Maximilian Schell was an Austrian-born Swiss film and stage actor, who wrote and produced some of his own films. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the 1961 American film Judgment at Nuremberg, his second acting role in Hollywood. Born in Austria, his parents were involved in the arts and he grew up surrounded by acting and literature. While he was a child, his family fled to Switzerland in 1938 when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany, they settled in Zurich. After World War II ended, Schell took up directing full-time, he appeared in numerous German films anti-war, before moving on to Hollywood. Schell was top billed in a number of Nazi-era themed films, as he could speak both English and German. Among those were two films for which he received Oscar nominations: The Man in the Glass Booth, where he played a character with two identities, Julia, where he helps the underground in Nazi Germany, his range of acting went beyond German characters, however. For his role as Vladimir Lenin in the television film Stalin he won the Golden Globe Award.
On stage, Schell acted in a number of plays, his was considered "one of the greatest Hamlets ever." In Schell's private life, he was an accomplished pianist and conductor, performing with Claudio Abbado and Leonard Bernstein, with orchestras in Berlin and Vienna. His elder sister, Maria Schell, was a noted Hollywood actress, about whom he produced the documentary My Sister Maria, in 2002. Schell was born in Vienna, the son of Margarethe, an actress who ran an acting school, Hermann Ferdinand Schell, a Swiss poet, novelist and pharmacy owner, his parents were Roman Catholic. Schell's father was never enthusiastic about young Maximilian becoming an actor like his mother, feeling that it could not lead to "real happiness." However, Schell was surrounded by acting in his early youth: I grew up in a theatre atmosphere and took it for granted. I remember the theatre, as the way most people remember their mother's cooking. Acting was all around me, so was poetry. I made my debut in the theatre at the age of three, in Vienna...
The Schell family was forced to flee Vienna in 1938 to get "away from Hitler" after the Anschluss, when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany. They resettled in Switzerland. In Zurich, Schell "grew up reading the classics," and when he was ten, wrote his first play. Schell recalls that as a child, growing up surrounded by the theatre, he took acting for granted and didn't want to become an actor at first: "What I wanted was to become a painter, a musician, or a playwright," like his father. Schell attended the University of Zurich for a year, where he played soccer and was on the rowing team, along with writing for newspapers as a part-time journalist for income. Following the end of World War II, he moved to Germany where he enrolled in the University of Munich and studied philosophy and art history. During breaks, he would sometimes return home to Zurich or stay at his family's farm in the country so he could write in seclusion: My father and my uncle hunt deer there, but I do not like to hunt.
I like to walk through the forest by myself. In 1948 and 1949, when I wrote part of my first novel, which I have never shown to anyone, I isolated myself in one of the hunting cabins for three months, without a telephone, without electricity, with heat only from a large open fireplace. Schell returned to Zurich, where he served in the Swiss Army for a year, after which he re-entered the University of Zurich for another year, the University of Basel for six months. During that period, he acted professionally in small parts, in both classical and modern plays, decided that he would from on devote his life to acting rather than pursue academic studies: I decided, either you are a scientist or an artist.... To me it is much more important... to admire and feel and be stimulated and inspired... Art comes out of chaos, not out of a mechanical analyzing. So as soon as I made up my mind, there was no sense any more in continuing to study and in getting a degree, it is like an award. A university degree is just a title.
I don't think. It was time for me to concentrate on acting. Schell began acting at the Basel Theatre. Schell's late elder sister, Maria Schell, was an actress, as were their two other siblings and Immaculata "Immy" Schell. Schell's film debut was in Mütter und ein General, it was the story of five mothers who confronted a German general at the front line, after learning that their sons, some as young as 15, had been "slated to be cannon fodder on behalf of the Third Reich." The film co-starred Klaus Kinski as an officer, with Schell playing the part of an officer-deserter. The story, which according to one critic, "depicts the insanity of continuing to fight a war, lost," would become a "trademark" for many of Schell's future roles: "Schell's sensitivity in his portrayal of a young deserter disillusioned with fighting became a trademark of his acting."Schell subsequently acted in seven more films made in Europe before going to the U. S. Among those was The Plot to Assassinate Hitler. In the same year he had a supporting role in Jackboot Mutiny, in which he plays "a sensitive philosopher", who uses ethics to debate the arguments for assassinating Hitler.
In 1958 Schell was invited to the United State
Gruta de Maquiné Lapa Nova de Maquiné, is the oldest and one of the most commercially visited caves in Brazil. It is located about 5 km from Cordisburgo and 143 km northwest of Belo Horizonte, in the State of Minas Gerais; the cave has seven huge chambers explored, amounting to 650 m and unevenness of the ground of only 18 m. Safety measures like lighting and handrails allow a multitude of visitors to enjoy safely the wonders of the grotto where the whole journey is accompanied by an experienced local guide. Maquiné finds itself facing north, with a portico shaped in the form of a shallow arch with width of 18 m and height of only 8 m; the main direction of the cave is from north to south, being its greatest extent of 438.91 m. With an internal temperature ranging from 26 to 27 °C, it is horizontal, forming a continuous gallery with an average width of 9 to 12 m and height of 15 to 18 m; the main element of its formation is calcium carbonate, presenting other minerals such as silica, gypsum and iron.
