London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Art Nouveau is an international style of art and applied art the decorative arts, most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures the curved lines of plants and flowers. English uses the French name Art Nouveau; the style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession. Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, graphic art, interior design, furniture, ceramics, glass art, metal work. By 1910, Art Nouveau was out of style, it was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and by Modernism. Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing that featured the new style. In France, Art Nouveau was sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style" due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900.
It was sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro, Art Belle Époque, Art fin de siècle. In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, it was sometimes termed Style nouille or Style coup de fouet. In Britain, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of the Arts and Crafts movement led by Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, as the "Glasgow" style. In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was called Stile Liberty, Stile floreale, or Arte nuova. In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was called the "Tiffany style". In Germany and Scandinavia, a related style emerged at about the same time. In Austria and the neighboring countries part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a similar style emerged, called Secessionsstil in German, or Wiener Jugendstil, after the artists of the Vienna Secession; the style was called Modern in Nieuwe Kunst in the Netherlands. In Spain the related style was known as Modernismo, Arte joven.
Some names refer to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal in France. The new art movement had its roots in Britain, in the floral designs of William Morris, in the Arts and Crafts movement founded by the pupils of Morris. Early prototypes of the style include the Red House of Morris, the lavish Peacock Room by James Abbott McNeill Whistler; the new movement was strongly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite painters, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones, by British graphic artists of the 1880s, including Selwyn Image, Heywood Sumner, Walter Crane, Alfred Gilbert, Aubrey Beardsley. In France, the style combined several different tendencies. In architecture, it was influenced by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, a declared enemy of the historical Beaux-Arts architectural style. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur l'architecture, he wrote, "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture.
For each function its material. This book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí; the French painters Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard played an important part in integrating fine arts painting with decoration. "I believe that before everything a painting must decorate", Denis wrote in 1891. "The choice of subjects or scenes is nothing. It is by the value of tones, the colored surface and the harmony of lines that I can reach the spirit and wake up the emotions." These painters all did both traditional painting and decorative painting on screens, in glass, in other media. Another important influence on the new style was Japonism: the wave of enthusiasm for Japanese woodblock printing the works of Hiroshige and Utagawa Kunisada which were imported into Europe beginning in the 1870s; the enterprising Siegfried Bing founded a monthly journal, Le Japon artistique in 1888, published thirty-six issues before it ended in 1891.
It influenced both artists, including Gustav Klimt. The stylized features of Japanese prints appeared in Art Nouveau graphics, porcelain and furniture. New technologies in printing and publishing allowed Art Nouveau to reach a global audience. Art magazines, illustrated with photographs and color lithographs, played an essential role in popularizing the new style; the Studio in England, Arts et
Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, designer, playwright and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles, the films The Blood of a Poet, Les Parents Terribles and the Beast and Orpheus, he was described as "one of avant-garde's most influential filmmakers" by AllMovie. Cocteau was born in Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, a town near Paris, to Georges Cocteau and his wife, Eugénie Lecomte, his father was a lawyer and amateur painter. From 1900–1904, Cocteau attended the Lycée Condorcet where he met and began a physical relationship with schoolmate Pierre Dargelos who would reappear throughout Cocteau's oeuvre, he left home at fifteen. He published his first volume of Aladdin's Lamp, at nineteen. Cocteau soon became known in Bohemian artistic circles as The Frivolous Prince, the title of a volume he published at twenty-two. Edith Wharton described him as a man "to whom every great line of poetry was a sunrise, every sunset the foundation of the Heavenly City..."
In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with the writers Marcel Proust, André Gide, Maurice Barrès. In 1912, he collaborated with Léon Bakst on Le Dieu bleu for the Ballets Russes. During World War I Cocteau served in the Red Cross as an ambulance driver; this was the period in which he met the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, artists Pablo Picasso and Amedeo Modigliani, numerous other writers and artists with whom he collaborated. Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev persuaded Cocteau to write a scenario for a ballet, which resulted in Parade in 1917, it was produced by Diaghilev, with sets by Picasso, the libretto by Apollinaire and the music by Erik Satie. The piece was expanded into a full opera, with music by Satie, Francis Poulenc and Maurice Ravel. "If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform," wrote Cocteau, "with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and the bandage around his head, women would have gouged our eyes out with hairpins." He denied being in any way attached to the movement.
