Hayes Common is a 79-Hectare area of public open land in Hayes in the London Borough of Bromley. It is managed by Bromley Council, it is Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, a small area is part of the Keston and Hayes Commons Site of Special Scientific Interest. The common is an area of heath, crossed by bridleways and footpaths. Hayes Common is one of the largest areas of common land in Greater London, with 91.1 hectares of protected commons. Archaeological excavations have revealed pieces from the late-Neolithic period and ditches and post holes dating back to the Bronze Age; the name Hayes is recorded from 1177 as hoese from the Anglo-Saxon meaning "a settlement in open land overgrown with shrubs and rough bushes". The common was used for centuries as a place where local people could collect firewood and graze cattle, by the early nineteenth century it was the site of the Hays Fair, a popular day out for Londoners; the common has been the venue for the crowning of the London May Queen for 105 years as of 2017.
In the 1860s the owner of the land, Sir John Lennard, began to sell off plots in the neighbouring West Wickham Common for housing, the Hayes commoners feared that their common would suffer the same fate. They organised opposition, in 1869 Hayes Common was the first common to be protected against enclosure under the Metropolitan Commons Act 1866. In 1937 the Municipal Borough of Bromley became the freeholder of the common, when the Municipal Borough was abolished in 1965 the London Borough of Bromley inherited ownership. In 2000, the Friends of Hayes Common was formed to help maintain the common. During the Second World War there were eight anti-aircraft guns fitted there, four 4.5 guns on permanent bases and four mobile 3.7 guns A two hectare area of shrub heath south east of the junction of Croydon Road and Baston Road forms part of the Keston and Hayes Commons Site of Special Scientific Interest. In 2008 its condition was assessed as "unfavourable recovering". There is access to the common from Baston Road, Baston Manor Road, Five Elms Road, Croydon Road, Prestons Road, Warren Road, West Common Road and Commonside.
List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London Bromley parks and open spaces
The Nine Worthies are nine historical and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry established in the Middle Ages, whose lives were deemed a valuable study for aspirants to chivalric status. All were referred to as'Princes', regardless of their historical titles. In French they are called Les Neuf Preux or "Nine Valiants", giving a more specific idea of the moral virtues they exemplified: those of soldierly courage and generalship. In Italy they are i Nove Prodi; the Nine Worthies include three Jews and three Christians. They were first described in the early fourteenth century, by Jacques de Longuyon in his Voeux du Paon, their selection, as Johan Huizinga pointed out, betrays a close connection with the romance genre of chivalry. Neatly divided into a triad of triads, these men were considered to be paragons of chivalry within their particular traditions, whether Pagan, Jewish, or Christian. Longuyon's choices soon became a common theme in the literature and art of the Middle Ages and earned a permanent place in the popular consciousness.
The medieval "craving for symmetry" engendered female equivalents, the neuf preuses, who were sometimes added, though the women chosen varied. Eustache Deschamps selected "a group of rather bizarre heroines" selected from fiction and history, among them Penthesilea, Semiramis. Literature and suites of tapestry featured the full complement of eighteen, whose allegorical figures preceded King Henry VI of England in his triumphal royal entry to Paris, 1431. A "tenth worthy" was added by Deschamps, in the figure of Bertrand du Guesclin, the Breton knight to whom France owed recovery from the battles of Crécy and Poitiers. Francis I of France still paraded himself at court dressed in the "antique mode" to identify himself as one of the Neuf Preux; the 1459 Ingeram Codex presents the coat of arms of the Nine Worthies among a larger list of attributed arms of exemplary individuals, as the three "better Jews", "best pagans" and "best Christians" alongside the arms attributed to three heroes of King David, the Three Magi, the "three mildest princes", the "three worst tyrants", "three patient ones", "three anointed kings" and "three noble dynasties".
