neil Bannister, English former cricketer Neville Bannister, English former footballer Nonna Bannister, Soviet-born American author Paul Bannister English former footballer Reggie Bannister, American actor and musician Richard Bannister Hughes, British businessman, active in Uruguay Roger Bannister, British athlete, the first man to run a four-minute mile Saxe Bannister, British-Australian lawyer and writer Steve Bannister, English rugby league player Thomas Bannister, British-Australian soldier and explorer Trevor Bannister, English actor Turpin Bannister, American architectural historian Bannister, California Bannister, Michigan Bannister, Missouri North Bannister, Western Australia Bannister River, Western Australia MV Bannister, British coaster named Empire Lundy Banister

William David McCain

William David McCain was a recognized leader of the Mississippi political establishment and a leader in its struggle in the 1950s and 1960s to maintain the "southern way of life" including racial segregationism. He served as Mississippi state archivist, a Major General in the Mississippi National Guard, longtime leader and promoter of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, fifth president and major architect of Mississippi Southern College. McCain married the former Minnie Leicester Lenz on October 3, 1931, they were parents of three children: William D. Jr. John W. and Patricia. In 1924, McCain enlisted as a private in the Mississippi National Guard, he served with General Mark Clark in Italy during World War II, served during the Korean War. Remaining in the National Guard, he rose to the rank of Major General; as part of his military interest, McCain very promoted a large ROTC at the University of Southern Mississippi when he was president there. Over thirty officers were commissioned out of the 1970 class.

McCain attended Delta State University, received an MA from The University of Mississippi, a Ph. D. from Duke, an honorary Doctor of Letters from Mississippi College. After teaching at several junior colleges and both Ole Miss and Mississippi State University, he became director of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History, serving from 1938 to 1955. In addition, he worked as a historian at Morristown National Historical Park in Morristown, New Jersey and served as Assistant Archivist at the US National Archives in Washington, D. C.. From the late 1930s onward he enjoyed a growing reputation as an archivist and regional historian, he was a founding member of the Society of American Archivists and wrote several genealogical volumes, including histories of the McCain, Fox and Vance families. In addition, he wrote The Story of Jackson: A History of the Capital of Mississippi 1821-1851 and The United States and the Republic of Panama. In the 1950s and 1960s he was a staunch supporter of the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, a now notorious government agency created to undermine the civil rights movement.

He was involved in many activities and decisions which will become more known as the commission's archives are made available his part in the Clyde Kennard affair. McCain re-founded the dormant Sons of Confederate Veterans organization and did much research in Confederate history, he un-apologetically revered its policies. Today the SCV honors him in various ways. Founded in 1896, the Sons of Confederate Veterans had its first period of growth and success around and after 1900. By the late 1930s it was dying; when McCain took it over and re-founded it in 1953, it was down to 30 chapters, 1,000 members and $1,053 in assets. After 1953, McCain threw himself into developing the moribund organization into an influential force in Mississippi and Southern politics, a valuable personal political power base, he revived the group's abandoned publication, the Confederate Veteran, began productive membership drives. Over the years of his stewardship from 1953 to the late 1980s membership rose to 20,000, he obtained the current national headquarters facility in Columbia, TN, a comfortable financial cushion.

The Sons of Confederate Veterans gives an annual literary award named for him, noting that "Dr. McCain was instrumental in reviving Sons of Confederate Veterans, an organization that thrived in post-war years but lost popularity during the early part of the century. Dr. McCain is remembered not only for his presidency at Mississippi Southern but for his leadership in Sons of Confederate Veterans."The library at the national headquarters in Columbia, TN, is named is his honor, the grounds are referred to as "MAJ GEN WILLIAM D MCCAIN HQ CAMP."Between 1951-1953 McCain served as the eight president of the Society of American Archivists. A split in the Sons of Confederate Veterans in recent years has led to some Sons of Confederate Veterans local groups defining themselves as being "Dr. William D. McCain Old School" camps to indicate rejection of more racist and neo-Confederate nationalist elements; as late as 1991 they featured McCain in a recruiting video along with Republican Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi.

On August 18, 1955, he became president of Mississippi Southern College, a minor teachers college in Hattiesburg. Here he entered on the great productive period of his career; when he took office, McCain promised to "keep the campus dusty or muddy with construction." During his tenure, twenty-five new academic and housing complexes were constructed. He built MSC into the regional educational powerhouse that became the University of Southern Mississippi. Over the years he developed an effective power base in Mississippi from his numerous activities, he was persuasive with the state executive and legislative leaders of the period in promoting both the growth of Mississippi Southern and the pro-segregation cause. In the early 1970s among faculty and administration at Ole Miss one heard complaints about McCain's unfair and sinister success with the state legislature in diverting resources from Ole Miss to Southern; because of his rank in the state National Guard, McCain was addressed as "General" or, when he was absent, "the Generalissimo."

He was accused of being a tyrant who ran Mississippi Southern like a military base. Once, when testifying in a criminal proceeding in which one of his deans was charged with embezzlement, he was fined $500 and given a thirty-day suspended sentence for threatening to "beat the prosecutor's damned b