SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mayflower Compact

The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the male passengers of the Mayflower, consisting of separatist Puritans and tradesmen; the Puritans were fleeing from religious persecution by King James of England. The Mayflower Compact was signed aboard ship on November 11, 1620, they used the Julian Calendar known as Old Style dates, ten days behind the Gregorian Calendar. Signing the covenant were 41 of the ship's 101 passengers while the Mayflower was anchored in Provincetown Harbor within the hook at the northern tip of Cape Cod; the Mayflower was bound for the Colony of Virginia, financed by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London. Storms forced them to anchor at the hook of Cape Cod in Massachusetts as it was unwise to continue with provisions running short; this inspired some of the non-Puritan passengers to proclaim. To prevent this, the Pilgrims determined to establish their own government, while still affirming their allegiance to the Crown of England.

Thus, the Mayflower Compact was based upon a majoritarian model and the settlers' allegiance to the king. It was in essence a social contract in which the settlers consented to follow the community's rules and regulations for the sake of order and survival; the Pilgrims had lived for some years in a city in the Dutch Republic. Historian Nathaniel Philbrick states, "Just as a spiritual covenant had marked the beginning of their congregation in Leiden, a civil covenant would provide the basis for a secular government in America." The original document has been lost, but three versions exist from the 17th century: printed in Mourt's Relation, reprinted in Purchas his Pilgrimes. The three versions differ in wording and in spelling and punctuation. William Bradford wrote the first part of Mourt's Relation, including its version of the compact, so he wrote two of the three versions; the wording of those two versions is quite similar, unlike that of Morton. Bradford's handwritten manuscript is kept in a vault at the State Library of Massachusetts.

Modern version IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, Advancement of the Christian Faith, the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia. IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England and Ireland, the eighteenth, of Scotland the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini; the document was signed under the Old Style Julian calendar, since England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752. The Gregorian date would be November 21. A list of 41 male passengers who signed the document was supplied by Bradford's nephew Nathaniel Morton in his 1669 New England's Memorial. Thomas Prince first numbered the names in his 1736 A Chronological History of New-England in the form of Annals.

The original document has been lost, so Morton is the sole source for the signers. He had access to the original document, but he could not have known the actual order in which it was signed by inspecting it. Morton's arrangement of names might not have been the arrangement on the original document, the names on the original may not have been arranged in any orderly fashion. Prince's numbers are based on Morton, as he himself stated. Morton's list of names was unnumbered and untitled in all six editions, although their order changed with successive editions. In his original 1669 edition, the names were placed on two successive pages forming six short columns, three per page. In subsequent editions, these six short columns were combined into three long columns on a single page in two different ways, producing two different orders in unnumbered lists of signers; the second and third editions changed the order of the first edition by combining the first and fourth columns into the first long column, for the other columns.

The fifth and sixth editions returned the names to their original first edition order by combining the first and second short columns into the first long column, for the other columns. Prince numbered the names in their original 1669 Morton order, he added titles to 11 names that were given those titles by William Bradford in the list of passengers at the end of his manuscript. The following list of signers is organized into the six short columns of Morton with the numbers and titles of Prince; the names are given their modern spelling according to Morison. Use the numbers for the order used by genealogists and half of unnumbered lists (Samuel Fuller will be the eighth n

Carlo Meliciani

Carlo Meliciani is an Italian operatic baritone who had an active international career from the mid-1950s through the late 1970s. From 1959-1979 he was on the roster of singers at La Scala in Milan. Although he sang a wide repertoire, he was known for his portrayal of roles from the operas of Giuseppe Verdi, he notably recorded the part of Don Carlo in Ernani in 1969 with Plácido Domingo in the title role. Meliciani began his career in the mid-1950s performing with a touring Italian opera company in Great Britain. In the 1958-1959 season he was committed to the Teatro Nuovo di Torino, performing such roles as Amonasro in Aida and Don Carlo in Ernani. In 1959 he joined the roster of singers at La Scala, making his debut at that opera house as Ping in Giacomo Puccini's Turandot, he remained a regular performer there up into the late 1970s, performing such roles as Alfio in Cavalleria Rusticana, Alfonso XI of Castile in La favorite, the Count di Luna in Il trovatore, Czernikowski in Boris Godunov, Don Carlo in Ernani, Don Carlo di Vargas in La forza del destino, Renato in Un ballo in maschera, Enrico in Lucia di Lammermoor, Posa in Don Carlos, Scarpia in Tosca, Sonora in La fanciulla del West, Stárek in Jenůfa, the title roles in Nabucco and Rigoletto.

He appeared in the world premieres of Ildebrando Pizzetti's Il calzare d'argento and Guido Turchi's Il buon soldato Svejk. Outside of La Scala, Meliciani worked as a guest artist at important Italian opera houses. In 1960 he sang Rigoletto at the Baths of Caracalla in Rome with Renata Scotto as Gilda and Giuseppe Campora as the Duke of Mantua, he sang the same role at the Teatro Massimo in Palermo the following year and at the Teatro Comunale Florence in 1965. In 1973 he portrayed the role of Paolo in Simon Boccanegra at the Arena di Verona Festival, he made guest appearances at the Teatro Donizetti, Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, the Teatro Massimo, the Teatro Petruzzelli, the Teatro Sociale in Rovigo, at opera houses in Mantua and Piacenza among others. Some of his other stage roles were Gérard in Andrea Chénier, Tonio in Pagliacci, Vincenzo Gellner in La Wally, the King's herald in Lohengrin. Meliciani was active on the international stage. In 1961 he made appearances at the Liceu, the Wiesbaden Opera House, the Greek National Opera, the Théâtre de Beaulieu in Lausanne.

The following year he performed at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City. In November 1968 he made his United States debut with the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company as Amonasro to Elinor Ross's Aida and Nell Rankin's Amneris, he returned to Philadelphia to sing Rigoletto to the Gilda of Roberta Peters and Amonasro to the Radamès of Richard Tucker. He appeared at the Connecticut Opera in 1970

1961 Canada Cup

The 1961 Canada Cup took place June 1–4 at Dorado Beach in Dorado, Puerto Rico. It was the ninth Canada Cup event, which became the World Cup in 1967; the tournament was a 72-hole stroke play team event with 33 teams. These were the same teams that had competed in 1960 but without Central Africa and with the addition of Paraguay, Puerto Rico and Venezuela; each team consisted of two players from a country. The combined score of each team determined the team results; the American team of Jimmy Demaret and Sam Snead won by 12 strokes over the Australian team of Kel Nagle and Peter Thomson. The individual competition was won by Sam Snead, with a tournament record score of 272, finishing eight shots ahead of Peter Thomson. - denotes amateur SourceThe Canadian Stan Leonard, American Arnold Palmer and South African Gary Player withdrew from the event. The Canada Cup was played at the same time as the Memphis Open, an official event on the 1961 PGA Tour. Under a PGA Tour rule, the three, as winners of official PGA Tour events in the previous 12 months, were unable to play in non-tour events where they clashed with official events.

The sponsors of the Memphis Open refused to allow the three to play in the Canada Cup with the result that the players withdrew from both events. They were replaced by Jimmy Demaret and Harold Henning. Team SourceInternational Trophy Source