Its galleries and halls, true architectural oddities, are the result of the formidable job of water in the persistence of millennia. The grotto features beautiful morphology due to its wide halls and aesthetic value due to their speleothematic beauty, in addition to its scientific value as it must have accommodated a considerable volume of water in the past. First chamber, called "Vestibulo", is illuminated by the natural light coming from the entrance of the cave, it measures 27 m in length, 20 m in width and contains numerous stalagmites that rise from the ground. The most distant of them are heaped in a single group that rises up to the upper dome, forming a back wall where two large blocks of quartz detach from the huge layer of the same mineral. Second Chamber, called "Sala das Colunas", is 37 m long by 22.5 m width. Masses of stalagmites that rise up to the dome link this wall to that which separates the preceding chamber. Other masses have risen as the first; the layer of stalagmites here formed was punctured so that the nitrogenous component contained therein might be extracted.
This layer contains a large quantity of small teeth. Third chamber, called "Altar" or "Trono", is 35 m wide and 15 m high. A group of stalagmites which separates this chamber from the preceding one form a bouquet on both sides, creating a niche arranged like an amphitheater in whose entry, a 7.5 m high figure resembling a bear on a pedestal is displayed. Fourth chamber, called "Carneiro", measures 20 m wide and 11 m high, it distinguishes itself from all the other chambers because the ground is covered with gypsum powder. Noticeable in this room, besides the figure of a lamb, is the imposing figure of a gigantic mushroom. Fifth chamber, called "Salão das Piscinas", measuring 23.5 m in length and width and 18 m in height, forms the deepest part of the cave. In the center of this cavern is a large basin about 1.5 m deep whose walls are covered with delicate crystals of fluorspar limestone. Large masses of stalagmites resembling ancient statues in a Roman bath adorn the opposite edges of the basin.
Sixth chamber, called "Salão das Fadas", is 15 m high. In this room bones of large animals, including the remains of a mammoth have been found. In the background of this chamber there is a passage to another room and a limpid cascade which has condensed itself into bright alabaster; the whole chamber and all the figures existing in it are decorated with a delicate crust of crystals of calcium carbonate, sometimes of the purest white, sometimes differently colored. The splendid reflections produced by the light illuminating the many facets of this crystal, dazzle the eye of those who gaze at this imagery and with it, see themselves transported to a fairy-like palace. Dr. Lund said: "My eyes have never seen anything more beautiful and magnificent in the domains of nature and art." Seventh chamber is divided into two parts. The first one is referred to as "Salão do Dr. Lund", is considered the most important of the chambers by the amount of bones that it contains, it is 22 meters wide and 15 meters high.
It forms many watersheds along the way. In the middle of the chamber there is a 60-centimeter-wide by 4.5-meter-deep coverage through which all excess of water is drained out of the cave. The second chamber is called "Salão do Cemitério", the largest of the chambers in the cave measuring 162.5 meters long by 56 meters wide. It is coated with a crumbly layer of plaster powder stalagmites which covers the ground, piling up to the ceiling. Considered as the "cradle" of paleontology in the country, the grotto was discovered in 1825 by farmer Joaquim Maria Maquiné the landowner, it is known for its paleontological importance detected by Peter Claussen and the Danish naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund who scientifically first explored it in 1834. Dr. Lund remained inside the cave nearly two years doing his research on the Brazilian paleontology, describing all the chambers, explaining the formation of stalagmites and stalactites and examining human remains and petrifaction of animals from the Quaternary period.
Among others, he found fossilized skeletons of birds with an extraordinary curvature of up to three meters and the Nothrotherium maquinense, the smallest and most emblematic of the terr
The Hawai`i Maritime Center was the principal maritime museum in the State of Hawai`i from 1988 until it closed in 2009. Located at Pier 7 of Honolulu Harbor east of Aloha Tower, the center was a campus of the Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum; the Hawai`i Maritime Center was built on what once was the private boathouse of King David Kalakaua and was home to the only four-masted, full-rigged ship in the world called the Falls of Clyde. The Falls of Clyde is a National Historic Landmark. Docked at the Hawai`i Maritime Center was the voyaging canoe Hokule`a, a scientific research vessel of great importance to native Hawaiian culture. Due to prevailing economic conditions, the Hawai'i Maritime Center was closed to the public effective May 1, 2009. In December 2017, the Bishop Museum transferred its lease between the Maritime Center and the State of Hawaii to a third party, ceased operating the Center. Plans for its future are unknown. Hawai`i Maritime Center Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum