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Mayaguez incident

The Mayaguez incident took place between Kampuchea and the United States from 12–15 May 1975, less than a month after the Khmer Rouge took control of the capital Phnom Penh ousting the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic. After the Khmer Rouge seized the U. S. merchant vessel SS Mayaguez in a disputed maritime area the U. S. mounted a hastily-prepared rescue operation. U. S. Marines recaptured the ship and attacked the island of Koh Tang where it was believed that the crew were being held as hostages. Encountering stronger than expected defenses on Koh Tang, three United States Air Force helicopters were destroyed during the initial assault and the Marines fought a desperate day-long battle with the Khmer Rouge before being evacuated; the Mayaguez's crew were released unharmed by the Khmer Rouge shortly after the attack on Koh Tang began. It was the last battle of the Vietnam War and the names of the Americans killed, including three Marines left behind on Koh Tang after the battle and subsequently executed by the Khmer Rouge, are the last names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

In 1939 during the French colonial period an administrative line was drawn between Cambodia and French Cochinchina known as the Brevie Line, named after Jules Brévié governor-general of French Indochina. While not intended to determine sovereignty, the Brevie Line became the de facto maritime border between Cambodia and Vietnam. In 1967 Prince Norodom Sihanouk Prime Minister of Cambodia agreed with North Vietnam that the borders of Cambodia and Vietnam were those drawn by the French in order to prevent any further Vietnamese claims on Cambodian territory. Following the Fall of Phnom Penh on 17 April the Khmer Rouge moved to take control of all of Cambodia from the residual Khmer Republic forces. With the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975 the Khmer Rouge demanded that all People's Army of Vietnam and Viet Cong forces leave their base areas in Cambodia, but the PAVN refused to leave certain areas which they claimed were Vietnamese territory; the PAVN moved to take control of a number of islands controlled by South Vietnam and other territory and islands contested between Vietnam and Cambodia.

On 1 May 1975 Khmer Rouge forces landed on Phú Quốc, claimed by Cambodia but controlled by South Vietnam. On 10 May the Khmer Rouge captured the Thổ Chu Islands, where they evacuated and executed 500 Vietnamese civilians; the PAVN launched a counterattack evicting the Khmer Rouge from Phú Quốc and Thổ Chu and attacked Cambodia's Poulo Wai island. As part of these island battles the Khmer Navy patrolled Cambodian coastal waters both to stop Vietnamese incursions and from fear that merchant ships could be used by the Central Intelligence Agency to supply opponents of the new Khmer Rouge regime. On 2 May the Khmer Navy captured seven Thai fishing boats, on 4 May Khmer ships pursued a South Korean freighter, on 7 May they held a Panamanian vessel near Poulo Wai and interrogated its crew and several days they fired on a Swedish vessel in the same area. On 12 May the Khmer Rouge sent a force to occupy Poulo Wai. Despite these actions no general warning was issued to merchant shipping. Cambodia had claimed 12 nautical miles of territorial waters since 1969 and had boarded ships on this basis.

The U. S. did not recognize 12 nautical mile territorial waters claims in 1975, recognizing only 3 nautical miles, characterised the waters near Poulo Wai as international sea lanes on the high seas. The crisis began on the afternoon of 12 May 1975, as the U. S. container ship SS Mayaguez, owned by Sea-Land Service Inc. passed nearby Poulo Wai en route from Hong Kong to Sattahip, Thailand. U. S. military reports state that the seizure took place 6 nautical miles off the island, but crew members brought evidence in a legal action that Mayaguez had sailed about 2 nautical miles off Poulo Wai and was not flying a flag. At 14:18, a Khmer Navy Swift Boat was sighted approaching the Mayaguez; the Khmer Rouge fired across the bow of Mayaguez and when Captain Charles T. Miller ordered the engine room to slow down to maneuvering speed to avoid the machine-gun fire, the Khmer Rouge fired a rocket-propelled grenade across the bow of the ship. Captain Miller ordered the transmission of an SOS and stopped the ship.

Seven Khmer Rouge soldiers boarded Mayaguez and their leader, Battalion Commander Sa Mean, pointed at a map indicating that the ship should proceed to the east of Poulo Wai. One of the crew members broadcast a Mayday, picked up by an Australian vessel. Mayaguez arrived off Poulo Wai at 16:00 and a further 20 Khmer Rouge boarded the vessel. Sa Mean indicated that Mayaguez should proceed to Ream on the Cambodian mainland, but Captain Miller showed that the ship's radar was not working and mimed the ship hitting rocks and sinking. Sa Mean radioed his superiors and was instructed to stay at Poulo Wai, dropping anchor at 16:55. Mayaguez was carrying 107 containers of routine cargo, 77 containers of government and military cargo, 90 empty containers, all insured for $5 million; the Khmer Rouge never inspected the containers, exact contents have not been disclosed, but Mayaguez had loaded containers from the U. S. Embassy in Saigon nine days before the fall of Saigon; the captain had a U. S. government letter only to be opened in certain emergency circumstances.