Cocteau wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinsky's opera-oratorio Oedipus rex, which had its original performance in the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt in Paris on 30 May 1927. An important exponent of avant-garde art, Cocteau had great influence on the work of others, including a group of composers known as Les six. In the early twenties, he and other members of Les six frequented a wildly popular bar named Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a name that Cocteau himself had a hand in picking; the popularity was due in no small measure to the presence of his friends. In 1918 he met the French poet Raymond Radiguet, they collaborated extensively and undertook many journeys and vacations together. Cocteau got Radiguet exempted from military service. Admiring of Radiguet's great literary talent, Cocteau promoted his friend's works in his artistic circle and arranged for the publication by Grasset of Le Diable au corps, exerting his influence to have the novel awarded the "Nouveau Monde" literary prize; some contemporaries and commentators thought there might have been a romantic component to their friendship.
Cocteau himself was aware of this perception, worked earnestly to dispel the notion that their relationship was sexual in nature. There is disagreement over Cocteau's reaction to Radiguet's sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned and prey to opium addiction. Opponents of that interpretation point out that he did not attend the funeral and left Paris with Diaghilev for a performance of Les noces by the Ballets Russes at Monte Carlo. Cocteau himself much characterised his reaction as one of "stupor and disgust." His opium addiction at the time, Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte Carlo Opera. Cocteau's opium use and his efforts to stop profoundly changed his literary style, his most notable book, Les Enfants Terribles, was written in a week during a strenuous opium weaning. In Opium: Journal of drug rehabilitation, he recounts the experience of his recovery from opium addiction in 1929, his account, which includes vivid pen-and-ink illustrations, alternates between his moment-to-moment experiences of drug withdrawal and his current thoughts about people and events in his world.
Cocteau was supported throughout his recovery by his friend and correspondent, Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain. Under Maritain's influence Cocteau made a temporary return to the sacraments of the Catholic Church, he again returned to the Church in life and undertook a number of religious art projects. Cocteau's experiments with the human voice peaked with his play La Voix humaine; the story involves one woman on stage speaking on the telephone with her departing lover, leaving her to marry another woman. The telephone proved to be the perfect prop for Cocteau to explore his ideas, "algebra" concerning human needs and realities in communication. Cocteau acknowledged in the introduction to the script that the play was motivated, in part, by complaints from his actresses that his works were too writer/director-dominated and gave the players little opportunity to show off their full range of talents. La Voix humaine was written, as an extravagant aria for Madame Berthe Bovy. Before came Orphée turned into one of hi
Wolfgang Johannes Puck is an American chef and actor. Born in Austria, Puck moved to the United States at the age of 24. In 1973, Puck moved to Los Angeles, opening his first restaurant, Spago, in 1982. Wolfgang Puck was born in Sankt Veit an der Glan, Austria, he learned cooking from his mother, a pastry chef. He took the surname of Josef Puck, after his mother's remarriage, he trained as an apprentice under Raymond Thuilier at L'Oustau de Baumanière in Les Baux-de-Provence, at Hôtel de Paris in Monaco, at Maxim's Paris before moving to the United States in 1973 at age 24. After two years at La Tour in Indianapolis, Puck moved to Los Angeles to become chef and part owner of Ma Maison restaurant. Following the 1981 publication of his first cookbook, Modern French Cooking for the American Kitchen, based on his Ma Maison recipes, Puck opened the restaurant Spago on the Sunset Strip in 1982. Fifteen years in 1997, Puck and Lazaroff moved the award-winning Spago to Beverly Hills, it has been recognized as one of the Top 40 Restaurants in the U.
S. since 2004. His success enabled him to launch the Wolfgang Puck Companies which includes the Wolfgang Puck Fine Dining Group, Wolfgang Puck Worldwide, Inc. and Wolfgang Puck Catering. The Wolfgang Puck Companies encompass over 20 fine dining restaurants, among the top 40 Restaurants in the U. S. premium catering services, more than 80 Wolfgang Puck Express operations, kitchen and food merchandise, including cookbooks, canned foods, coffee products. He is the official caterer for the Academy Awards Governors Ball, has parlayed his celebrity into acting, he appeared as himself on Iron Chef America: Battle of the Masters, as well as Cooking Class with Wolfgang Puck on The Food Network, in an American Idol season finale episode where he introduced unusual foods to Kellie Pickler in comic relief segments. He was featured as a guest judge on Season 7 of MasterChef, he made a cameo appearance as himself on an episode of Tales from the Crypt, appeared in a TV commercial advertising the state of California.
