London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
The livery companies of the City of London, currently 110 in number, comprise Londons ancient and modern trade associations and guilds, almost all of which are styled the Worshipful Company of. Their respective craft, trade or profession, Londons livery companies play a significant part in City life, not least by providing charitable-giving and networking opportunities. Liverymen retain voting rights for the civic offices, such as the Lord Mayor and City of London Corporation. The term livery originated in the form of dress worn to retainers of a nobleman. Most livery companies retain their religious associations, although nowadays members are free to follow any faith or none. Most livery companies still maintain contacts with their trade, craft or professional roles. Some still exercise powers of regulation and enforcement, while others are awarding bodies for professional qualifications, several companies restrict membership only to those holding relevant professional qualifications, eg. the City of London Solicitors Company and the Worshipful Company of Engineers.
Other companies, whose trade died out long ago, such as the Longbow Makers Company, have evolved into being primarily charitable foundations, after the Carmen received City livery status in 1746 no new companies were established in London for 180 years until the Master Mariners in 1926. Post-1926 creations are known as livery companies. The Worshipful Company of Arts Scholars, the newest, was granted status on 11 February 2014. The Honourable Company of Air Pilots is exceptional among Londons livery companies in having active overseas committees in Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand and North America. Livery companies are governed by a Master, a number of Wardens, the Clerk to the Company is invariably its most senior permanent member of staff, who as chief executive officer runs its day-to-day activities. Membership generally falls into two categories and liverymen, most livery companies reserve the right to admit distinguished people, particularly in their sphere of influence, as honorary freemen.
Freemen may advance to become liverymen, after obtaining the freedom of the City of London, only liverymen are eligible to vote in the annual election of the Lord Mayor of London, the Sheriffs and various other City civic offices, including the Ale Conners and Bridge Masters. The livery companies elect a majority of the members of the Livery Committee, the Committee oversees the elections of Sheriffs and the Lord Mayor, educates liverymen regarding the City and its activities, represents the livery companies in communications with the City. A liveryman is a member of their respective Company. When a Freeman becomes a liveryman, the candidate is said to be enclothed, thereafter only the master and assistants in companies are seen wearing these at company events. The masters wear them at the Citys formal events, e. g. the two Common Halls and the United Guilds Service, and Lord Mayors Show, wherever they may participate
Freedom of the City
The Freedom of the City is an honor bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. The Freedom of the City can be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the citys trust, in this context and this allows them the freedom to parade through the city, and is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry. The honor was sometimes accompanied by a box, a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion. In some countries, such as the United States, esteemed residents and visitors may instead be presented with the Key to the City, other cities award Honorary Citizenship, with just a certificate. Freedom of the City is an ancient honor granted to martial organisations, allowing them the privilege to march into the city with drums beating, colours flying and this honor dates back to ancient Rome which regarded the pomerium, the boundary of the city, as sacred. Promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering it, and resigned their imperium immediately upon crossing it, an exception was made for victory celebrations, during which the victorious general would be permitted to enter for one day only.
Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens, weapons were banned inside the pomerium for religious and traditional reasons. Similar laws were passed by other European cities throughout the Medieval era, to public security and civic rights. As a result, soldiers would be forced to camp outside the walls of the city during the winter months. The Freedom of the City was an honor granted only to troops which had earned the trust of the local populace, either through some valiant action or simply by being a familiar presence. Today, martial freedom of the city is an entirely ceremonial honor, usually bestowed upon a unit with historic ties to the area, as a token of appreciation for their long, the awarding of the Freedom is often accompanied by a celebratory parade through the city. A slightly more freedom of the city is connected to the medieval concept of free status. As such, freemen actually pre-date boroughs, early freedom of the boroughs ceremonies had great importance in affirming that the recipient enjoyed privileges such as the right to trade and own property, and protection within the town.
