The Republic of Adygea known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region of European Russia, is part of the Southern Federal District. Adygea covers an area of 7,600 square kilometers, the fifth-smallest Russian federal subject by area, with its territory an enclave within Krasnodar Krai. Adygea has a population of 439,996. Maykop is the capital and the largest city of Adygea, home to one-third of the republic's population. Adygea is one of Russia's ethnic republics representing the indigenous Adyghe people, a Circassian ethnic group that form 25% of the Republic's population, while ethnic Russians form a majority at 60%, with minority populations of Armenians and Ukrainians; the official languages of Adygea are the Adyghe language. Adygea lies in Russia's Southern Federal District of Eastern Europe, in the foothills of the Northwestern Caucasus in the Caucasus Mountains System, with plains in the northern areas and mountains in the southern area.
Forests cover 40% of its territory. Area — 7,600 km2. Borders — the Republic of Adygea is surrounded by Krasnodar Krai. Highest point — Chugush Mountain: 3,238 m; the 870-kilometer long Kuban River is one of the major navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the northern border between the Republic of Krasnodar Krai. Other rivers include: Belaya River Chokhrak River Dakh River Fars River Khodz River Kisha River Bolshaya Laba River — Psekups River Pshish River Sakhray River Sukhoy Kurdzhips River — flows near the archaeological site at Mezmaiskaya cave; the republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include: Krasnodarskoye Reservoir Oktyabrskoye Reservoir Shapsugskoye Reservoir Tshchitskoye Reservoir The republic's major mountains and peaks range in height from 2,000–3,238 metres, include: Chugush Mountain — 3,238 m Mount Fisht — 2,868 m Oshten Mountain Pseashkho Mountain Shepsi Mountain The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver and iron.
Average January temperature: −0.5 °C Average July temperature: +23 °C Average annual precipitation: 70 centimeters February 15, 2010, recorded the absolute maximum for the winter months—in the capital, the city of Maykop, the temperature was 23.4 °C. The Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast settled by the Adyghe people. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center, it was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast on August 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR, it was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of the new Azov-Black Sea Krai, removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936.
Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937. On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation; the first President of the republic was Aslan Dzharimov, elected on 5 January 1992. Relations between the Adyghe and ethnic Russians in Adygea are good. Russians make up two-thirds of the population within Adygea; the current Head of Adygea is Murat Kumpilov. The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts, two cities/towns, five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, 46 rural settlements. Note "м.р." above is an abbreviation for "муниципальный район" Population: 439,996 . Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians make up 63.6% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.8%. Other groups include Armenians, Ukrainians and Tatars.
According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people, 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 12.6% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians and 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox churches. In addition, 30% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question. The chief executive of the government of the Republic of Adygea is the Head, appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate; the current Head, Murat Kumpilov, succeeded Aslan Tkhakushinov as acting Head of the region. There is a directly elected State Council, which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils have 27 deputies each; the Republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation
The Maykop culture, c. 3700 BC–3000 BC, was a major Bronze Age archaeological culture in the western Caucasus region of southern Russia. It extends along the area from the Taman Peninsula at the Kerch Strait to near the modern border of Dagestan and southwards to the Kura River; the culture takes its name from a royal burial found in Maykop kurgan in the Kuban River valley. In the south it borders the contemporaneous Kura-Araxes culture, which extends into eastern Anatolia and influenced it. To the north is the Yamna culture, including the Novotitorovka culture, which it overlaps in territorial extent, it is contemporaneous with the late Uruk period in Mesopotamia. The Kuban River is navigable for much of its length and provides an easy water-passage via the Sea of Azov to the territory of the Yamna culture, along the Don and Donets River systems; the Maykop culture was thus well-situated to exploit the trading possibilities with the central Ukraine area. New data revealed the similarity of artifacts from the Maykop culture with those found in the course of excavations of the ancient city of Tell Khazneh in northern Syria, the construction of which dates back to 4000 BC.