As a group, the nine worthies represent all facets of the perfect chivalrous warrior. All, with the exception of Hector, are conquering heroes.. Those not royal were presumed to come from knightly families. All lived in the pre-heraldic era, attributed arms were invented for them, as in Lucas van Leyden's engraving. All were noted for their personal prowess in arms; as individuals, each displayed some outstanding quality of chivalry which made them exemplars of knighthood. That the nine individual figures were not distinguished, with respect to relative antiquity or ethnicity, would suggest that the virtues that they manifest are to be understood as timeless and universal; the Nine Worthies comprise a triad of triads as follows: Hector Alexander the Great Julius Caesar Joshua David Judas Maccabeus King Arthur Charlemagne Godfrey of Bouillon The Nine Worthies were a popular subject for masques in Renaissance Europe. In William Shakespeare's play Love's Labour's Lost the comic characters attempt to stage such a masque, but it descends into chaos.
The list of Worthies named in the play include two not on the original list and Pompey the Great. Alexander, Judas Maccabaeus, Hector appear on stage before the show collapses into complete disorder; the worthies are mentioned in Henry IV, Part 2 in which Doll Tearsheet is so impressed by Falstaff's bravery in fighting Ancient Pistol that she says he is "as valorous as Hector of Troy, worth five of Agamemnon, ten times better than the Nine Worthies". Don Quixote evokes the Nine Worthies in Volume I, Chapter 5, telling a peasant "I know that I may be not only those I have named, but all the Twelve Peers of France and all the Nine Worthies, since my achievements surpass all that they have done all together and each of them on his own account"; the phrase ‘ to the nines’ is said to be Scots in origin. The earliest written example of the phrase is from the 1719 Epistle to Ramsay by the Scottish poet William Hamilton: The bonny Lines therein thou sent me, How to the nines they did content me; the Nine Worthies had not devolved to folk culture in the seventeenth century, for a frieze of the Nine Worthies, contemporary with Shakespeare's comedy, was painted at the outset of the seventeenth century at North Mymms Place, Hertfordshire, an up-to-date house built by the Coningsby family, 1599.
The Cloisters, in New York City, has important portions of an early 15th-century tapestry series illustrating the surviving five of the Nine Worthies: King Arthur, David and Julius Caesar. I Nove Prodi, a fresco by the Maestro del Castello della Manta, an anonymous master, painted c. 1420 in the sala baronale of the Castello della Manta, Italy. The series includes depictions of their female counterparts. Montacute House has sculptures of the Nine Worthies spaced along the upper eastern façade on the exterior of the long gall
James George Frazer
Sir James George Frazer was a Scottish social anthropologist and folklorist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. His most famous work, The Golden Bough and details the similarities among magical and religious beliefs around the globe. Frazer posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science, he was born on 1 January 1854 in Glasgow, the son of Daniel F. Frazer, a chemist, his wife, Katherine Brown. Frazer attended school at Larchfield Academy in Helensburgh, he studied at the University of Glasgow and Trinity College, where he graduated with honours in classics and remained a Classics Fellow all his life. From Trinity, he went on to study law at the Middle Temple, but never practised. Four times elected to Trinity's Title Alpha Fellowship, he was associated with the college for most of his life, except for a year, 1907–1908, spent at the University of Liverpool, he was knighted in 1914, a public lectureship in social anthropology at the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Liverpool was established in his honour in 1921.
He was, if not blind severely visually impaired from 1930 on. He and his wife, died in Cambridge, within a few hours of each other, he died on 7 May 1941. They are buried at the Ascension Parish Burial Ground in Cambridge, his sister Isabella Katherine Frazer married the mathematician John Steggall. Frazer is interpreted as an atheist in light of his criticism of Christianity and Roman Catholicism in The Golden Bough. However, his writings and unpublished materials suggest an ambivalent relationship with Neoplatonism and Hermeticism; the study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. Except for visits to Italy and Greece, Frazer was not travelled, his prime sources of data were ancient histories and questionnaires mailed to missionaries and imperial officials all over the globe. Frazer's interest in social anthropology was aroused by reading E. B. Tylor's Primitive Culture and encouraged by his friend, the biblical scholar William Robertson Smith, comparing elements of the Old Testament with early Hebrew folklore.
