Maximilian Kolbe was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the German death camp of Auschwitz, located in German-occupied Poland during World War II. He had been active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, operating an amateur-radio station, founding or running several other organizations and publications. On 10 October 1982 Pope John Paul II declared him a martyr of charity; the Catholic Church venerates him as the patron saint of amateur-radio operators, of drug addicts, of political prisoners, of families, of journalists, of prisoners, of the pro-life movement. John Paul II declared him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century", his feast day is the day of his death. Due to Kolbe's efforts to promote consecration and entrustment to Mary, he is known as the Apostle of Consecration to Mary. Rajmund Kolbe was born on 8 January 1894 in Zduńska Wola, in the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire.
He was the second son of midwife Maria Dąbrowska. His father was an ethnic German and his mother was Polish, he had four brothers. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to Pabianice. Kolbe's life was influenced in 1906, when he was 12, by a vision of the Virgin Mary, he described this incident: That night I asked the Mother of God what was to become of me. She came to me holding two crowns, one white, the other red, she asked me. The white one meant that I should persevere in the red that I should become a martyr. I said. In 1907 Kolbe and his elder brother Francis joined the Conventual Franciscans, they enrolled at the Conventual Franciscan minor seminary in Lwow that year. In 1910, Kolbe was allowed to enter the novitiate, he professed his first vows in 1911, final vows in 1914, adopting the additional name of Maria. Kolbe was sent to Rome in 1912, he earned a doctorate in philosophy in 1915 there. From 1915 he continued his studies at the Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1919 or 1922.
He was active in the entrustment to Mary. During his time as a student, he witnessed vehement demonstrations against Popes St. Pius X and Benedict XV in Rome during an anniversary celebration by the Freemasons. According to Kolbe, They placed the black standard of the "Giordano Brunisti" under the windows of the Vatican. On this standard the archangel, St. Michael, was depicted lying under the feet of the triumphant Lucifer. At the same time, countless pamphlets were distributed to the people in which the Holy Father was attacked shamefully. Soon afterward, on 16 October 1917, Kolbe organized the Militia Immaculatae, to work for conversion of sinners and enemies of the Catholic Church the Freemasons, through the intercession of the Virgin Mary. So serious was Kolbe about this goal that he added to the Miraculous Medal prayer: O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee, and for all those who do not have recourse to thee. In 1918, Kolbe was ordained a priest. In July 1919 he returned to Poland, newly independent.
He was active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. He was opposed to leftist – in particular, communist – movements. From 1919 to 1922 he taught at the Kraków seminary. Around that time, as well as earlier in Rome, he suffered from tuberculosis, which forced him to take a lengthy leave of absence from his teaching duties. TB was considered fatal, with rest and good nutrition the best treatment, as antibiotics had not been developed to treat it. In January 1922 Kolbe founded the monthly periodical Rycerz Niepokalanej, a devotional publication based on French Le Messager du Coeur de Jesus. From 1922 to 1926 he operated a religious publishing press in Grodno; as his activities grew in scope, in 1927 he founded a new Conventual Franciscan monastery at Niepokalanów near Warsaw. It became a major religious publishing centre. A junior seminary was opened there two years later. Between 1930 and 1933, Kolbe undertook a series of missions to East Asia, he arrived first in Shanghai, but failed to gather a following there.
Next he moved to Japan, where by 1931 he had founded a Franciscan monastery, Mugenzai no Sono, on the outskirts of Nagasaki. Kolbe had started publishing a Japanese edition of the Knight of the Immaculata; the monastery he founded remains prominent in the Roman Catholic Church in Japan. Kolbe had the monastery built on a mountainside. According to Shinto beliefs, this was not the side best suited to be in harmony with nature. However, when the United States dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, the Franciscan monastery survived, unlike the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, because it was on the side of the mountain which took the main force of the blast. In mid-1932 Kolbe left Japan for Malabar, where he founded another monastery; this one closed after a while. Meanwhile, in his absence the monastery at Niepokalanów began to publish a daily newspaper, Mały Dziennik, in alliance with a political group, the National Radical Camp; this publication reached a circulation of 137,000, nearly double that, 225,000 on weekends.
