Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the seat of government of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, which borders Austria. Nearby is Zugspitze, at 2,962 m; the town is known as the site of the 1936 Winter Olympic Games. Garmisch and Partenkirchen were separate towns for many centuries, still maintain quite separate identities. Partenkirchen originated as the Roman town of Partanum on the trade route from Venice to Augsburg and is first mentioned in the year A. D. 15. Its main street, follows the original Roman road. Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years as Germaneskau, suggesting that at some point a Teutonic tribe took up settlement in the western end of the valley. During the late 13th century, the valley, as part of the County of Werdenfels, came under the rule of the prince-bishops of Freising and was to remain so until the mediatization of 1803; the area was governed by a prince-bishop's representative known as a Pfleger from Werdenfels Castle situated on a crag north of Garmisch.
The discovery of America at the turn of the 15th century led to a boom in shipping and a sharp decline in overland trade, which plunged the region into a centuries-long economic depression. The valley floor was difficult to farm. Bears and lynxes were a constant threat to livestock; the population suffered from periodic epidemics, including several serious outbreaks of bubonic plague. Adverse fortunes from disease and crop failure led to a witch hunt. Most notable of these were the trials and executions of 1589–1596, in which 63 people — more than 10 percent of the population at the time — were burned at the stake or garroted. Werdenfels Castle, where the accused were held and executed, became an object of superstitious terror and was abandoned in the 17th century, it was torn down in the 1750s and its stones used to build the baroque Neue Kirche on Marienplatz, completed in 1752. It replaced the nearby Gothic Alte Kirche, parts of which predated Christianity and may have been a pagan temple. Used as a storehouse and haybarn for many years, it has since been re-consecrated.
Some of its medieval frescoes are still visible. Garmisch and Partenkirchen remained separate until their respective mayors were forced by Adolf Hitler to combine the two market towns in 1935 in anticipation of the 1936 Winter Olympic games. Today, the united town is casually referred to as Garmisch, much to the dismay of Partenkirchen's residents. At least in Polish, the abbreviated name is "Ga-Pa". Most visitors will notice the more modern feel of Garmisch while the fresco-filled, cobblestoned streets of Partenkirchen offer a glimpse into times past. Early mornings and late afternoons in pleasant weather find local traffic stopped while the dairy cows are herded to and from the nearby mountain meadows. During World War II, Garmisch-Partenkirchen was a major hospital center for the German military. After the war, it was used by the U. S. military as a recreation center for U. S. military men stationed in their families. Garmisch-Partenkirchen leans towards an oceanic climate, it has colder winters than the rest of Bavaria.
It has a wet and snowy climate with high precipitation year round. The town is served by the B 2 as a continuation of the A 95 motorway, which ends at Eschenlohe 16 km north of the town. Garmisch-Partenkirchen station is on the Munich–Garmisch-Partenkirchen line and the Mittenwald Railway. Regional services run every hour to Munich Central Station and Mittenwald and every two hours to Innsbruck Central Station and Reutte. In addition there are special seasonal long-distance services, including ICEs, to Berlin, Dortmund and Innsbruck, it is the terminus of the Außerfern Railway to Reutte in Tirol / Kempten im Allgäu and the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway to the Zugspitze, the highest mountain in Germany. There are several accessible high and low-level hiking trails from the town that have good views. In 1936 it was the site of the Winter Olympic Games. A variety of Nordic and alpine World Cup ski races are held here on the Kandahar Track outside town. Traditionally, a ski jumping contest is held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on New Year's Day, as a part of the Four Hills Tournament.