In 1991, Puck opened Granita, a seafood restaurant in Malibu, California. The restaurant was closed in 2005. Since 2003, Puck's recipes have been syndicated worldwide to newspapers and websites by Tribune Content AgencyWolfgang Puck is active in philanthropic endeavors and charitable organizations, he co-founded the Puck-Lazaroff Charitable Foundation in 1982. The foundation supports the annual American Food Festival which benefits Meals on Wheels. Puck is The Honorary Chair Chef of the "Five Star Sensation" benefit in Cleveland, which, every two years, helps to bring $10 million to support The Ireland Cancer Foundation of University Hospitals. Wolfgang Puck's signature dish at his original restaurant, Spago, is House Smoked Salmon Pizza. Wolfgang Puck had two children together, they were divorced in 2003. Barbara Lazaroff continues to play a key role in his restaurants and has been instrumental in their interior design, she is listed by the company as co-founder. In 2007 he married designer Gelila Assefa in Italy.
They live in Los Angeles and have two sons: Oliver and Alexander. Puck has two sons and Byron, from a previous marriage, his favorite food is macarons. In 1993, Spago Hollywood was inducted into the Nation's Restaurant News Fine Dining Hall of Fame; the next year it received the James Beard Restaurant of the Year Award. In 2002, Puck received the 2001–2002 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Service Show, Wolfgang Puck Spago Beverly Hills received a James Beard Foundation Outstanding Service Award in 2005, it was awarded two Michelin stars in the 2009 Los Angeles Michelin Guide. CUT Beverly Hills was awarded a Michelin star in 2007. In 2013, Puck was inducted into the Culinary Hall of Fame. In July 2016, CUT at the Marina Bay Sands, Singapore was awarded a Michelin Star. On April 26, 2017, Puck received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, for his work in the TV industry, located at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard. On May 20, 2017, Puck was named the International Foodservice Manufacturers Association 2017 Gold Plate Winner.
Spago, Puck's first restaurant opened on the Sunset Strip serving California cuisine but relocated to Beverly Hills. Spago Istanbul by Wolfgang Puck at St. Regis Istanbul. Chinois on Main, Santa Monica, Asian fusion. Postrio, San Francisco and Asian fusion. Spago, Beverly Hills, known for serving California cuisine. Spago Beverly Hills, Spago Las Vegas, Spago Maui, Spago Beaver Creek. Postrio, Las Vegas. Trattoria del Lupo, Las Vegas. CUT in London, Beverly Hills, Las Vegas and Singapore's Marina Bay Sands resort. CUT by Wolfgang Puck at The Address Downtown Dubai CUT by Wolfgang Puck at Four Seasons Hotels Bahrain Bay Five-Sixty is located in Dallas and features Asian-inspired New American cuisine; the Source, Washington, DC, modern interpretation of Asian cuisine located at the Newseum. Wolfgang Puck B&G in Los Angeles. Wolfgang Puck at Disney Springs at the Walt Disney World Resort. Museum of Science in Boston. Wolfgang Puck Pizzeria and Cucina, MGM Grand Detroit in Detroit Wolfgang Puck Steak, a signature restaurant of MGM Grand Detroit in Detroit.
Wolfgang Puck American Grille, a signature restaurant located in the Borgata Hotel & Casino in Atlantic City. Springs Preserve Café, Las Vegas. WP24 by Wolfgang Puck located in The Ritz-Carlton in downtown Los Ange
Franz Lehár was an Austro-Hungarian composer. He is known for his operettas, of which the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow. Lehár was born in the northern part of Komárom, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary, the eldest son of Franz Lehár, an Austrian bandmaster in the Infantry Regiment No. 50 of the Austro-Hungarian Army and Christine Neubrandt, a Hungarian woman from a family of German descent. He grew up speaking only Hungarian until the age of 12, he put an acute accent above the "a" of his father's surname "Lehár" to indicate the vowel in the corresponding Hungarian orthography. While his younger brother Anton entered cadet school in Vienna to become a professional officer, Franz studied violin at the Prague Conservatory, where his violin teacher was Antonín Bennewitz, but was advised by Antonín Dvořák to focus on composition. However, the Conservatory's rules at that time did not allow students to study both performance and composition, Bennewitz and Lehár senior exerted pressure on Lehár to take his degree in violin as a practical matter, arguing that he could study composition on his own later.