Pristava known locally as Rafut, is one of the four suburbs of the town of Nova Gorica in the Gorizia region of western Slovenia. Between the late 18th century and 1947, it used to be a suburb of the town of Gorizia; when the city was partitioned in 1947, most of the city center remained in Italy, while its eastern suburbs were annexed to Yugoslavia. Part of Pristava remained in Italy, while part of it became part of Slovenia. In some cases, the border was drawn between individual houses; until Slovenia's entry into the Schengen zone in 2007, a local border pass functioned in Pristava. The Kostanjevica Monastery, in which Charles X of France is buried, is located on a hill above the settlement. Pristava on Geopedia
The Oakland Terminal Railway was a terminal railroad in West Oakland, California. The OTR was jointly acquired in 1943 by the Western Pacific Railroad and Atchison and Santa Fe Railway to take over the Key System's freight railroad known as the Oakland Terminal Railroad. Today, the OTR is now the West Oakland Pacific Railroad. OTR was jointly owned by the Union Pacific BNSF Railway; the railroad operated in the industrial area around the Oakland Army Base. The OTR interchanged with the ATSF near the Southern Pacific 16th Street Station in Oakland; the OTR interchanged with the Western Pacific via trackage rights over the Key System from Emeryville to the Sacramento Northern terminal at 40th and Shafter Streets in Oakland. It is no longer in service; the Oakland Terminal Railroad was the predecessor of the Oakland Terminal Railway. The Railroad was formed in 1935 by the Railway Realty & Equipment Company, Ltd. to handle the Key System's freight customers. The Railroad operated over Key System's A, B and C lines and the Key Systems freight-only tracks on 26th Street and along the waterfront.
In 1943 the Key System sold the Oakland Terminal Railroad to the Western Pacific and the Santa Fe Railway. The Oakland Terminal Railroad was renamed the Oakland Terminal Railway; because it operated over some of the Key System, some of the switching was performed by electric locomotives. Fickewirth, Alvin A.. California railroads: an encyclopedia of cable car, common carrier, industrial, logging, motor road, streetcar and terminal railroads in California. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-87095-106-8. Stindt, Fred A.. American Shortline Railway Guide. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-290-9. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - California and Nevada - Post Merger Ed. Faversham, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. ISBN 1-874745-08-0. WOPR Official Site List of California railroads
Uncial 0214, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated palaeographically to the 4th or 5th century. The codex contains a part of the Gospel of Mark, on 1 parchment leaf; the text is written in two columns per 24 lines per page. It uses Nomina sacra; the Greek text of this codex is mixed. Aland placed it in Category III, it is dated by the INTF to the 4th or 5th century. The manuscript was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Kurt Aland in 1953; the codex is located in Vienna, with the shelf number Pap. G. 29300. List of New Testament uncials Wendy J. Porter. New Testament Greek Parchments. Berlin - New York: Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 105–108. ISBN 978-3-11-020308-0
Jonas Schanche Kielland was a Norwegian judge and politician. He was born in Horten to his wife Thora Margrethe, née Bendz, his grandfather was Jacob Kielland, his uncle Jens Zetlitz Kielland and his cousins Kitty Lange and Alexander Kielland. Jonas Schancke Kielland had four older brothers, one of whom died young, one older sister, his brother Axel Christian Zetlitz Kielland became a diplomat, another brother Christian Bendz Kielland became a high-ranking civil servant. In 1893 Jonas Schanche Kielland married Helene Christiane Lorange; the couple had two sons a one daughter: Wibeke Trane Kielland, daughter: wife of museum director Robert Kloster Thor Bendz Kielland, son: director of the Norwegian Museum of Decorative Arts and Design from 1928 to 1960 He enrolled in law studies in 1881, graduated with the cand.jur. Degree in 1886. From 1889 to 1910 he worked as an attorney in Stavanger, he rose in the hierarchy to become a judge in 1917 and stipendiary magistrate of Stavanger in 1919. As a politician, he represented the Conservative Party and was first elected to Stavanger city council in 1902.
