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Mayapan

Mayapan, is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza. Mayapan was the political and cultural capital of the Maya in the Yucatán Peninsula during the Late Post-Classic period from the 1220s until the 1440s. Estimates of the total city population are 15,000–17,000 people, the site has more than 4,000 structures within the city walls, additional dwellings outside; the site has been professionally surveyed and excavated by archeological teams, beginning in 1939. Since 2000, a collaborative Mexican-United States team has been conducting excavations and recovery at the site, which continue. Mayapan is 4.2 square kilometers and has over 4000 structures, most of them residences, packed into this compound within the city walls. Built-up areas extend a half kilometer beyond the city walls in all directions; the stone perimeter wall has twelve gates, including seven major gates with vaulted entrances.

The wall is 9.1 km long and is ovate with a pointed northeast corner. The ceremonial center of the site is located in Square Q of the city's grid in the center of the wider western half of the walled enclosure; the ceremonial center has a packed cluster of temples, colonnaded halls, shrines, sanctuaries and platforms. A. L. Smith, an archeologist with the Carnegie Institute, estimated 10–12,000 people lived within the walled city. According to Dr. Gregory Simons survey outside the city walls, there were numerous additional dwellings and he revised the total population estimate to between 15,000–17,000 people, his survey results are posted online at www.mayapanperiphery.net. People living outside of the city wall engaged in agriculture, animal-raising, specialized activities such as lime production. Russell found a colonnaded hall outside the city wall, revealing much is still to be discovered regarding the complexity of this urban landscape; the Temple of Kukulcan, a large pyramid known as the Castillo, is the main temple in Mayapan.

It is located to the east of the Cenote Ch'en Mul, which has caves radiating from it. In form, the Temple of Kukulcan is a radial four-staircase temple with nine terraces. However, the Mayapan temple appears to be an inferior imitation of the one at Chichen Itza, the city's buildings in general are not constructed as well as those in other Mayan cities. For example, most or all of the vaulted roofs in Mayapan have collapsed, while many of the better-built buildings at Chichen Itza remain intact. Other major temples in the ceremonial center include three round ones, which are unusual for the Maya area and are linked to the deity Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl in his wind god aspect. Unlike Chichen Itza, Mayapan has no ballcourts; the extensive residential zones of the site are composed of dwellings and ancillary domestic structures, with those around the ceremonial district larger and of higher quality and those toward the fringes being poorer. The houses are arranged in small patio groups surrounding small courtyards.

Houses were built haphazardly without organized streets. Lanes wind among the walls; the residential areas of the site contain many cenotes as many as 40. Settlement was the most dense in the southwestern part of the city; the ethnohistorical sources – such as Diego de Landa's Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan, compiled from native sources in the 16th century – recount that the site was founded by Kukulcan after the fall of Chichen Itza. He convened the lords of the region; the lords divided the towns of Yucatán among them, chose the chief of the Cocom family as their leader. The ethnohistorical sources recount multiple different histories of the fall of Mayapan; these histories are confusing, chronologically implausible, difficult to reconcile. For example, some sources say that the Maya revolted in 1221 against the Maya-Toltec lords of Chichen Itza. After a short civil war, the lords of various powerful cities and families met to restore a central government to Yucatán, they decided to build a new capital city near the town of Telchaquillo, hometown of Hunac Ceel, the general who defeated the rulers of Chichen Itza.

The new city was built within a defensive wall and named Mayapan, meaning "Standard of the Maya people". The chief of the Cocom family, a rich and ancient lineage that had taken part in the revolt against Chichen, was chosen to be king, all the other noble families and regional lords were to send members of their families to Mayapan to play parts in the government. Mexican mercenaries from Tabasco were employed to keep order and maintain power. Another family, the Xiu, may have been living in the Mayapan area prior to the arrival of the Cocom; this arrangement lasted for over 200 years. Mayapan became the primary city in a grou

Kaplan Law School

Kaplan Law School was a for-profit educational institution offering post-graduate legal training in London for those wishing to become a solicitor in England and Wales. As of April 2016, it announced the closure of all programmes to new applicants ending the schools activities. Kaplan Law School was opened by the British arm of Kaplan Inc. in September 2007. It operates in partnership with Nottingham Law School by providing Nottingham's professional legal courses in Central London. In 2014 Kaplan announced its Legal Practice Course offering would include an LLM in Legal Practice awarded by Nottingham Trent University. 82% of Kaplan's 2014 Graduate Diploma in Law graduates were awarded either a Distinction or Commendation. 86% of Kaplan's 2014 Legal Practice Course graduates were awarded either a Distinction or Commendation. Kaplan Law School offers students one to one bespoke careers advice from the moment they accept an offer until a year after completing the course. Based on those students who consulted the Careers Service on a regular basis, 84% of their 2013 LPC graduates obtained a Training Contract.