Lehár followed their wishes, against his will, aside from a few clandestine lessons with Zdeněk Fibich he was self-taught as a composer. After graduation in 1888 he joined his father's band as assistant bandmaster. Two years he became bandmaster at Losonc, making him the youngest bandmaster in the Austro-Hungarian Army at that time, but he left the army and joined the navy. With the navy he was first Kapellmeister at Pola from 1894 to 1896, resigning in the year when his first opera, premiered in Leipzig, it was only a middling success and Lehár rejoined the army, with service in the garrisons at Trieste and Vienna from 1899 to 1902. In 1902 he became conductor at the historic Vienna Theater an der Wien, where his operetta Wiener Frauen was performed in November of that year, he is most famous for his operettas – the most successful of, The Merry Widow – but he wrote sonatas, symphonic poems and marches. He composed a number of waltzes, some of which were drawn from his famous operettas. Individual songs from some of the operettas have become standards, notably "Vilja" from The Merry Widow and "You Are My Heart's Delight" from The Land of Smiles.
His most ambitious work, Giuditta in 1934 is closer to opera than to operetta. It contains the popular "Meine Lippen, sie küssen so heiß". Lehár was associated with the operatic tenor Richard Tauber, who sang in many of his operettas, beginning with a revival of his 1910 operetta Zigeunerliebe in 1920 and Frasquita in 1922, in which Lehár once again found a suitable post-war style. Lehár made a brief appearance in the 1930 film adaptation The Land of Smiles starring Tauber. Between 1925 and 1934 he wrote six operettas for Tauber's voice. By 1935 he decided to form his own publishing house, Glocken-Verlag, to maximize his personal control over performance rights to his works. Lehár's relationship with the Nazi regime was an uneasy one, he had always used Jewish librettists for his operas and had been part of the cultural milieu in Vienna which included a significant Jewish contingent. Further, although Lehár was Roman Catholic, his wife, Sophie had been Jewish before her conversion to Catholicism upon marriage, this was sufficient to generate hostility towards them and towards his work.
Hitler enjoyed Lehár's music, hostility diminished across Germany after Joseph Goebbels' intervention on Lehár's part. In 1938 Mrs. Lehár was given the status of "Ehrenarierin". Nonetheless, attempts were made at least once to have her deported; the Nazi regime was aware of the uses of Lehár's music for propaganda purposes: concerts of his music were given in occupied Paris in 1941. So, Lehár's influence was limited, it is alleged that he tried to secure Hitler's guarantee of the safety of one of his librettists, Fritz Löhner-Beda, but he was not able to prevent the murder of Beda in Auschwitz-III. He tried to prevent the arrest of Louis Treumann, the first Danilo in The Merry Widow, but the 70-year old Treumann and his wife Stefanie were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp on 28 July 1942, where Stefanie died in September and Louis died on 5 March 1943. On 12 January 1939 and 30 April 1940 Lehár received awards from Hitler in Berlin and Vienna, including the Goethe Medal. On Hitler's birthday in 1938 Lehár had given him as a special gift a red Morocco leather volume in commemoration of the 50th performance of The Merry Widow.
He died aged 78 in 1948 in Bad Ischl, near Salzburg, was buried there. His younger brother Anton became the administrator of his estate, promoting the popularity of Franz Lehár's music, he was elected an honorary citizen of Sopron in 1940. In 1940 Hitler awarded him the Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft. There is a street in Vienna named after him. Additionally, several towns in the Netherlands have named streets after him. There are streets in Sarajevo and Pula named after him. In 1908, the German branch of The Gramophone Company Ltd issued twelve extracts from Lehár's latest operetta, Der Mann mit den drei
Jean Renoir was a French film director, actor and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s, his films La Grande Illusion and The Rules of the Game are cited by critics as among the greatest films made. He was ranked by the BFI's Sight & Sound poll of critics in 2002 as the fourth greatest director of all time. Among numerous honors accrued during his lifetime, he received a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award in 1975 for his contribution to the motion picture industry. Renoir was the son of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, he was one of the first filmmakers to be known as an auteur. Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of France, he was Pierre-Auguste Renoir, the renowned painter. His elder brother was Pierre Renoir, a French stage and film actor, his younger brother Claude Renoir had a brief minor career in the film industry assisting on a few of Jean's films. Renoir was the uncle of Claude Renoir, the son of Pierre, a cinematographer who worked with Jean Renoir on several of his films.
