St Edmund's College, Cambridge
St Edmund's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. It is the second-oldest of the four Cambridge colleges oriented to mature students, which only accept students reading for either masters or doctorate degrees, or undergraduate degrees if they are aged 21 or older. Named after St Edmund of Abingdon, the first known Oxford Master of Arts and the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1234 to 1240, the college has traditionally Catholic roots, its founders were Henry Fitzalan Howard, the 15th Duke of Norfolk the most prominent Catholic in England, Baron Anatole von Hügel, the first Catholic to take a Cambridge degree since the revolution of 1688. In recognition of this Catholic connection, the College Visitor is the Archbishop of Westminster; the college is located on Mount Pleasant, northwest of the centre of Cambridge, beside Lucy Cavendish College, Murray Edwards College and Fitzwilliam College. Its campus consists of a garden setting on the edge of what was Roman Cambridge, with housing for over 350 students.
Members of St Edmund's include the former Archbishop of Amagh, Eamon Martin and Big Bang theorist Georges Lemaître, the Bishop of Menevia, John Petit, the Leader of the House of Commons, Norman St John-Stevas, Lord St John of Fawsley. St Edmund's was the residential college of the university's first Catholic students in two hundred years - most of whom were studying for the Priesthood - after the lifting of the papal prohibition on attendance at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge in 1895 at the urging of a delegation to Pope Leo XIII led by Baron von Hügel. St Edmund's House was founded in 1896 by Henry Fitzalan Howard, the 15th Duke of Norfolk, Baron Anatole von Hügel as an institution providing board and lodging for Roman Catholic students at the University of Cambridge. After Catholic Emancipation, in particular after the repeal of the Test Acts in 1873, students who were Roman Catholics were admitted as members of the university. In its early days the college functioned predominantly as a lodging house, or residential hall of residence, for students who were matriculated at other colleges.
Most of the students, at that time, were ordained Catholic priests who were reading various subjects offered by the university. The college was established in the buildings of Ayerst Hostel, set up for non-collegiate students by the Reverend William Ayerst in 1884, its founding master for Fr Edmund Nolan Vice-Rector of St Edmund's College Ware. In 1896 Ayerst Hostel had to close due to lack of funds, the property was transferred to the Catholic Church. Attempts to make St Edmund's House into a fully-fledged constituent college were made at various times after foundation, but were met by continuing hostility by the predominantly Protestant body of Cambridge MAs, graduates of the university who had the right to vote in the Senate House. Due to Cambridge's Anglican student body, large numbers of MAs scuppered any attempt to grant St Edmund's House full collegiate status as they viewed it as a "papist" institution. Despite the initial pushback, the college continued its development, the chapel was consecrated in 1916 by Cardinal Francis Bourne, Archbishop of Wesminster.
A new dining hall was painstakingly constructed in 1939 and the membership of the college increased as it became a recognized House of Residence of the university, just below official college status. In response to growing postgraduate student numbers in the early 1960s, the Regent House of the university established several colleges for postgraduate students, St Edmund's House became one of the graduate colleges in the university; this spurred further progress regarding St Edmund's status within the university, in 1965, the college was permitted to matriculate its own students and new fellows were elected. In 1975 St Edmund's acquired the status of an "Approved Foundation", after the transfer of the college assets from the Catholic Church to the Masters and Fellows of the college in 1986, the college changed its name from "St Edmund's House" to "St Edmund's College" and received full collegiate status in 1996; the college now accepts students of none. In 2000, a new residential building housing 50 students was opened, named after Richard Laws, one of the former masters.