Frazer was the first scholar to describe in detail the relations between rituals. His vision of the annual sacrifice of the Year-King has not been borne out by field studies, yet The Golden Bough, his study of ancient cults and myths, including their parallels in early Christianity, continued for many decades to be studied by modern mythographers for its detailed information. The first edition, in two volumes, was published in 1890; the third edition was finished in 1915 and ran to twelve volumes, with a supplemental thirteenth volume added in 1936. He published a single-volume abridged version compiled by his wife Lady Frazer, in 1922, with some controversial material on Christianity excluded from the text; the work's influence extended well beyond the conventional bounds of academia, inspiring the new work of psychologists and psychiatrists. Sigmund Freud cited Totemism and Exogamy in his own Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics; the symbolic cycle of life and rebirth which Frazer divined behind myths of many peoples captivated a generation of artists and poets.
The most notable product of this fascination is T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land. Frazer's pioneering work has been criticised by late 20th-century scholars. For instance, in the 1980s Edmund Leach wrote a series of critical articles, one of, featured as the lead in Anthropology Today, vol. 1. He criticised The Golden Bough for the breadth of comparisons drawn from separated cultures, but based his comments on the abridged edition, which omits the supportive archaeological details. In a positive review of a book narrowly focused on the cultus in the Hittite city of Nerik, J. D. Hawkins remarked approvingly in 1973, "The whole work is methodical and sticks to the quoted documentary evidence in a way that would have been unfamiliar to the late Sir James Frazer." More The Golden Bough has been criticized for what are perceived as imperialist, anti-Catholic and racist elements, including Frazer's assumptions that European peasants, Aboriginal Australians and Africans represented fossilized, earlier stages of cultural evolution.
Another important work by Frazer is his six-volume commentary on the Greek traveller Pausanias' description of Greece in the mid-2nd century AD. Since his time, archaeological excavations have added enormously to the knowledge of ancient Greece, but scholars still find much of value in his detailed historical and topographical discussions of different sites, his eyewitness accounts of Greece at the end of the 19th century. Among the most influential elements of the third edition of The Golden Bough is Frazer's theory of cultural evolution and the place Frazer assigns religion and magic in that theory. Frazer's theory of cultural evolution was not absolute and could reverse, but sought to broadly describe three spheres through which cultures were thought to pass over time. Frazer believed that, over time, culture passed through three stages, moving from magic, to religion, to science. Frazer's classification notably diverged from earlier anthropological descriptions of cultural evolution, including that of Auguste Comte, because he claimed magic was both separate from religion and invariably preceded religion.
He defined magic se
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
Fenchurch Street is a street in London linking Aldgate at its eastern end with Lombard Street and Gracechurch Street in the west. It is a well-known thoroughfare in the City of London financial district and is the site of a large number of corporate offices and headquarters. To the south of Fenchurch Street and towards its eastern end is Fenchurch Street railway station, a mainline terminus with services towards east London and Essex. Other notable sites include the commercial buildings at 20 Fenchurch Plantation Place. Fenchurch Street is home to a large number of shops and offices, including 20 Fenchurch Street, a 525 ft tall skyscraper completed in 2014. Located at No. 71 is Lloyd's Register, where the annual journal Lloyd's Registry was published. The frontage on Fenchurch Street was built in 1901 by Thomas Edward Collcutt and is a Grade II* listed building; the more modern building behind was designed by towers above it. This was completed in 1999 and was shortlisted for the RIBA Stirling prize in 2002.
At the street's eastern end and junction with Aldgate is the Aldgate Pump, a historic water pump, designated a Grade II listed structure. Further west, Fenchurch Street's junction with Lime Street was the location of a Christopher Wren church, St Dionis Backchurch. First built in the 13th century dedicated to the patron saint of France, it was destroyed during the Great Fire in 1666 rebuilt by Wren, demolished in 1878. Nearby, the church of St Gabriel Fenchurch stood on Fenchurch Street at its junction with Cullum Street. A blue plaque outside Plantation Place marks the site opposite where the church once stood before its destruction in the Great Fire; the western portion of Fenchurch Street formed part of the marathon course of the 2012 Olympic Games. In 2019, a mixed use building of 15 storeys with a publicly accessible roof garden, called One Fen Court, opened at 120 Fenchurch Street; the nearest London Underground stations are Tower Hill and Monument. The entire length of the road is served by London Buses route 40.