Renoir was raised by Gabrielle Renard, his nanny and his mother's cousin, with whom he developed a strong bond. Shortly before his birth, she had come to live with the Renoir family, she introduced the young boy to the Guignol puppet shows in Montmartre, which influenced his film career. He wrote in his 1974 memoirs My Life and My Films, "She taught me to see the face behind the mask and the fraud behind the flourishes, she taught me to detest the cliché." Gabrielle was fascinated by the new motion-picture invention, when Renoir was only a few years old she took him to see his first film. As a child, Renoir moved to the south of France with his family, he and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his father's paintings. His father's financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at fashionable boarding schools, from which, as he wrote, he ran away. At the outbreak of World War I, Renoir was serving in the French cavalry. After receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot.
His leg injury left him with a permanent limp, but allowed him to discover the cinema, since he recuperated by watching films with his leg elevated, including the works of Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith and others. After the war, Renoir followed his father's suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics, but he soon set that aside to make films, he was inspired by Erich von Stroheim's work. In 1924, Renoir directed Une Vie Sans Joie or Catherine, the first of his nine silent films, most of which starred his first wife, Catherine Hessling, she was his father's last model. At this stage, his films did not produce a return. Renoir sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them. During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker. In 1931 he directed his first sound films, On La Chienne; the following year he made Boudu Saved From Drowning, a farcical sendup of the pretensions of a middle-class bookseller and his family, who meet with comic, disastrous, results when they attempt to reform a vagrant played by Michel Simon.
By the middle of the decade, Renoir was associated with the Popular Front. Several of his films, such as The Crime of Monsieur Lange, Life Belongs to Us and La Marseillaise, reflect the movement's politics. In 1937 he made what became one of his best-known films, La Grande Illusion, starring Erich von Stroheim and Jean Gabin. A film on the theme of brotherhood, relating a series of escape attempts by French POWs during World War I, it was enormously successful, it was banned in Germany, in Italy, after having won the "Best Artistic Ensemble" award at the Venice Film Festival. It was the first foreign language film to receive a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture, he followed it with The Human Beast, a film noir tragedy based on the novel by Émile Zola and starring Simone Simon and Jean Gabin. This film was a cinematic success. In 1939, able to co-finance his own films, Renoir made The Rules of the Game, a satire on contemporary French society with an ensemble cast. Renoir played the character Octave.
The film was his greatest commercial failure, met with derision by Parisian audiences at its premiere. He extensively without success. A few weeks after the outbreak of World War II, the film was banned by the government. Renoir was a known pacifist and supporter of the French Communist Party, which made him suspect in the tense weeks before the war began; the ban was lifted in 1940, but after the fall of France that June, it was banned again. Subsequently, the original negative of the film was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid, it was not until the 1950s that French film enthusiasts Jean Gaborit and Jacques Durand, with Renoir's cooperation, reconstructed a near-complete print of the film. Since screenings and reappraisals since the 1960s, The Rules of the Game has appeared near the top of critics' polls of the best films made. A week after the disastrous premiere of The Rules of the Game in July 1939, Renoir went to Rome with Karl Koch and Dido Freire, subsequently his second wife, to work on the script for a film version of Tosca.
At the age of 45, he became a lieutenant in the French Army Film Service. He was sent back to Italy, to teach film at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rom
Ernst Jünger was a highly-decorated German soldier and entomologist who became publicly known for his World War I memoir Storm of Steel. The son of a successful businessman and chemist, Jünger rebelled against an affluent upbringing and sought adventure in the Wandervogel, before running away to serve in the French Foreign Legion, an illegal act; because he escaped prosecution in Germany due to his father's efforts, Jünger was able to enlist in the German Army on the outbreak of war. During an ill-fated offensive in 1918 Jünger's World War I career ended with the last and most serious of his many woundings, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite, a rare decoration for one of his rank. In the aftermath of World War II, Jünger was treated with some suspicion as a possible fellow traveller of the Nazis. By the latter stages of the Cold War, his unorthodox writings about the impact of materialism in modern society were seen as conservative rather than radical nationalist, his philosophical works came to be regarded in mainstream German circles.