He was mayor of Stavanger from 1908 to 1909. He was elected to the Parliament of Norway in the 1909 Norwegian parliamentary election, but after one year of the three-year term he relinquished his seat because of illness. In 1911 he became burgomaster of Stavanger, a position his cousin Alexander Kielland had held from 1891 to 1902
A Softer World is a webcomic by the writer Joey Comeau and artist Emily Horne, both Canadians. It was first published online on 7 February 2003 and was released three times a week until its end in June 2015. Before starting the website in 2003, the comics had been published in zine form. With the launch of the website, the comic gained wider recognition, most notably when Warren Ellis linked to the comic on his blog, began to feature it as a "Favored Puny Human", it appeared in The Guardian for a short time. Between 2008 and 2010, science fiction-themed strips of A Softer World were produced and published on Tor.com. With occasional exceptions for double-length strips, each comic is three panels long; the three panels are made up of photographic art, either a series of three photographs, or one photograph, spread over multiple frames, or repeated with different crops and zooms. Short text is added over the photographs; the photos do not illustrate the text directly, instead presenting a similar tone, or being in conflict.
The strip grew out of work by Comeau that started in 2001 which used magazine about royalty as the illustrations. The photographs for A Softer World were taken by Horne sent to Comeau for text. Horne said that the two were more collaborative when they lived in the same city and the process for making the strips changed when Horne moved away; the tone of the comic tends to be absurdist and dark, with the punchlines being both humorous and disturbing. Horne stated that "Even those that are overtly hilarious manage to make you feel a bit guilty about your laughter.... Few things are black-and-white, funny-or-not-funny, ASW reflects that." The strip features text with overt sexual content. / They understand. / They don't believe in restraining orders." Recurring themes include sexuality, accidents or disasters, the supernatural. Hovering one's cursor over the comic will prompt the image title to appear, which contains an extra punchline or commentary related to the strip overall. In May 2010, a feature was added to display this text when clicking or tapping on the comic image, for users on mobile phones and touchscreen devices, which lack a "hovering" function.
In hardcopy versions, the extra text appeared under the comic. In a 2004 review, Dani Atkinson wrote for Sequential Tart: "The strips read like the first lines of a novel, the kind of good first lines that manage to evoke the whole novel. Or a sort of... post-modern haiku. They're blackly funny, or oddly touching, or creepy."The website The Webcomics Examiner included A Softer World in its list of 25 "Best Webcomics of 2005", saying "the sly inferences in each Softer World strip are variously acidic, achingly funny, or casually disturbing."The comic won the first Web Cartoonists' Choice Award for photographic webcomic in 2007. A Softer World was profiled in the September 2007 issue of the Australian Rolling Stone. In a 2008 article for ComicMix, reviewer Rick Marshall said. One strip can prompt hysterical laughter, while the next can only make you shiver and wonder what the unholy hell was going on in its creators’ minds when that strip was conceived. ASW can explore complex social issues one moment and the depth of depravity in the next."Writing after the final strip, Gary Tyrrel of Fleen called the series "one thousand two hundred and forty-three perfect little pillows of hope/despair, melancholy/sanguinity, sexiness/moresexiness".
As of August 2019, all print editions of the comic have a rating of higher on Goodreads. The website asofterworld.com was used to host other creative works by Horne and Comeau: "i blame the sea" is Emily Horne's photo journal, added to the site in 2008 and updated weekly."Overqualified" is a series of satirical cover letters for job applications. These cover letters are written so as to reveal a degree of insanity in the imagined author. For example, one is a letter from someone applying to be a mall Santa Claus, in which he explains that, as a foreman at Mattel, he fired all the middle aged men and hired midgets who he forced to wear green costumes, that, after being fired, he broke into houses to steal milk and cookies. Overqualified was published in book form in 2009."i am other people" is a series of interviews that Joey conducts with people. Lockpick Pornography, Comeau's first novel, was first serialized on the A Softer World website before publication. Truth and Beauty Bombs Second Best Isn't So Bad Everybody Gets Got Let's Do Something Wrong Anatomy of Melancholy Photo comics asofterworld.com – official homepage Lockpick Pornography Late Night Jengajam Interview conducted by John "Jengaship" Edathil, 27 September 2007 on Talkshoe.