The World Alpine Ski Championships were held in Garmisch in 1978 and 2011. Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a favoured holiday spot for skiing and hiking, having some of the best skiing areas in Germany. Garmisch-Partenkirchen was a partner in the city of Munich's bid for the 2018 Winter Olympics but the IOC vote held on 6 July 2011 awarded the Games to Pyeongchang; the Winter Olympics were last held in the German-speaking Alps in 1976 in Austria. 1 January - New Year´s Ski Jump 6 January - "Hornschlittenrennen" January / February - FIS Alpine Ski World Cup February - Historic bob-race on the olympic track at Riessersee 30.04. - "Georgimarkt" Partenkirchen May - October - "Musik im Park" 16.06. - 18.06. - Zugspitz Ultratrail June - Richard-Strauss-Festival the first weekend in July - BMW Motorbike Days 15.07. - White night July / August "Festwoche" Festival in Garmisch and Partenkirchen 04.08. - 06.08. - "Alpentestiva
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
European Figure Skating Championships
The European Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for the title of European champion. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, women's singles, pair skating, ice dance; the event is sanctioned by the International Skating Union, is the sport's oldest competition. The first European Championships was held in 1891 in Hamburg and featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, all men from Germany and Austria, it has been, other than four periods, held continuously since 1891, has been sanctioned by the ISU since 1893. Women were allowed to compete for the first time in 1930, the first time pairs skating was added to the competition. Ice dance was added in 1954. Only eligible skaters from ISU member countries in Europe can compete, skaters must have reached at least the age of 15 before July 1 preceding the competition. ISU member countries can submit 1-3 skaters to compete in the European Championships.
Although they were not held continuously, the European Championships is figure skating's oldest championship. The first European Championships were held in 1891 in Germany, it featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, five from Germany and two from Austria. The event was sponsored by the Austrian and German skating federations, after they combined to become one federation. All the medalists were from Germany; the second European Championships were held in Vienna in 1892. The event had 10 competitors: one from Hungary, two from Germany, seven from Austria, it included compulsory figures and free skating. It was sponsored by the German/Austrian federation. Austrian Eduard Englemann won the gold medal, Hungarian Tibor von Földváry came in second place, Georg Zachariades from Austria was third; the next European Championships was held in 1893 in Berlin. The championships were sponsored by the Berlin Skating Club, like the previous two years, was organized by the German/Austrian federation.
There were eight competitors: three from Austria, two from Germany, one each from Hungary and Norway. Englemann is listed as the gold medalist. Figure skating historian James Hines called the 1893 European Championships "clearly a success from a skating standpoint", but it marked figure skating's "first major controversy", due to "different interpretations of the scoring rules, which could result in a tie depending upon one's interpretation of them"; the Berlin Skating Club declared Grenander the winner. The problem was never resolved. ISU historian Benjamin T. Wright said that the controversy "nearly led to the demise" of the newly-formed ISU; the next two European Championships, 1894 and 1895, "experienced a marked decrease in participation a result of the scoring debacle". In 1894, five skaters competed in Vienna. Engelmann won his third Europeans gold medal, Austrian Gustav Hügel came in second, Földváry came in third. In 1895, held in Budapest, three skaters competed, with one withdrawal. Földváry won the gold medal, Hügel again came in second, Gilbert Fuchs from Germany, who competed in 10 Europeans, came in third.
There were no European Championships for two years, which Hines speculated was because of the small number of contestants in 1894 and 1895, although the competition returned in 1898. Hines reported that the European Championships were again interrupted in 1902 and 1903, "for lack of ice". By the beginning of World War I, 20 European Championships were held. There were two more interruptions of the European Championships: between 1915 and 1922 due to World War I, between 1940 and 1946 due to World War II. Only men competed at the European Championships until 1930, when women single skaters and pair skating were added. All members of the ISU, not just skaters from Europe, were allowed to compete at Europeans until 1948. Ice dance was added to Europeans in 1954.}} The first time the U. S. S. R. sent skaters to the European Championships was in 1956. Competitions were held in outdoor rinks until 1967, when the ISU ruled that both the European and World Championships be held in covered ice rinks. Only those competitors who are "members of a European ISU Member" are eligible to compete in the European Championships.