In 2006, two new residential buildings, including rooms for 70 students as well as apartments for couples, were opened. In 2016, major plans were announced for the development of two new courts and several buildings which will expand the college and provide modern, world class facilities for the scholars and students of St Edmunds College. While contemporary, the buildings external features and material will be in the traditional architectural vernacular, found elsewhere in the college. Large brick buildings with close detail will form the perimeter of the two new courts and a new multi-million pound student centre will frame the west side of the college; the expansion plans were approved by Cambridge city councillors in June 2017. St Edmund's is one of the most international colleges of the university, with students from over 70 countries; the full spectrum of academic subjects is represented in the college. The
Kwasi Danquah, known by the stage name Tinchy Stryder and as The Star in the Hood Black Chain Massive, is a Ghanaian-British rapper, singer and investor. Stryder has released three solo studio albums, Star in the Hood, Catch 22, Third Strike. Stryder's business ventures include the clothing line Star in the Hood, the Cloud 9 X Goji headphone and audio equipment range in collaboration with Goji Electronics. Stryder was born Kwasi Danquah in Accra, Ghana in 1986. Stryder has lived in England, United Kingdom since 1995. In Bow, London, he attended St Bonaventure's Catholic School in nearby Forest Newham. A. in Digital arts, Moving Animation at the University of East London. He began making music in 1997 and started in business immediately after completing his A-levels in 2006. Stryder's recordings date back to 1998, he appeared in 2000 on pirate radio along with Dizzee Rascal and Wiley, was part of grime collective and record production team Ruff Sqwad from 2001. His pseudonym Tinchy Stryder derives from Strider and from the nickname given to him "Tinchy": his height at 5 ft 3 in.
In 2002, the grime group Roll Deep was founded by Wiley, included Stryder and Dizzee Rascal. They were making music, a derivative of garage. For a while, there was not a name for it; the name "grime" was the one. While performing with Roll Deep, Stryder performed some songs including "U Were Always" in 2002, released years on Roll Deep's compilation album Street Anthems in 2009, he performed on Roll Deep's 2004 mixtape, Creeper Vol. 2. The debut album by Stryder, Star in the Hood, was released on 13 August 2007 on Takeover; the album spawned two main singles, "Breakaway", released on 9 April 2007 and "Something About Your Smile", was released on 6 August 2007. Bonus track "Mainstream Money" was released as an underground single in November 2007. In 2008, Stryder released his debut extended play, Cloud 9 The EP, released on 31 March on Takeover; this was succeeded by him and grime record producer Maniac collaborating on the album, Tinchy Stryder vs. Maniac, released on 24 November 2008. Only one single was released from the album, "Rollin", released in October 2008.
This track was included on his 2009 second solo studio album, Catch 22, as part of the, Deluxe 2-Disc Edition, he would collaborate with American band Gang Gang Dance on their album Saint Dymphna, released in October 2008. Stryder began a partnership with songwriter Fraser T Smith. According to Smith in an interview with HitQuarters, "Kwasi had no shortage of beats and cool sounding production, but I think he wanted to try and break through into the mainstream, I had some experience crossing underground over into mainstream having worked with artists like Craig David."The single "Stryderman", was released on 20 July 2008. It was the first single taken from Catch 22; the second single, "Take Me Back", was released on 19 January 2009. His third single, a collaboration with the English hip-hop band N-Dubz entitled "Number 1," peaked at number 6 on the European Hot 100 Singles and number 1 in the UK & Ireland and became the first single with the title “Number 1” to peak at #1 in any country, his fourth single from Catch 22, "Never Leave You", was released on 3 August 2009 with the album following on 17 August 2009.
"Never Leave You" peaked at number 5 on the European Hot 100 Singles on the week of its release. Catch 22 debuted at number 11 on the European Top 100 Albums; the fifth and final single from Catch 22 is "You're Not Alone,", released in November 2009 and samples the Olive song of the same name. In February 2010, Stryder headline toured for the third time, he invited the English singer Example and rapper JME as his supporting acts; the tour was Stryder's second sell-out tour after he toured in 2009 and helped in raising the profile of Example. Stryder opened on the pyramid stage at the England Glastonbury Festival, on Saturday, 27 June 2010, he performed at the O2 Arena in England, for the Transformation Trust's first birthday alongside The Saturdays. Stryder's third solo studio album, Third Strike was released on Monday, 15 November 2010 and was an unsuccessful album. Stryder began recording Third Strike shortly; this was followed by the release of the first official single, a year from the day he released his second studio album.