Radiocarbon dates for various monuments of the Maykop culture are from 3950 - 3650 - 3610 - 2980 calBC. After the discovery of the Leyla-Tepe culture in the 1980s, some links were noted with the Maykop culture; the Leyla-Tepe culture is a culture of archaeological interest from the Chalcolithic era. Its population was distributed on the southern slopes of the Central Caucasus, from 4350 until 4000 B. C. Similar amphora burials in the South Caucasus are found in the Western Georgian Jar-Burial Culture; the culture has been linked to the north Ubaid period monuments, in particular, with the settlements in the Eastern Anatolia Region. The settlement is of a typical Western-Asian variety, with the dwellings packed together and made of mud bricks with smoke outlets, it has been suggested. An expedition to Syria by the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed the similarity of the Maykop and Leyla-Tepe artifacts with those found while excavating the ancient city of Tel Khazneh I, from the 4th millennium BC.
In 2010, nearly 200 Bronze Age sites were reported stretching over 60 miles from the Kuban River to Nalchik, at an altitude of between 4,620 feet and 7,920 feet. They were all "visibly constructed according to the same architectural plan, with an oval courtyard in the center, connected by roads." Its inhumation practices were characteristically Indo-European in a pit, sometimes stone-lined, topped with a kurgan. Stone cairns replace kurgans in interments; the Maykop kurgan was rich in gold and silver artifacts. In the early 20th century, researchers established the existence of a local Maykop animal style in the artifacts found; this style was seen as the prototype for animal styles of archaeological cultures: the Maykop animal style is more than a thousand years older than the Scythian and Celtic animal styles. Attributed to the Maykop culture are petroglyphs which have yet to be deciphered; the Maykop people lived sedentary lives, horses formed a low percentage of their livestock, which consisted of pigs and cattle.
Archaeologists have discovered a unique form of bronze cheek-piece, which consists of a bronze rod with a twisted loop in the middle that threads through the nodes and connects to the bridle, halter strap, headband. Notches and bumps on the edges of the cheek-pieces were to attach nose and under-lip straps; some of the earliest wagon wheels in the world are found in Maykop culture area. The two solid wooden wheels from the kurgan of Starokorsunskaya in the Kuban region have been dated to the second half of the fourth millennium; the construction of artificial terrace complexes in the mountains is evidence of their sedentary living, high population density, high levels of agricultural and technical skills. The terraces were built around the fourth millennium BC. and all subsequent cultures used them for agricultural purposes. The vast majority of pottery found on the terraces are from the Maykop period, the rest from the Scythian and Alan period; the Maykop terraces are among the most ancient in the world.
The longevity of the terraces allows us to consider their builders unsurpassed engineers and craftsmen. Recent discoveries by archaeologist Alexei Rezepkin include: The most ancient bronze sword on record, dating from the second or third century of the 4th millennium BC, it was found in a stone tomb near Novosvobodnaya, is now on display in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, it has a hilt length of 11 cm. The most ancient column; the most ancient stringed instrument, resembling the modern Adyghian shichepshin, dating from the late 4th millennium B. C. now in the Hermitage Museum. Its burial practices resemble the burial practices described in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas, has been regarded by some as an Indo-European intrusion from the Pontic steppe into the Caucasus. However, according to J. P. Mallory... where the evidence for barrows is found, it is in regions which demonstrate the presence of non-Indo-European populations. The culture has been described as, at the least, a "kurganized" local culture with strong ethnic and linguistic links to the descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
It has been linked to the Lower Mikhaylovka group and Kemi Oba culture, more distantly, to the Globular Amphora and Corded Ware cultur
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Maykopsky District is an administrative and a municipal district, one of the seven in the Republic of Adygea, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic and borders with Giaginsky District in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, the territory of the City of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai in the south, Apsheronsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the west and southwest, with Belorechensky District of Krasnodar Krai in the northwest; the area of the district is 3,667.43 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tulsky; as of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 58,439, with the population of Tulsky accounting for 18.4% of that number. The predecessor of this district was first established on December 28, 1934 as an administrative division of Azov-Black Sea Krai, it was renamed Tulsky on April 10, 1936. When Azov-Black Sea Krai was divided into Krasnodar Krai and Rostov Oblast in September 1937, Tulsky District remained a part of the former.