According to the ISU's Constitution, in order to be eligible to compete in international senior competitions, ISU senior championships, the Olympics, skaters must have "reached at least the age of fifteen before July 1 preceding the Events". Each ISU member country can send at least one competitor per discipline, if they earn the minimum total element scores, determined and published each season by the ISU, during the current or during the previous season. Skaters who earn the minimum elements score/points during the Olympic season or during the previous season, as established for the European and Four Continents championships, are eligible to compete in the Olympics. In 2018, the ISU determined that skaters and couples participating in the 2019 European Championships had to earn the following minimum total elements scores: The number of additional competitors eligible to compete from ISU member countries is determined by the accumulation of points "equal to the sum of placements of their Competitors who w
Pair skating is a figure skating discipline. The International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating"; the ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating in 1908. Like the other disciplines, pair skating competitions consist of two segments, the Short program and the free skating program. There are seven required elements in the short program, which lasts 2 minutes and 40 seconds for both junior and senior pair teams. Free skating for pairs "consists of a well balanced program composed and skated to music of the pair's own choice for a specified period of time".
It should contain "especially typical Pair Skating moves" such as pair spins, partner assisted jumps and other similar moves, "linked harmoniously by steps and other movements". Its duration, like the other disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior teams. Pair skating required elements include lifts, twist lifts, throw jumps, spin combinations, death spirals, step sequences, choreographic sequences; the elements performed by pairs teams must be "linked together by connecting steps of a different nature" and by other comparable movements and with a variety of holds and positions. Pair skaters must only execute the prescribed elements. Only the first attempt of an element will be included. Violations in pair skating include falls, time and clothing; the International Skating Union defines pair skating as "the skating of two persons in unison who perform their movements in such harmony with each other as to give the impression of genuine Pair Skating as compared with independent Single Skating".
The ISU states that a pairs team must consist of "one Lady and one Man" and that "attention should be paid to the selection of an appropriate partner". Pair skating, along with men's and women's single skating, has been an Olympic discipline since figure skating, the oldest Winter Olympic sport, was introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London; the ISU World Figure Skating Championships introduced pair skating, along with women's singles in 1908. According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, the rising popularity of skating during the 19th century led to the development of figure skating techniques the "various forms of hand-in-hand skating that would become the basis of pair skating." Madge Syers, the first female figure skater to compete and win internationally, stated that from the beginning of the introduction of pair skating in international competitions, it was a popular sport for audience to watch, that "if the pair are well matched and clever performers, it is undoubtedly the most attractive to watch".
British pair skater Madge Syers stated that Viennese skaters were responsible for pair skating's popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. Syers credited the Austrians for adding dance moves to pair skating. German pair skater Heinrich Burger, in his article in Irving Brokaw's The Art of Skating, stated that he and his partner, Anna Hübler, inserted figures skated by single skaters into "our several dances according to the music" until the figures became more complicated and developed into a different appearance. Hübler and Burger were the first Olympic gold medalists in pair skating in 1908. In 1936, Maxi Herber and Ernst Baier won the gold medal at the Olympics and went on to win the World Championships from 1936-1939. Soviet and Russian domination in pair skating continued throughout the 1900s. Only five non-Soviet or Russian teams won the World Championships after 1965, until 2010. In 1988, The New York Times reported that since the 1964 Olympics in Innsbruck, Soviet pair teams had won gold medals in seven consecutive Olympics.
Kestnbaum credited the Soviets for emphasizing ballet and folk dance in all disciplines of figure skating, noting the influence of Soviet pair team and married couple Liudmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov. The Protopopovs, as they were called, won gold medals at the 1964 and 1968 Olympics, as well as the 1968 World Championships, "raised by several degrees the level of translating classical dance to the ice". Irina Rodnina, with her partner Alexei Ulanov and Alexander Zaitsev from the Soviet Union, dominated pair skating throughout the 1970s and "led the trend of female pair skaters as risk-taking athletes". Pair skating, which has never included a compulsory phase like the other figure skating disciplines, did not require a short program until the early 1960s, when the ISU "instituted a short program of required moves" as the first part of pair competitions; the arrangement of the specific moves unlike compulsory figures for single skaters and the compulsory dance for ice dancers, were up to each pair team.