Jünger ended life as an honoured establishment figure, although critics continued to charge him with the glorification of war as a transcendental experience. Ernst Jünger was born in Heidelberg as the eldest of six children of the chemical engineer Ernst Georg Jünger and of Karoline Lampl. Two of his siblings died as infants, his father acquired some wealth in potash mining. He went to school in Hannover from 1901 to 1905, during 1905 to 1907 to boarding schools in Hanover and Brunswick, he rejoined his family in 1907, in Rehburg, went to school in Wunstorf with his siblings from 1907 to 1912. During this time, he developed his passion for entomology, he spent some time as an exchange student in Buironfosse, Saint-Quentin, France, in September 1909. With his younger brother Friedrich Georg Jünger he joined the Wandervogel movement in 1911, his first poem was published with the Gaublatt für Hannoverland in November 1911. By this time, Jünger had a reputation as a budding bohemian poet. In 1913, Jünger was a student at the Hamelin gymnasium.
In November, he enlisted in the French Foreign Legion for five years. Stationed in a training camp at Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, he deserted and travelled to Morocco, but was captured and returned to camp. Six weeks he was dismissed from the Legion due to the intervention of the German Foreign Office, at the request of his father, on the grounds of being a minor. Jünger was now sent to a boarding school in Hanover, where he was seated next to the future communist leader Werner Scholem. On 1 August 1914, shortly after the start of World War I, Jünger volunteered with the 73rd Infantry Regiment Albrecht von Preussen of the Hannoverian 19th Division and after training was transported to the Champagne front in December, he was wounded for the first time in April 1915. During convalescence, he decided to enlist as an officer aspirant, he was promoted to Lieutenant on 27 November 1915; as platoon leader, he gained a reputation for his combat exploits and initiative in offensive patrolling and reconnaissance.
Near the obliterated remains of the village of Guillemont his platoon took up a front line position in a defile, shelled until it consisted of little more than a dip strewn with the rotting corpses of predecessors. He wrote: As the storm raged around us, I walked up and down my sector; the men had fixed bayonets. They stood rifle in hand, on the front edge of the dip, gazing into the field. Now and by the light of a flare, I saw steel helmet by steel helmet, blade by glinting blade, I was overcome by a feeling of invulnerability. We might be crushed, but we could not be conquered; the platoon was relieved but Jünger was wounded by shrapnel in the rest area of Combles and hospitalized, his platoon reoccupied the position on the eve of the Battle of Guillemont and was obliterated in a British offensive. He was wounded for the third time in November 1916, awarded the Iron Cross First Class in January 1917. In the spring of 1917, he was stationed at Cambrai. Transferred to Langemarck in July, Jünger's actions against the advancing British included forcing retreating soldiers to join his resistance line at gunpoint.
He arranged the evacuation of his brother Friedrich Georg, wounded. In the Battle of Cambrai Jünger sustained two wounds, by a bullet passing through his helmet at the back of the head, another by a shell fragment on the forehead, he was awarded the House Order of Hohenzollern. While advancing to take up positions just before Ludendorff's Operation Michael on 19 March 1918, Jünger was forced to call a halt after the guides lost their way, while bunched together half of his company were lost to a direct hit from artillery. Jünger himself survived, led the survivors as part of a successful advance but was wounded twice towards the end of the action, being shot in the chest and less across the head. After reconvalescence, he returned to his regiment in June, sharing a widespread feeling that the tide had now turned against Germany and victory was impossible. On 25 August he was wounded for the seventh and final time near Favreuil, being shot through the chest while leading his company in a German advance, overwhelmed by a British counter-attack.
Becoming aware the position he was lying in was falling, Jünger rose, as his lung drained of the blood spurting through the wound, recovered enough to escape in the confused situation. He made his way to a machine gun post, holding out, where a doctor told him to lie down immediately. Carried