He began working with Fraser T Smith who had worked on his second studio album. English singer Taio Cruz produced the along with Fraser T Smith; the album title was picked by the title of Street Fighter III 3rd Strike, a massive success. Third Strike features several artists, including English singer Amelle, with whom he collaborated on Catch 22 on the single "Never Leave You"; the album features Taio Cruz who featured on the Stryder's last album. The album features artists affiliated with Roc Nation: Canadian singer Melanie Fiona on "Let It Rain", American singer Alexis Jordan, American singer Bridget Kelly on "Take The World"; the song "Game Over" features six different artists. Eric Turner from the Swedish rock band Street Fighting Man features on the album; the first single from the scrapped studio album entitled Full Tank is "Spaceship" and it features English singer and songwriter Dappy from N-Dubz. Stryder performed at the 2011 UEFA Champions League Final in support of the single, making him the first rapper in history to perform at a UEFA Champions League final.
He teamed up with Scottish DJs and record producers Calvin Harris
May Week is the name used in the University of Cambridge to refer to a period at the end of the academic year. May Week took place in the week during May before year-end exams began. Nowadays, May Week takes place in June after exams, is a cause for great celebration amongst the students of the University. Highlights of the week include May Balls, June Events and garden parties. May Week festivities were held in May, in the final week before exams. Suicide Sunday is the name used at Cambridge University to refer to the Sunday after the end of the spring term. By this Sunday, all students have finished exams but most of the results have not been published, so it is traditionally a period of nerves and suspense; the name, refers to the celebration that students haven't committed suicide due to stress of exams. The event is for current students of the University of Cambridge but is frequented by former students that indulge in the student lifestyle. A student-led campaign in 2015 encouraged use of the name "MayWeek Sunday" instead, though "Suicide Sunday" continues to persist among some students and the public.
The Cardboard Boat Race is a main attraction to Suicide Sunday, offering an alternative to the many garden parties and more serious boating. The first race was with three boats from Magdalene College. In 2011, the race was opened to other colleges
First and Third Trinity Boat Club May Ball
The First and Third Trinity Boat Club May Ball, informally known as Trinity May Ball, is an end-of-year party held annually during the month of June at Trinity College, University of Cambridge. It is notable as the first May Ball held in Cambridge, it originates from a celebration of the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, after which the Ball is named, for their win in the 1838 May Bumps: this consisted in a night of heavy drinking at a local pub, the Hoop Inn. Since the bumps were held just before the university exams in May, the name still remains traditionally if the ball has been moved to the subsequent month, on the Monday of May week; the first official May Ball in Trinity College's grounds was held in 1866, the tradition spread to the other colleges. The event takes place every year since but it was cancelled in 1910 due to King Edward VII's death and between 1939 and 1945 during the Second World War; the ball's dress code is white tie preferred but black tie accepted and the event lasts from 9 o'clock in the evening to 6 o'clock in the morning, ending with a Survivor's photo.
Highlights of the occasion include champagne being served all night long from an ice-filled punt, oysters and a fireworks display. Over the years, Trinity May Ball has hosted performances of several famous acts including: Elvis Costello and The Attractions Pixie Lott and the Vengaboys Cascada Alphabeat and Wheatus The Ball has generated some controversy as students spend a large amount of money to attend what has been called by some tabloid newspapers as "an excuse to get recklesly drunk" and misbehave on the streets of Cambridge once the event finishes in the early morning
The River Cam is the main river flowing through Cambridge in eastern England. After leaving Cambridge, it flows north and east into the Great Ouse to the south of Ely at Pope's Corner; the Great Ouse connects the Cam to the North Sea at King's Lynn: The total distance from Cambridge to the sea is about 40 mi and is navigable for punts, small boats, rowing craft. The Great Ouse connects to England's canal system via the Middle Level Navigations and the River Nene. In total, the Cam runs for around 69 kilometres from its furthest source to its confluence with the Great Ouse; the original name of the river was the Granta and its present name derives from the city of Cambridge rather than the other way around: After the city's present name developed in Middle English, the river's name was backformed to match. This was not universally applied and the upper stretch of the river continues to be informally known as the Granta, it has been said that the river is the "Granta" above the Silver Street Bridgemap 11 and the "Cam" below it.