Before parliamentary reform in 1832, freedom of the city or town conferred the right to vote in the boroughs for the MPs. Until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the freemen were the electorate for the boroughs. These two acts together curtailed the power of the freemen and extended the franchise to all householders, the private property belonging to the freemen collectively was retained. The freemen of York and Newcastle upon Tyne still own considerable areas within their towns, the Local Government Act 1972 specifically preserved freemens rights. The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 removed any restrictions entitling only men to be freemen, the grant of honorary freedom in the United Kingdom is governed by the Local Government Act 1972
The London Plan is the statutory spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority. The regional planning document was first published in form on 10 February 2004. In addition to minor alterations, it was revised and republished in February 2008. The London Plan published in July 2011 is currently in effect and has 2031 as an end date. As of June 2012 minor alterations are being made to the plan to comply with the National Planning Policy Framework, the plan replaced the previous strategic planning guidance for London issued by the Secretary of State and known as RPG3. It is a requirement of the Greater London Authority Act 1999 that the document is produced, the Act requires that the London Plan includes in its scope, the health of Londoners, equality of opportunity, contribution to sustainable development in the United Kingdom. The plan is a development strategy for the Greater London area and has six objectives.
The opportunity areas will be able to accommodate around 5,000 jobs each or about 2,500 homes, or a mixture of the two. The opportunity areas will mostly be town centres as opposed to suburban developments in the boroughs, although those are mentioned as important in terms of job growth, by definition, an Opportunity Area is brownfield land with significant capacity for development. This contrasts with an Intensification Area that can be developed to higher than existing densities with more modest economic change, for the purposes of the plan, London is divided into five sub regions. From 2004 to 2008 the sub regions were initially the same as the Learning, within this scheme there was a separate Central sub region and four others around it. The London part of the Thames Gateway zone was entirely contained within the East London sub region, the 2004—2008 sub regions each had a Sub-Regional Development Framework. The sub regions were revised in February 2008 as part of the Further Alterations to the London Plan and these sub regions each radiated from the centre to combine inner and outer London boroughs.
The 2008—2011 sub regions, each had its own Sub Regional Implementation Framework, in 2011 the sub regions were revised again, reintroducing a smaller Central sub region and returning all of the London part of the Thames Gateway to be within the East sub region. The 2011 sub regions are to be used for monitoring, engagement. Throughout these revisions has been a separately defined Central Activities Zone which includes areas with a high concentration of metropolitan activities. All activity centres are categorised into,2 international centres, the West End, over 1,200 smaller neighbourhood and local centres are identified in the plan. There have been a number of amendments to the London Plan which have incorporated into the current version that was published in February 2008
Term of office
A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office. In many jurisdictions there is a limit on how long terms of office may be before the officeholder must be subject to re-election. Some jurisdictions exercise term limits, setting a number of terms an individual may hold in a particular office. Being the origin of the Westminster system, aspects of the United Kingdoms system of government are replicated in other countries. The monarch serves as head of state until his or her death or abdication, in the United Kingdom Members of Parliament in the House of Commons are elected for the duration of the parliament. Following dissolution of the Parliament, an election is held which consists of simultaneous elections for all seats. For most MPs this means that their terms of office are identical to the duration of the Parliament, an MP elected in a by-election mid-way through a Parliament, regardless of how long they have occupied the seat, is not exempt from facing re-election at the next general election.
The Septennial Act 1715 provided that a Parliament expired seven years after it had been summoned, prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 parliaments had no minimum duration. Parliaments could be dissolved early by the monarch at the Prime Ministers request, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 mandated that Parliaments should last their full five years. Early dissolution is possible, but under much more limited circumstances. Hereditary peers and life peers retain membership of the House of Lords for life, Lords Spiritual hold membership of the House of Lords until the end of their time as bishops, though a senior bishop may be made a life peer upon the end of their bishopric. The devolved administrations in Scotland and Northern Ireland are variations on the system of government used at Westminster, the office of the leader of the devolved administrations has no numeric term limit imposed upon it. However, in the case of the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly Government there are fixed terms for which the legislatures can sit and this is imposed at four years.
Elections may be held before this time but only if no administration can be formed, offices of local government other regional elected officials follow similar rules to the national offices discussed above, with persons elected to fixed terms of a few years. Federal judges have different terms in office, the majority of the federal judiciary, Article III judges, such as those of the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, and federal district courts, serve for life. The terms of office for officials in state governments according to the provisions of state constitutions. The term for state governors is four years in all states but Vermont and New Hampshire, the National Conference of State Legislatures reported in January 2007 that among state legislatures,44 states had terms of office for the lower house of the state legislature at two years. Five had terms of office at four years,37 states had terms of office for the upper house of the state legislature at four years
Court of Common Council
In 2006 the name was changed from Corporation of London to avoid confusion with the wider London local government, the Greater London Authority. The Corporation is probably the worlds oldest continuously-elected local government authority, the corporations structure includes the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, the Court of Common Council, and the Freemen and Livery of the City. In Anglo-Saxon times, consultation between the Citys rulers and its citizens took place at the Folkmoot and judicial processes were conducted at the Court of Husting and the non-legal part of the courts work evolved into the Court of Aldermen. Numerous subsequent Royal Charters over the centuries confirmed and extended the citizens rights, around 1189, the City gained the right to have its own mayor, being advanced to the degree and style of Lord Mayor of London. The individual commissioners were nominated by the Corporation, but it was a separate body. Local government legislation often makes special provision for the City to be treated as a London borough, the Chief Executive of the administrative side of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London.
The Chamberlain, the City Treasurer and Finance Officer, the City Remembrancer, who is responsible for protocol, security issues as well as legislative matters that may affect the Corporation and is legally qualified. The Comptroller and City Solicitor, legal officer. e, former Lord Mayors, and the junior Aldermen. The Common Serjeant, the senior judge at the Central Criminal Court Old Bailey. C) The Ward Beadles, responsible to a specific Ward from which they are elected, largely ceremonial support to their respective Aldermen, and perform a formal role at Ward Motes. In 1801, the City had a population of about 130,000 and it has risen slightly to around 9,000 since, largely due to the development of the Barbican Estate. As it has not been affected by other municipal legislation over the period of time since then, the non-residential vote, abolished in the rest of the country in 1969, became an increasingly large part of the electorate. The non-residential vote system used disfavoured incorporated companies, the City of London Act 2002 greatly increased the business franchise, allowing many more businesses to be represented.
In 2009, the vote was about 24,000. Each body or organisation, whether unincorporated or incorporated, whose premises are within the City of London may appoint a number of based on the number of workers it employs. Limited liability partnerships fall into this category, though workers count as part of a workforce regardless of nationality, only certain individuals may be appointed as voters. The City of London is divided into twenty-five Wards, each of which is a division, electing one Alderman. The numbers below reflect the changes caused by the City of London Act, there are over one hundred livery companies in London
Sadiq Aman Khan PC is a British politician and the current Mayor of London since 2016. He was the Member of Parliament for Tooting from 2005 to 2016, a member of the Labour Party, he is situated on the partys soft left and has been ideologically characterised as a social democrat. Born in Tooting, South London to a working-class British Pakistani family and he subsequently worked as a solicitor specialising in human rights, and chaired Liberty for three years. Joining Labour, Khan was a Councillor for the London Borough of Wandsworth from 1994 to 2006 before being elected MP for Tooting in 2005. Under the Labour government of Prime Minister Gordon Brown he was appointed Minister of State for Communities in 2008, becoming Minister of State for Transport. A key ally of Labour leader Ed Miliband, he served in Milibands Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Justice, Shadow Lord Chancellor, Khan was elected Mayor of London in the May 2016 mayoral election, succeeding Conservative Party Mayor Boris Johnson.
He immediately resigned as MP for Tooting and his election as Mayor of London made him the citys first ethnic minority mayor, and the first Muslim to become mayor of a major Western capital. Khan held the largest personal mandate of any politician in the history of the United Kingdom, as mayor he introduced reforms to limit charges on Londons public transport, backed airport expansion, and focused on uniting the citys varied communities. He was a supporter of the unsuccessful Britain Stronger in Europe campaign to retain UK membership of the European Union. His work to improve relations between Muslim communities and wider British society has seen him receive security threats from both Islamist and far-right activists. Khan was born at St Georges Hospital in Tooting, South London and his grandparents migrated from Bombay Presidency, British India to Pakistan following the partition of India in 1947, and his parents migrated to England from Pakistan shortly before Khan was born. His late father, Amanullah Khan, worked as a bus driver for over 25 years, his mother and his siblings grew up in a three-bedroom council flat on the Henry Prince Estate in Earlsfield.
He attended Fircroft Primary School and Ernest Bevin School, a local comprehensive, Khan studied science and mathematics at A-level, in the hope of eventually qualifying as a dentist. A teacher recommended that he read law, as he had an argumentative personality, the teachers suggestion, along with the American television programme L. A. Law, inspired Khan to do so. He entered the University of North London to study law, from his earliest years, Khan worked, I was surrounded by my mum and dad working all the time, so as soon as I could get a job, I got a job. I got a round, a Saturday job—some summers I laboured on a building site. The family continues to send money to relatives in Pakistan, because were blessed being in this country. ”He and his family often encountered racism, which led to him and his brothers taking up boxing at the Earlsfield Amateur Boxing Club. While studying for his degree, from the age of 18 to 21, before entering the House of Commons in 2005, Khan practised as a solicitor
London Councils is the local government association for Greater London, England. It is a cross-party organisation that represents London’s 32 borough councils and it was formed in 1995 as a merger of the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities. In April 2000 it gained further functions as strategic local government in London was reorganised, London Councils is a think tank and lobbying organisation, and provides some services directly through legislation that allows multiple local authorities to pool responsibility and funding. London Councils is based at 59½ Southwark Street, the Association of London Government came out of a merger between the London Boroughs Association and the Association of London Authorities in 1995. The ALA consisted of many, mainly Labour, councils which had left the LBA in the 1980s, in October 2006 it changed its name from the Association of London Government to London Councils in order to avoid confusion with the Greater London Authority and the Local Government Association.
The GLA was a member of the ALG for a period, before Mayor Ken Livingstone fell out with leading councillors, the two organisations coordinate their work. It develops policy, lobbies government and others, and runs a range of services designed to make life better for Londoners. London Councils represents London local government to government, European institutions and other bodies, lobbying for investment. The direct services it provides on behalf of the boroughs, include the Freedom Pass providing more than a 1, the Chairman of London Councils is Mayor Jules Pipe CBE of the Hackney London Borough Council, since the Labour Party regained control in 2010. The committee is supported by a cross-party executive of eleven senior members which acts as a forum for detailed policy development, each member of the executive holds a specific policy area portfolio. Politically, the Executive comprises councillors in proportion to the party representation on London councils, London Boroughs Grants Committee Transport and Environment Committee took over Freedom Pass from Transport Committee for London.
London Housing Unit Committee was a joint committee and not all London borough councils were members. In 2008, a new directorate of London Councils was formed and this was formed from the merger of the previous London Centre of Excellence, London Connects and Londons regional improvement and efficiency partnership, Capital Ambition. Capital Ambition is now closed to new applications for funding although funding for existing projects will continue until 2015. List of electoral wards in Greater London Local Government Association London Councils Capital Ambition Freedom Pass PATAS Taxicard London Care Placements NOTIFY
Greater London Authority
The Greater London Authority is a top-tier administrative body for Greater London, England. It consists of an elected executive Mayor of London, currently Sadiq Khan. The authority was established in 2000, following a referendum, and derives most of its powers from the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It is a regional authority, with powers over transport, economic development. Three functional bodies — Transport for London, the Mayors Office for Policing and Crime, the planning policies of the Mayor of London are detailed in a statutory London Plan that is regularly updated and published. The Greater London Authority is mostly funded by government grant and it is a precepting authority. The GLA is unique in the British local government system, in terms of structure, the GLA is responsible for the strategic administration of the 1579 km² of Greater London. It shares local government powers with the councils of 32 London boroughs and it was created to improve the co-ordination between the local authorities in Greater London, and the Mayor of Londons role is to give London a single person to represent it.