On February 21, 1940, Maykopsky District was established within Adyghe Autonomous Oblast and on April 28, 1962 Tulsky District of Krasnodar Krai was merged into it. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Maykopsky District is one of the seven in the Republic of Adygea and has administrative jurisdiction over all of its fifty-seven rural localities; as a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Maykopsky Municipal District. Its fifty-seven rural localities are incorporated into ten rural settlements within the municipal district; the settlement of Tulsky serves as the administrative center of both the administrative and municipal district. Abadzekhskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: stanitsa of Abadzekhskaya other localities of the rural settlement: stanitsa of Novosvobodnaya settlement of Pervomaysky stanitsa of Sevastopolskaya khutor of Vesyoly Dakhovskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: stanitsa of Dakhovskaya other localities of the rural settlement: settlement of Guzeripl selo of Khamyshki settlement of Merkulayevka settlement of Nikel selo of Novoprokhladnoye settlement of Ust-Sakhray Kamennomostskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: settlement of Kamennomostsky other localities of the rural settlement: settlement of Pobeda khutor of Vesyoly Kirovskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: khutor of Severo-Vostochnye Sady other localities of the rural settlement: khutor of 17 Let Oktyabrya khutor of Dyakov khutor of Grozny aul of Mafekhabl khutor of Oktyabrsky khutor of Proletarsky khutor of Sovetsky Krasnooktyabrskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: settlement of Krasnooktyabrsky other localities of the rural settlement: stanitsa of Bezvodnaya stanitsa of Dagestanskaya settlement of Khakodz khutor of Krasny Most stanitsa of Kurdzhipskaya settlement of Mirny settlement of Prirechny khutor of Sadovy settlement of Spokoyny settlement of Tabachny Krasnoulskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: khutor of Krasnaya Ulka other localities of the rural settlement: khutor of Grazhdansky khutor of Kalinin khutor of Komintern khutor of Tkachyov khutor of Volny Kuzhorskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: stanitsa of Kuzhorskaya other localities of the rural settlement: khutor of Karmir-Astakh settlement of Tryokhrechny Pobedenskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: settlement of Sovkhozny other localities of the rural settlement: khutor of Grozny settlement of Pobeda khutor of Prichtovsky khutor of Shaumyan settlement of Udobny Timiryazevskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: settlement of Timiryazeva other localities of the rural settlement: settlement of Michurina settlement of Podgorny settlement of Sadovy khutor of Shuntuk settlement of Tsvetochny Tulskoye Rural Settlement Administrative center: settlement of Tulskyother localities of the rural settlement: selo of Makhoshepolyana Государственный Совет — Хасэ Республики Адыгея.
Закон №171 от 5 мая 2000 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Адыгея», в ред. Закона №97 от 6 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Адыгея в связи с принятием Закона Республики Адыгея "Об отнесении посёлка городского типа Тульского к категории посёлков — сельских населённых пунктов"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Советская Адыгея", №156-157, 7 августа 2004 г.. Совет Республики Адыгея. Закон №283 от 30 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Майкопский район" статусом муниципального района, об образовании и наделении статусом поселений муниципальных образований в его составе и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №380 от 30 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Адыгея "О наделении муниципального образования "Майкопский район" статусом муниципального района, об образовании и наделении статусом поселений муниципальных образований в его составе и установлении их границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Советская Адыгея", №2–5, 12 января 2005 г. (Council of the Republic of Adygea. Law #283 of December 30, 2004 On Granting the Municipal Formation of "Maykopsky District" the Status of a Municipal District, on Establishing the Municipal Formations Within It and on Granti
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Belaya River (Kuban)
The Belaya is a river in the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai of Russia. It is a tributary of the Kuban River; the river is 273 kilometres long, with a drainage basin of 5,990 square kilometres. It has its sources at the main watershed of the Caucasus Mountains. In its upper reaches it is a typical mountain river, flows through deep canyons, while in its lower parts it is a slow flowing lowland river. Several cities and towns are located along the river including Maykop and Belorechensk