The postcode for the street is EC3M. Nearby streets: Leadenhall Street Mark Lane Mincing Lane Philpot Lane Lime Street Fen Court
Elephant and Castle
The Elephant and Castle is an area around a major road junction in Central London, England, in the London Borough of Southwark. Although the name informally refers to the areas of Walworth and Newington, the proximity of the London Underground station of the same name has led to the area being more known as "Elephant and Castle"; the name is derived from a local coaching inn. "The Elephant", as locally abbreviated, consists of major traffic junctions connected by a short road called Elephant and Castle, part of the A3. Between these junctions, on the eastern side, is the Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre, with the Hannibal House office block above. To the north of this, bounded by Newington Causeway and New Kent Road is the Metro Central Heights; the Strata residential block lies just south of the shopping centre on Walworth Road. Traffic runs to and from the south-east of England along the A2, the south of England on the A3, to the West End via St George's Road, to the City of London via London Road and Newington Causeway at the northern junction.
Newington Butts and Walworth Road adjoin the southern junction. The whole junction forms part of the London Inner Ring Road and part of the boundary of the London congestion charge zone; the Elephant has two linked London Underground stations, on the Northern and Bakerloo lines, a National Rail station served by Southeastern and Thameslink, other Thameslink services to Kent. Local buildings include part of the Department of Health; the Cuming Museum is nearby on Walworth Road. The name "Elephant and Castle" is derived from a coaching inn; the earliest surviving record of this name relating to the area appears in the Court Leet Book of the Manor of Walworth, which met at "Elephant and Castle, Newington" on 21 March 1765. The site was occupied by a blacksmith and cutler – the coat of arms of the Worshipful Company of Cutlers features an elephant with a castle on its back, which in turn was used because of the use of elephant ivory in handles. Shakespeare mentions the Elephant Lodgings in Twelfth Night.
In Act 3 Scene 3 Antonio says "In the south suburbs, at the Elephant, is best to lodge." Although the play is set in Illyria in the Balkans, Shakespeare used local London references. The theatres were all in Southwark, so Shakespeare's line may represent an advertisement for a local hostelry. "The Elephant" is a common present-day nickname for the Elephant and Castle.'Newington' is one of the most common place names in England, from 1750 the area became more important and the informal name, from the pub at this junction, was adopted. Compare'Angel' at Islington, or Bricklayers Arms, a short distance along New Kent Road; the inn site was rebuilt in 1816 and again in 1898, the present Elephant & Castle pub, at the junction of New Kent Road and Newington Causeway, was part of the 1960s comprehensive redevelopment. "Elephant and Castle" could be the corruption of the pronunciation of "La Infanta de Castilla" – a reference to a series of Spanish princesses such as Eleanor of Castile and María, the daughter of Philip III of Spain.
However, Eleanor of Castile was not an infanta. María has a strong British connection because she was once controversially engaged to Charles I, but she had no connection with Castile. "Infanta de Castilla" therefore seems to be a conflation of two Iberian royals separated by 300 years. Having excluded the above princesses, it may be possible to identify Henry VIII's first wife as the Infanta de Castilla in object. Catherine of Aragon lived in the 1500s, the anglicisation of her title could somehow sound as Elephant and Castle. Supporting this theory is a plaque that can be found claiming that upon her arrival in England in 1502, Catherine of Aragon stayed in a house on the South Bank a mile from where Elephant and Castle station is located today. There is evidence that the plaque is no longer affixed to the actual house where Catherine temporarily resided. Known as Newington, in the medieval period it was part of rural Surrey, in the manor of Walworth; this is listed in the Domesday Book as belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The parish was called St Mary, which church occupied the southwest side of today's southern roundabout, near the Tabernacle, was first recorded by name in 1222. In May 1557, William Morant, Stephen Gratwick and a man named King, known as the Southwark Martyrs, were burnt at the stake in St George's Field on the site of the present Tabernacle during the Marian Persecutions. St Mary's Church was rebuilt in 1720 and replaced in 1790, to a design of Francis Hurlbatt. Within another hundred years this too was to be demolished, with its replacement on Kennington Park Road ready in 1876, it was destroyed by bombing in 1940 during the Second World War. The remains of the tower and an arch were incorporated into its replacement of 1958; the open space is still known as St Mary's Churchyard, the narrow pedestrian walk at its south end is Churchyard Row. There is record of a'hosp
The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer. The Golden Bough was first published in two volumes in 1890, it has been published in several different one-volume abridgments. The work was aimed at a wide literate audience raised on tales as told in such publications as Thomas Bulfinch's The Age of Fable, or Stories of Gods and Heroes; the influence of The Golden Bough on contemporary European literature and thought was substantial. Frazer attempted to define the shared elements of religious belief and scientific thought, discussing fertility rites, human sacrifice, the dying god, the scapegoat, many other symbols and practices whose influences had extended into 20th-century culture, his thesis is that old religions were fertility cults that revolved around the worship and periodic sacrifice of a sacred king. Frazer proposed. Frazer's thesis was developed in relation to J. M. W. Turner's painting of The Golden Bough, a sacred grove where a certain tree grew day and night.