The Mayor proposes policy and the GLAs budget, and makes appointments to the capitals strategic executive such as Transport for London, the primary purpose of the London Assembly is to hold the Mayor of London to account by scrutiny of his or her actions and decisions. The assembly must accept or amend the Mayors budget on an annual basis, the GLA is based at City Hall, a new building on the south bank of the River Thames, next to Tower Bridge. The GLA is different from the Corporation of the City of London with its largely ceremonial Lord Mayors, in 1986, the Greater London Council was abolished by the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher. On abolition, the functions of the GLC were transferred to bodies controlled by central government or joint boards nominated by the London Borough councils. Some of the service functions were transferred down to the councils themselves. For the next 14 years there was no single elected body for the whole of London, the Labour Party never supported the abolition of the GLC and made it a policy to re-establish some form of citywide elected authority.
After the Labour party won the 1997 general election, the policy was outlined in a White paper entitled A Mayor and Assembly for London. Simultaneously with the elections to the London Borough councils, a referendum was held on the establishment of the GLA in May 1998, the Greater London Authority Act 1999 passed through Parliament, receiving the Royal Assent in October 1999. In a controversial campaign, the Prime Minister, Tony Blair, attempted to block Livingstones nomination. In reaction, Livingstone stood as an independent candidate, resulting in his expulsion from the Labour Party, following an interim period in which the Mayor and Assembly had been elected but had no powers, the GLA was formally established on 3 July 2000
The assembly was established in 2000 and meets at City Hall on the south bank of the River Thames, close to Tower Bridge. The assembly is able to investigate issues of importance to Londoners, publish its findings and recommendations. The assembly comprises 25 members elected using the Additional Member System of proportional representation, elections take place every four years – at the same time as for the Mayor. A party must win at least 5% of the party list vote in order to win any seats, members of the assembly have the post-nominal title AM. The annual salary for a London Assembly member is approximately £55,000, one assembly member, Jenny Jones, was appointed to the House of Lords as the first life peer for the Green Party, and sat in the assembly until May 2016. Sally Hamwee, Graham Tope and Toby Harris were life peers elected to the assembly, while Lynne Featherstone, andrew Dismore, Graham Tope, and Richard Tracey are all former MPs who were elected to the assembly. One assembly member – John Biggs, former AM for City and he is currently serving as the Mayor.
Note that these maps only show constituency results and not list results, London Assembly London Assembly publications City Hall Labour Conservatives in the London Assembly London Assembly Liberal Democrats
Directly elected mayors in England and Wales
Directly elected mayors are local government executive leaders who have been directly elected by the people who live in a local authority area. The first such political post was the Mayor of London, created as the executive of the Greater London Authority in 2000 as part of a reform of the government of Greater London. Since the Local Government Act 2000, all of the several hundred local councils in England. Most local authorities opt for the leader and cabinet model where the leader is selected from the councillors. Following a successful yes vote in a referendum, a directly elected mayor is established to replace the council leader. Since 2007, councils can adopt the elected mayoral model without a referendum, most authorities with elected mayors already had a ceremonial mayor and the two roles continue to exist concurrently. As of May 2015,16 council areas are using the mayor, the system of elected mayors had been considered by the Major ministry, and the former Environment Secretary Michael Heseltine had been a proponent of it.
The 1997 Labour manifesto included a commitment to local government in London by introducing an elected mayor. The first directly elected mayor was introduced in Greater London in 2000 as part of the provisions of the Greater London Authority Act 1999. The position of the elected Mayor of London is a regional one. The work of the Mayor of London is scrutinised by the London Assembly, the Mayor of London cannot be removed from office by a referendum following a petition, as is the case for directly elected mayors elsewhere in England. The 2000 act ended the previous committee-based system, where functions were exercised by committees of the council, all of several hundred principal councils were required to review their executive arrangements under the 2000 legislation. Local authorities considering the option of a mayor were required to put the question to a local referendum. It is possible for groups to trigger a local referendum with a signed petition. A number of areas with elected mayors have civic mayors or Lord mayors, eleven mayors were established during 2002, covering metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts, unitary authorities and London boroughs.
Three further mayoralties were created under this legislation, in 2005,2010, although Wales is included in the legislation, only one Welsh authority, has held a referendum on such a proposal. The referendum, in May 2004, resulted in the proposal being rejected by over 70% of the voters, the elected cabinet option was not taken forward. The 2007 legislation required all local authorities to review their executive arrangements again, british Prime Minister David Cameron expressed support for the system, saying directly elected mayors are accountable and can galvanise action