The Rhee tributary is formally known as the Cam, the Granta has a tributary on its upper stretch known as the Granta. The Cam has no connection with the much smaller River Cam in Gloucestershire. An organisation called the Conservators of the River Cam was formed in 1702, charged with keeping the river navigable; the Conservators are responsible for the two locks in and north east of Cambridge: Jesus Lockmap 7 and Baits Bite Lock.map 3 The stretch north of Jesus Lock is sometimes called the lower river. The stretch between Jesus Lock and Baits Bite Lock is much used for rowing. There are many residential boats on this stretch, their occupants forming a community who call themselves the Camboaters. Navigation on the lowest section of the Cam and including Bottisham Lock,map 2 is the responsibility of the Environment Agency; the stretch above Jesus Lock is sometimes known as the middle river. Between Jesus Lock and the Mill Pond,map 12 it passes through the Backsmap 10 below the walls of many of the colleges.
This is the section of river most popular with tourists, with its picture-postcard views of elegant bridges, green lawns and graceful willows. This stretch has the unusual feature of the remains of a submerged towpath: the riverside colleges did not permit barge horses on the Backs, so the beasts waded up the Cam to the mill pulling their loads behind them. Access for mechanically powered boats is prohibited above'La Mimosa' Pub between 1 April and 30 September, when the middle and upper river are open only to manually propelled craft; the most common of these are the flat-bottomed punts. Between 1 October and 31 March powered boats are allowed as far as Mill Pool, but few people take advantage of this, as there are few public mooring places along the Backs, the river is too narrow and the bridges too low to afford easy passing or turning for many boats. Punts and canoes can be manhandled around the weir above the Mill Pool by means of the rollers, a slipway from lower to upper level. From the Mill Pool and its weir, the river can be followed upstream through Grantchester meadows to the village of Grantchestermap 14 and Byron's Pool,map 15 where it is fed by many streams.
The two principal tributaries of the Cam are the Granta and the Rhee, though both are known as the Cam. The Rhee begins just at Ashwell in Hertfordshire. Running north out of Ashwell, it forms the county boundary between Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire for around two kilometres the boundary between Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire for a further kilometre. At this point its course turns east and from here until it merges with the Granta it forms the parish boundary between a succession of villages, though until it reaches Barrington it remains at a distance of around a kilometre from any settlement of any size. Just after flowing under the Roman Ermine Street, it crosses the avenue of Wimpole Hall and a few kilometres it receives the waters of the minor River Mel that runs through Meldreth, it runs along the southern edge of the village of Barrington, where it still powers a water mill known as Bulbeck Mill. At Harston it passes Harston Mill, the site of a water mill from at least the 11th century until the need for mill died out in the mid-20th century, the parish church of All Saints.
It touches the eastern edge of the village of Haslingfield before joining the Granta at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluence with the Granta it is 33.2 kilometres in length. The longer tributary, the Granta, starts in the parish of Debden to the east the village of Widdington in Essex. After running south west to descend from the hills of Uttlesford, it turns north just west of the village of Henham. From there until Great Shelford it follows the course of the West Anglia Main Line railway, its northward journey passes first through Newport, where it is joined by the streams known as Wicken Water and Debden Water. A couple of miles it forms a picturesque addition to views of the stately home as it flows past the front of Audley End House, is joined by the stream known as Fulfen Slade, it skirts the edges of a number of villages as it moves into Cambridgeshire, successively Littlebury, Little Chesterford, Great Chesterford, Hinxton and Whittlesford, powering a number of water mills along the way.