The short programs introduced in single men and women competitions in 1973 were modeled after the pair skating short program, the structure of competitions in both single and pair competitions have been identical since the elimination of compulsory figures in 1990. A judging scandal at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah "ushered in sweeping reforms in the scoring system" of figure skating competi
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport included in the Olympics, in 1908; the four Olympic disciplines are men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dance. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating, Theater on Ice, four skating. From juvenile through senior-level competition, skaters perform two programs which, depending on the discipline, may include spins, moves in the field, throw jumps, death spirals, other elements or moves; the blade has a groove on the bottom creating two distinct edges: outside. Judges prefer that skaters glide on one edge of the blade and not on both at the same time, referred to as a flat edge. During a spin, skaters use the "sweet spot" of the blade, formally called a rocker, the roundest portion of the blade, just behind the pick and near the middle of the blade. Skates used in single and pair skating have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front of the blade.
Toe picks are used for the take-off on jumps. Ice dance blades have smaller toe picks. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level at local, regional and international competitions; the International Skating Union competitions. These include the Winter Olympics, the World Championships, the World Junior Championships, the European Championships, the Four Continents Championships, the Grand Prix series, the ISU Challenger Series; the sport is associated with show business. Major competitions conclude with exhibition galas, in which the top skaters from each discipline perform non-competitive programs. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers skate in ice shows, which run during the competitive season and the off-season; the term "professional" in skating refers not to skill competitive status. Figure skaters competing at the highest levels of international competition are not "professional" skaters, they are sometimes referred to as amateurs.
Professional skaters include those who have lost their ISU eligibility and those who perform only in shows. They may include former Olympic and World champions who have ended their competitive career as well as skaters with little or no international competitive experience. In languages other than English, Korean, Italian and Russian, figure skating is referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating." The most visible difference in relation to ice hockey skates is that figure skates have a set of large, jagged teeth called toe picks on the front part of the blade. These are used in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. If used during a spin, the toe pick will cause the skater to lose momentum, or move away from the center of the spin. Blades are mounted to the heel of the boot with screws. High-level figure skaters are professionally fitted for their boots and blades at a reputable skate shop. Professionals are employed to sharpen blades to individual requirements. Blades are about 3/16 inch thick.
When viewed from the side, the blade of a figure skate is not flat, but curved forming an arc of a circle with a radius of 180–220 cm. This curvature is referred to as the rocker of the blade; the "sweet spot" is the part of the blade on which all spins are rotated. The blade is "hollow ground"; the inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater. In figure skating, it is always desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade. Skating on both at the same time may result in lower skating skills scores; the effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed. Ice dancers' blades are about an inch shorter in the rear than those used by skaters in other disciplines, to accommodate the intricate footwork and close partnering in dance. Dancers' blades have a smaller toe pick as they do not require the large toe pick used for jumping in the other disciplines. Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice, to protect the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade.
Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn. In competition, skaters are allowed three minutes to make repairs to their skates. Off-ice training is the term for physical conditioning. Besides regular physical exercise, skaters do walk-throughs of jumps off the ice in order to practice sufficient rotation and height of their jumps, to practice consistency in landing on one foot. There is significant variation in the dimensions of ice rinks. Olympic-sized rinks have dimensions of 30 m × 60 m, NHL-sized rinks are 26 m × 61 m, while European rinks are sometimes 30 m × 64 m; the ISU prefers Olympic-sized rinks for figure skating competitions for major events. According to ISU rule 342, a figure skating rink for an ISU event "if possible, shall measure sixty meters in one direction and thirty meters in the other, but not larger, not less than fifty-six meters in one direct