It was a transfigured landscape in a dream-like vision of the woodland lake of Nemi, "Diana's Mirror", where religious ceremonies and the "fulfillment of vows" of priests and kings were held. The king was the incarnation of a dying and reviving god, a solar deity who underwent a mystic marriage to a goddess of the Earth, he was reincarnated in the spring. Frazer claims that this legend of rebirth is central to all of the world's mythologies. Frazer based his thesis on the pre-Roman priest-king at the fane of Nemi, ritually murdered by his successor: When I first put pen to paper to write The Golden Bough I had no conception of the magnitude of the voyage on which I was embarking; the book's title was taken from an incident in the Aeneid, illustrated by Turner, in which Aeneas and the Sibyl present the golden bough to the gatekeeper of Hades to gain admission. Frazer wrote in a preface to the third edition of The Golden Bough that while he had never studied Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his friend James Ward, the philosopher J. M. E. McTaggart, had both suggested to him that Hegel had anticipated his view of "the nature and historical relations of magic and religion".
Frazer saw the resemblance as being that "we both hold that in the mental evolution of humanity an age of magic preceded an age of religion, that the characteristic difference between magic and religion is that, whereas magic aims at controlling nature directly, religion aims at controlling it indirectly through the mediation of a powerful supernatural being or beings to whom man appeals for help and protection." Frazer included an extract from Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion. The Golden Bough scandalized the British public when first published, as it included the Christian story of Jesus and the Resurrection in its comparative study. Critics thought this treatment invited an agnostic reading of the Lamb of God as a relic of a pagan religion. For the third edition, Frazer placed his analysis of the Crucifixion in a speculative appendix. Frazer himself accepted that his theories were speculative and that the associations he made were circumstantial and based only on resemblance.
He wrote: "Books like mine speculation, will be superseded sooner or by better induction based on fuller knowledge." In 1922, at the inauguration of the Frazer Lectureship in Anthropology, he said: "It is my earnest wish that the lectureship should be used for the disinterested pursuit of truth, not for the dissemination and propagation of any theories or opinions of mine." Godfrey Lienhardt notes that during Frazer's lifetime, social anthropologists "had for the most part distanced themselves from his theories and opinions", that the lasting influence of The Golden Bough and Frazer's wider body of work "has been in the literary rather than the academic world."Robert Ackerman writes that, for British social anthropologists, Frazer is still "an embarrassment" for being "the most famous of them all" while they now dissociate themselves "from much that he wrote." While The Golden Bough achieved wide "popular appeal" and exerted a "disproportionate" influence "on so many creative writers", Frazer's ideas played "a much smaller part" in the history of academic social anthropology.
Lienhardt himself dismissed Frazer's interpretations of primitive religion as "little more than plausible constructs of own Victorian rationalism", while Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his Remarks on Frazer's Golden Bough, wrote: "Frazer is much more savage than most of his'savages' his explanations of observances are much cruder than the sense of the observances themselves." The book's influence on the emerging discipline of anthropology was pervasive. For example, the Polish anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski read Frazer's work in the original English, afterwards wrote: "No sooner had I read this great work than I became immersed in it and enslaved by it. I realized that anthropology, as presented by Sir James Frazer, is a great science, worthy of as much devotion as any of her elder and more exact studies and I became bound to the service of Frazerian anthropology." However, by the 1920s, Frazer's ideas "began to belong to the p