Forming the boundary between Great Shelford and Little Shelford, it turns west to flow past Hauxton to merge with the Rhee a mile south of Grantchester at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluen
St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511; the aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion and research. The college's alumni include the winners of ten Nobel Prizes, seven prime ministers and twelve archbishops of various countries, at least two princes and three Saints; the Romantic poet William Wordsworth studied at the college, as did William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, the two abolitionists who led the movement that brought slavery to an end in the British Empire. Prince William was affiliated with St John's while undertaking a university-run course in estate management in 2014. St John's College is well known for its choir, its members' success in a wide variety of inter-collegiate sporting competitions and its annual May Ball. In 2011, the college celebrated its quincentenary, an event marked by a visit of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The site was occupied by the Hospital of St John the Evangelist founded around 1200. By 1470 Thomas Rotherham Chancellor of the university, extended to it the privileges of membership of the university; this led to St. John's House, as it was known, being conferred the status of a college. By the early 16th century the hospital was suffering from a lack of funds. Lady Margaret Beaufort, having endowed Christ's College sought to found a new college, chose the hospital site at the suggestion of John Fisher, her chaplain and Bishop of Rochester. However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St John's in her will, it was the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded, he had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, the Bishop of Ely to suppress the religious hospital, by which time held only a Master and three Augustinian brethren, convert it to a college. The college received its charter on 9 April 1511.
Further complications arose in obtaining money from the estate of Lady Margaret to pay for the foundation and it was not until 22 October 1512 that a codicil was obtained in the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margaret's executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates; when Lady Margaret's executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, an imposing gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury; the doors were to be closed each day at dusk. Over the course of the following five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, now has twelve courts, the most of any Oxford or Cambridge College; the first three courts are arranged in enfilade. The college has retained its relationship with Shrewsbury School since 1578, when the headmaster Thomas Ashton assisted in drawing up ordinances to govern the school.
Under these rulings, the borough bailiffs had power to appoint masters, along with Ashton's old college, St John's, having an academic veto. Since the appointment of Johnian academics to the Governing Body, the historic awarding of'closed' Shrewsbury Exhibitions, has continued; the current Master of St. John’s, Chris Dobson, has remained an ex officio Governor of Shrewsbury since 2007. St John's College first admitted women in October 1981, when K. M. Wheeler was admitted to the fellowship, along with nine female graduate students; the first women undergraduates arrived a year later. St John's distinctive Great Gate follows the standard contemporary pattern employed at Christ's College and Queens' College; the gatehouse is adorned with the arms of the foundress Lady Margaret Beaufort. Above these are displayed her ensigns, the Red Rose of Lancaster and Portcullis; the college arms are flanked by curious creatures known as yales, mythical beasts with elephants' tails, antelopes' bodies, goats' heads, swivelling horns.
Above them is a tabernacle containing a socle figure of St John the Evangelist, an Eagle at his feet and symbolic, poisoned chalice in his hands. The fan vaulting above is contemporary with tower, may have been designed by William Swayne, a master mason of King's College Chapel. First Court is entered via the Great Gate, is architecturally varied. First Court was converted from the hospital on the foundation of the college, constructed between 1511 and 1520. Though it has since been changed, the front range is still much as it appeared when first erected in the 16th century; the south range was refaced between 1772–6 in the Georgian style by the local architect, James Essex, as part of an abortive attempt to modernise the entire court in the same fashion. The most dramatic alteration to the original, Tudor court, remains the Victorian amendment of the north range, which involved the demolition of the original mediaeval chapel and the construction of a new, far larger set of buildings in the 1860s.
These included the Chapel, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, which includes in its interior some pieces saved from the original chapel. It is the tallest building in Cambridge; the alteration of the north range necessitated the restructuring of the connective sections of First Court.
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed