SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Maximus the Confessor

Maximus the Confessor known as Maximus the Theologian and Maximus of Constantinople, was a Christian monk and scholar. In his early life, Maximus was a civil servant, an aide to the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius. However, he gave up this life in the political sphere to enter into the monastic life. Maximus had studied diverse schools of philosophy, what was common for his time, the Platonic dialogues, the works of Aristotle, numerous Platonic commentators on Aristotle and Plato, like Plotinus, Porphyry and Proclus; when one of his friends began espousing the Christological position known as Monothelitism, Maximus was drawn into the controversy, in which he supported an interpretation of the Chalcedonian formula on the basis of which it was asserted that Jesus had both a human and a divine will. Maximus is venerated in both the Eastern Roman Catholic churches, he was persecuted for his Christological positions. He was exiled and died on 13 August 662, in Tsageri in present-day Georgia. However, his theology was upheld by the Third Council of Constantinople and he was venerated as a saint soon after his death.

It is uncommon among the saints that he has two feast days: 13 August and 21 January. His title of "Confessor" means that he suffered for the Christian faith, but was not directly martyred. Little is known about the details of Maximus' life prior to his involvement in the theological and political conflicts of the Monothelite controversy. Numerous Maximian scholars call substantial portions of the Maronite biography into question, including Maximus' birth in Palestine, a common seventh century trope to discredit an opponent. Moreover, the exceptional education Maximus evidently received could not have been had in any other part of the Byzantine Empire during that time except for Constantinople, Caesarea and Alexandria, it is very unlikely that anyone of low social birth, as the Maronite biography describes Maximus, could have ascended by the age of thirty to be the Protoasecretis of the Emperor Heraclius, one of the most powerful positions in the Empire. It is more that Maximus was born of an aristocratic family and received an unparalleled education in philosophy, astronomy, etc.

It is true, that Maximus did not study rhetoric as he himself notes in the prologue to his Earlier Ambigua to John, to which his lack of high stylistic by Byzantine standards attests. For reasons not explained in the few autobiographical details to be gleaned from his texts, Maximus left public life and took monastic vows at the monastery of Philippicus in Chrysopolis, a city across the Bosporus from Constantinople. Maximus was elevated to the position of abbot of the monastery; when the Persians conquered Anatolia, Maximus was forced to flee to a monastery near Carthage. It was there that he came under the tutelage of Saint Sophronius, began studying in detail with him the Christological writings of Gregory of Nazianzus and Dionysius the Areopagite. According to I P Sheldon Williams his achievement was to set these doctrines into a framework of Aristotelian logic, which both suited the temper of the times and made them less liable to misinterpretation. Maximus continued his career as a theological and spiritual writer during his lengthy stay in Carthage.

Maximus was held in high esteem by the exarch Gregory and the eparch George While Maximus was in Carthage, a controversy broke out regarding how to understand the interaction between the human and divine natures within the person of Jesus. This Christological debate was the latest development in disagreements that began following the First Council of Nicaea in 325, were intensified following the Council of Chalcedon in 451; the Monothelite position was developed as a compromise between the dyophysitists and the miaphysists, who believed dyophysitism is conceptually indistinguishable from Nestorianism. The Monothelites adhered to the Chalcedonian definition of the hypostatic union: that two natures, one divine and one human, were united in the person of Christ. However, they went on to say that Christ had no human will; the Monothelite position was promulgated by Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople and by Maximus' friend and successor as the Abbot of Chrysopolis, Pyrrhus. Following the death of Sergius in 638, Pyrrhus succeeded him as Patriarch, but was shortly deposed owing to political circumstances.

During Pyrrhus' exile from Constantinople and the deposed Patriarch held a public debate on the issue of Monothelitism. In the debate, held in the presence of many North African bishops, Maximus took the position that Jesus possessed both a human and a divine will; the result of the debate was that Pyrrhus admitted the error of the Monothelite position, Maximus accompanied him to Rome in 645. However, on the death of Emperor Heraclius and the accession of Emperor Constans II, Pyrrhus returned to Constantinople and recanted of his acceptance of the Dyothelite position. Maximus may have remained in Rome, because he was present when the newly elected Pope Martin I convened the Lateran Council of 649 at the Lateran Basilica in Rome; the 105 bishops present condemned Monothelitism in the official acts of the synod, which some believe may have been written by Maximus. It was in Rome that Pope Martin and Maximus were arrested in 653 under orders from Constans II, who supported the Monothelite doctrine.

Pope Martin was condemned without a trial, died before he could be sent to the Imperial Capita

List of S-CRY-ed episodes

S-CRY-ed known as s. CRY.ed or Scryed, is a 26 episode Japanese anime television series. It is directed by Gorō Taniguchi and written by Yōsuke Kuroda. S-CRY-ed first aired in Japan on TV Animax; the series is set in an alternative time where in Kanagawa Prefecture a phenomenon granted a 1% of its people supernatural powers known as "Alters". The plot follows a young Alter mercenary known as Kazuma as well as Ryuho, a man working for the Alter special forces known as HOLY who become rivals as their areas clash. In Japan, the series was released in 2001 between July 4 and December 26 for a total of twenty-six episodes; these were collected in a total of nine DVD volumes between November 25, 2001 and July 25, 2002. A DVD box containing all episodes was released on January 25, 2008 whereas a Blu-ray box was made available on October 26, 2011; the anime was licensed by Bandai Entertainment in early 2003. Starting in 2003, Bandai released the show in North America as six individual Region 1 volumes, followed by a complete six-disc box set in November 2004.

Bandai's European branch Beez Entertainment published the series in the United Kingdom. The release was in a total of six DVD volumes released between June 6, 2005 and February 27, 2006; the series premiered on Adult Swim in the United States on May 28, 2005, after select episodes had been aired on Adult Swim's Video On Demand service for nearly a year. On September 27, 2005, Bandai re-released s-CRY-ed under the Anime Legends banner, in three two-disc volumes, followed by the Anime Legends Complete Collection on October 24, 2006. Following the 2012 closure of Bandai Entertainment, Sunrise announced at Otakon 2013, that Sentai Filmworks has rescued S-CRY-ed, along with a handful of other former BEI titles; the music of S-CRY-ed was composed by Kōtarō Nakagawa. Its original soundtrack was released on November 21, 2001 whereas two drama CDs were released on December 19 of the same year. For the first twenty-five episodes the opening and ending are "Reckless Fire" by Yasuaki Ide and "Drastic My Soul" by Mikio Sakai, respectively.

However, for episode twenty-six, "Reckless Fire" is replaced by "Drastic My Soul" whereas the ending theme is "Tabidachi no Kane ga Naru" by Mikio Sakai. There are three insert song starting with "All I Need Is Love" by Sakai for episodes fourteen and seventeen, "Magma" by Ide for episode nineteen and "Discovery" by Sakai. Both the singles of "Reckless Fire" and "Drastic My Soul" were released on August 22, 2001

David Sigachev

David Sigachev is a Russian race car driver. Sigachev started his racing career from karting, he made the move into single-seaters in 2007, with a campaign in the inaugural Formula Renault 2.0 Northern European Cup. Driving for SL Formula Racing, he finished twenty-first in the standings, he took part in two Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 races with the same team, failing to score a point. Sigachev missed the entire 2008 season due to sponsorship problems. In 2009 he moved to Porsche Supercup category with tolimit Seyffarth Motorsport. † - As Sigachev was a guest driver, he was ineligible to score points. Official site Career statistics from Driver Database