Mayaguez's SOS and Mayday signals were picked up by a number of listeners including an employee of Delta Exploration Company in Jakarta, who notified the U. S. Embassy in Jakarta. By 05:12 Eastern Daylight Time the first news of the incident reached the National Military Command Center in Washington, D. C. Presi

List of high schools for the gifted in Vietnam

In Vietnamese secondary education, High Schools for the Gifted or Specialized High Schools are designated public schools for secondary students to express gifted potentials in natural sciences, social sciences, and/or foreign languages. Schools for the gifted fall into two categories: provincial schools and university-affiliated schools; the first high schools for the gifted were initiated in 1966, since each province of Vietnam now has at least one high school for the gifted. Entrance to a high school for the gifted are based on test results and is competitive. In the early times, schools for the gifted focused on natural sciences. With the increase in competition in other fields like social sciences, gifted schools nowadays are broader in terms of majors. Gifted schools produce high secondary graduation rates and university entrance results, as well as numerous national and international academic prizes; as mentioned above, high schools for the gifted in Vietnam are divided into two categories: provincial and university-affiliated.

Note: The following list is sorted alphabetically by location rather than name

White Fang (1973 film)

White Fang is a 1973 Italian adventure film directed by Lucio Fulci. It was produced by Harry Alan Towers and co-written by Roberto Gianviti, based on Jack London's 1906 novel White Fang, it starred Fernando Rey and Virna Lisi. The film gained a great commercial success and generated an official and several non-official sequels. Set in the year 1896 in the Yukon Wilderness, the film opens when Charlie an Aboriginal Canadian fur trader, discovers his young son Mitsah attempting to befriend a wolf, he scares the beast away, believing it to be too wild and dangerous. Unknown to him, his son persists. Mitsah names the animal White Fang because of the ivory-white teeth the beast sprouts; that night, Charlie changes his mind about the animal. Mitsah, while strolling through the woods at night to meet his friend, falls through the thin ice of a frozen lake and the animal, a wolf/dog cross breed, raises the alarm. Mitsah is saved by his father and canine friend, but falls ill with hypothermia after his plunge into the icy water.

Charlie decides to take his son for medical treatment at the nearest settlement. While carrying Mitsah down a mountainside, he meets an old friend named Kurt Johnson a fellow fur trapper who agrees to help Charlie carry the conscious Mitsah. Kurt tells them the nearest town is a place called Dawson City, in which he informs them that it is not safe there, but Charlie tells them that he must get medical attention to his son or he will die. The group, after arriving at a riverside port below the snow line, are introduced to Jason Scott, a writer traveling to Dawson City in search of a story. Once they arrive in town on a riverboat steamer, they meet with Sister Evangeline a middle-aged nun who has arrived in Dawson City to set up a hospital mission. Jason and Kurt soon discover that Dawson City is a hotbed to business corruption and suppressed lawlessness. Sister Evangeline has encountered corruption in the form of the town's alcoholic priest Father Oatley, whose interest in her money is suspect.

Father Oatley is under the thumb of Beauty Smith. Smith has bought his way into overall control of the settlement, with some cash and lots of promissory notes he gives to the residents in exchange for gold, he surrounds himself with a posse of thugs wherever he goes and lords it up around town like a dandified artisto. Smith is romantically involved with Father Oatley's attractive daughter Krista, who works as a singer and dancer in Dawson City's notorious bar while her father conceals his paternity connection to her in shame. Sister Evangelina takes care of the sick Mitsah at the hut she plans to turn into a hospital, while outside, Scott and Charlie are threatened by Hall one of Beauty Smith's henchmen plus a few others, demanding money for keeping Mitsah in town as well as for the hospital sign they put up. Scott and Kurt beat up Hall and all of Beauty Smith's henchmen single-handedly, which Smith himself watches with both anger and admiration for their courage. A little Charlie is threatened by Smith's henchman who make racial slurs as him as well as demand money as well as the fur pelts that he brought with him.

A fight is provoked by between White Fang and Smith's champion hound he uses for dogfight gambling bets. White Fang is victorious, killing the opposing dog. Beauty Smith, seeing the whole thing, approaches Charlie and offers the Indian trader a large sum of money for his dog. Charlie refuses to sell White Fang. Furious at this one humiliating failure of his attempt to wield cash power, Smith stalks off for a muttered conference with his lackeys; as Smith walks away, Charlie is fatally stabbed to death. Scott and Kurt arrive on the scene just as Smith's henchmen disperse where the assembled townspeople, gripped with fear of retribution, claim to have seen nothing. White Fang is captured by Smith's henchmen and put to service, earning money in a public fight against a captured, wild bear chained to a post. White Fang is injured before Scott and Sister Evangelina arrive to rescue him. Returning the wolf-dog to Mitsah, starting to recover, they suppress any news of the death of his father until he is physically recovered.

In the meantime, Scott takes a parental interest to the youngster. Soon, everything starts to go wrong for Beauty Smith when he tries to persuade Krista to accompany him away from Dawson City for he is planning to skip town with his ill-gotten money, trailing unpaid promissory notes behind him. A frantic tussle erupts. Father Oatley, sees what Smith has done. Enraged, Oatley runs out onto the streets shouting Smith's secret to the startled townsfolk. Smith decides to start packing to move onto Nome, Alaska where more gold has been discovered and set up shop there. Oatley's outburst blows the lid off the secret as the whole town prepares to move on to the newly discovered gold deposits. Meanwhile, the Smith assassin who murdered Charlie, is freed from his jail cell by a corrupt Mountie. On Smith's orders, Chester sneaks into Jason Scott's quarters and succeeds in killing him, but White Fang leaps in through savages Chester. Beauty Smith and his lead henchmen, Hall sneak into the mission hut and take Mitsah hostage, shoots Father Oatley dead as he attempts to stop them.

Scott, White Fang, a horde or irate villagers give chase. Smith attempts to sweep away his pursuers by blowing up a dam, but White Fang ju