All programmes will cease by 2018. No new applicants will be permitted to enroll on any courses. Kaplan Law School offers the Graduate Diploma in Law. In addition, Kaplan allows students from a conversion course background to obtain graduate-LL. B. degrees awarded by Nottingham Trent University. Kaplan Law School is situated on Borough High Street by the South Bank of the River Thames, close to Southwark Cathedral, Borough Market and the Tate Modern. Kaplan Law School official website Kaplan, Inc. official website

Tootal

Tootal is a brand name for a range of British ties and other garments. The brand is now owned by Coats Viyella, it originates from a textile spinning and manufacturing company established in Manchester in 1799, which became Tootal Broadhurst Lee, subsequently Tootal Ltd. The company held patents in crease-resistant fabric; the firm identifies its origins in a company founded in Manchester in 1799 by textile merchant Robert Gardner. The Tootal family, who resided in Wakefield, became involved in the company in the early nineteenth century. Sarah Tootal married Daniel Broadhurst in 1811, their son Henry Tootal Broadhurst – the brother of Charles Edward Broadhurst and brother-in-law of Sir Joseph Whitworth – established a business partnership in Manchester in 1842 with Edward Tootal and Henry Lee, who had worked in Gardner's cotton goods warehouse; the partnership opened the Sunnybank cotton spinning and weaving mills, became the largest manufacturer of hand looms in Blackburn, but the partnership was dissolved in 1860.

The firm developed the manufacture of fancy cloths, using steam-powered looms in place of hand looms, acquired mills at Bolton and Newton Heath for their manufacture. In the 1860s, Henry Tootal Broadhurst and Joseph Lee, Robert Scott, were business partners who formed a limited company, Tootal Broadhurst Lee, marketing their goods under the name Tootal; the company was notable for its vertical integration, combining both spinning and weaving activities, for its marketing network which included offices and warehouses in Bradford and Paris, national and international agencies promoting their goods. By 1888, when the joint stock company Tootal, Broadhurst and Company Ltd. was formed, the firm employed some 5,000 workers and operated 172,000 spindles and 3,500 looms, making it one of the largest integrated cotton textile producing companies in Lancashire. Sir Joseph Cocksey Lee, the brother of Henry Lee MP and an active promoter of the Manchester Ship Canal, became its chairman. At the same time, a separate company, the Lee Spinning Co. was established.

In 1898, the company opened a large new brick-clad warehouse and office block, now known as Churchgate House, in Oxford Street, Manchester. The building, designed by Joseph Gibbons Sankey, is now a Grade II* listed building, described as "a powerful monument to the entrepreneurialism of the Industrial Revolution and Victorian bombast." Plans in the 1930s to build an adjoining warehouse which would have been the tallest building in Europe at the time were never completed. Tootal, Lee continued to develop in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in 1907 Edward Tootal Broadhurst, the son of Henry Tootal Broadhurst, succeeded Harold Lee as chairman; the company was an innovator in its promotion of brand names, in selling its goods direct to retailers. Though early in its history it specialised in cotton fabrics, it diversified into other yarns including silk and rayon, it developed a range of fabrics in a wide variety of patterns, including a velvet marketed as "Tootal cloth", "Tarantulle", used for lingerie and baby wear, as well as focussing on products such as handkerchiefs and ties.

The company provided other items for soldiers in the Boer War. A research department was established, it was active in developing new innovations, such as crease-resistant fabrics. In the early 1920s, it took out patents on urea-formaldehyde resins to produce crease-resistant fabrics, commercialised its patents by developing an international licensing programme, with successful agencies being granted the use of the Tebilized registered trade mark. In the First World War the company was noted for giving early guarantees that all their men returning after service would be reinstated in their old positions. By 1939, Tootal had branches throughout Britain and subsidiaries in Argentina, Canada and New Zealand, as well as agencies throughout the world; the company participated in the 1947 British Industries Fair, featured its "Lystav and Tobralco patented dress and furnishing fabrics, Pyramid men’s handkerchiefs and a bright display of Tootal ties and scarves." New factories were opened in St Helens in 1947, in Devonport, Tasmania, in 1952.

In the 1960s, Tootal joined the English Sewing Cotton Co. and the Calico Printers' Association, becoming English Calico Ltd., renamed Tootal Ltd. in 1973. In 1985 it became Tootal Group plc, in 1991 was acquired by Coats Viyella, which disposed of several of its subsidiaries. Tootal scarves and ties in polka dot and other patterns are now regarded as iconic of the period between the 1920s and 1950s in Britain, when they were advertised with the slogan: "Every Man Needs… Tootal Ties", they were associated with the mod subculture in the 1960s, were again revived as fashion accessories in the 1980s and 2000s, are now seen as emblematic of classic British men's fashion. Documents and clippings about Tootal in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW