Charles Rufus Reed is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th Mayor of San Jose, California from 2007 to 2014. Reed was born in Kansas. Reed attended Garden City High School and helped the school win a state championship in basketball in 1966, he joined the United States Air Force in 1970 after attending the United States Air Force Academy. At the Academy, he graduated number one in his class and served as cadet wing commander, the highest position a USAFA cadet can achieve. Reed was only the 9th person in the history of the United States Air Force Academy to max out on the Physical Fitness Test. While in the Air Force, Reed attended Princeton University and received a Master's Degree in Public Affairs. During the Vietnam War, he served in Thailand, he left the Air Force in 1975, having reached the rank of Captain, attended Stanford Law School where he earned a J. D. degree in 1978. After passing the bar, Reed began work as a private attorney, he specialized in environmental, land use and real estate law, commercial litigation.
Reed is married with two children. His daughter, Colonel Kim Campbell, joined the Air Force and was number one in her class at the Air Force Academy. Reed and his daughter were the first father and daughter to both graduate from the United States Air Force Academy and become Cadet Wing Commanders. Kim flew combat missions in an A-10 Warthog over Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and swore him into office at his inauguration, his son, Alex, is a graduate of Santa Clara University. Starting in the 1980s and continuing to 2000, Reed served on numerous commissions and committees including the City Planning Commission and the San Jose Downtown Association. Reed was elected to a seat on the San Jose City Council from the Berryessa District in 2000, he was re-elected with 86 % of all the votes cast. While on the San Jose City Council, Reed was known for being the lone dissenter in many votes, he was thought to be the most outspoken critic of the status quo on the council and voted against many noteworthy agenda items.
In 2005, with the incumbent mayor, Ron Gonzales, term-limited out, Reed announced his plan to run for Mayor of San Jose. In the mayoral primary held on June 6, 2006, in a crowded field of ten candidates, Reed won 28.8% of the vote, putting him in the mayoral run-off election held on November 7, 2006 against San Jose Vice-Mayor Cindy Chavez who received 23.17% of the vote. Michael Mulcahy received 10.74%, Dave Cortese received 16.37%, David Pandori received 17.86%. In the mayoral runoff election held on November 7, 2006, Reed won a solid victory over Chavez who conceded the race just before midnight. Final tallies show Reed garnered 117,394 votes to Chavez's 80,720. During the Mayoral campaign, Reed was criticized in a series of attack ads by Chavez and Labor Unions for getting reimbursed for various expenses that he had as a council member from his office fund, he repaid the funds when the issue hit the media and apologized to the public for any sense of wrongdoing. The funds in question were all approved by the City Clerk's Office and in an October 2006 City Council meeting, City Clerk, Lee Price, stated that the reimbursements did not violate City law and was common practice among the City Council offices.
Regardless, early in his administration, Reed had the City Clerk's Office produce a more detailed explanation for approved uses and restricted uses. Reed put together a 67-member transition committee to aide his transition staff in policy issues. Assisted by Transition Team Co-Chairs former San Jose Mayor Tom McEnery and Victor Ajlouny, Reed hosted publicly held meetings where many policy issues were discussed; the subcommittees for the transition included Jobs & the Economy, Education, Public Safety, Government Reform and Ethics. Reed was inaugurated as the 64th Mayor of San Jose on Tuesday, January 9, 2007. At his inauguration, he promised "no lying, no cheating, no stealing." This added. Reed pushed many of his 34 Reed Reforms, including focusing on outreach efforts to get the community involved in the budget process. Chuck Reed has gained many nicknames during his tenure in office including "Mr. Integrity", "the Anti-Ron Gonzales", "Captain America" due to his habit of sporting the American Flag.
On October 11, 2007 at a meeting with more than 100 Silicon Valley CEOs, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger referred to Reed as the "Green Mayor" because of Reed's environmental priorities. Mayor Reed announced his Green Vision for San Jose in October 2007; the Green Vision is a comprehensive environmental guide for San Jose over the next 15 years, setting 10 goals. The Green Vision was adopted by the San Jose City Council on October 2007 in an 11-0 vote. Mayor Reed aims to bring 25,000 clean tech jobs to San Jose and attracted Tesla Motors and several solar power companies to the city in 2008, he attributes his progress so far to "moving at the speed of business" and streamlining procedures. One city approval process was reduced from 3–6 months to one hour." Mayor Reed launched his bid for re-election on December 10, 2009. He pledged to keep positioning the city as a center of "clean tech" innovation. Reed was re-elected to a second term in a landslide on June 8, 2010. Reed won the election with or 76.7 %, against three challengers.
His nearest opponent, Thomas Nguyen, placed second with just 9,016. Susan Barragan placed third with 7,573 votes. List of mayors of the largest 50 US cities City of San Jose Web site Fresh Dialogues interview January 2009, Mayor's tacti
Thomas Fallon was an Irish-born, Canadian-raised American capitalist and politician, the tenth Mayor of San Jose, California. Fallon's family moved to Canada. At age 18, he was in St. Louis and joined the third expedition of John C. Frémont to California. Early in 1846, Fallon stayed in Santa Cruz. In June 1846, he raised a group of 22 Santa Cruz-area volunteers to join Fremont, appointing himself captain; when the Mexican–American War began in California with Commodore John D. Sloat's capture of Monterey on July 7, Fallon's force crossed the Santa Cruz Mountains to capture the Pueblo of San José without bloodshed, on July 11. On July 14, 1846 he received an American Flag from Sloat, which he raised over the juzgado of San Jose, the pueblo's administrative building. Fallon's volunteers joined Fremont's California Battalion for the remainder of the war. After the war, Fallon returned to San Jose back to Santa Cruz where he established a business as a saddler. At the beginning of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Fallon took a cargo of iron picks made in Santa Cruz to sell to the gold miners.
With his share of the profits, he built a combination residence/workshop/hotel on the Mission plaza in Santa Cruz. In 1849, he married Carmel Castro Lodge, daughter of local landowner Martina Cota Castro and her husband Michael Lodge, owners of Rancho Soquel. In 1852, Fallon sold his plaza property to the County of Santa Cruz for use as a courthouse. Shortly thereafter and Carmel moved their family to Texas. Following the death of several of their children, they returned to San Jose. In San Jose, Fallon built the Fallon House in Downtown San Jose; the house is preserved as a museum, across from the Peralta Adobe. In 1856, Fallon was elected to the San Jose Common Council. In 1857, he was elected to the city's Board of Trustees for one year, he was elected Mayor of San Jose in 1859, served a single one-year term. According to one account, in 1876 Carmel found Thomas and the family maid in a compromising position, filed for divorce. Carmel used the divorce settlement to build several hotels and other buildings, including the Carmel Fallon Building at 1800 Market Street in San Francisco, now part of the San Francisco LGBT Community Center.
Thomas Fallon died in San Francisco in 1885. In the 1980s, San Jose Mayor Tom McEnery had the city commission a statue of Fallon raising the U. S. flag in San Jose at a cost of over $800,000. The statue was completed in 1988, was scheduled to be located in the City Park Plaza near the site of the flag raising; however local groups, including Hispanic Americans, protested that Fallon represented American imperialism and repression of the Mexican population. The statue was stored until 2002, when it was displayed in Pellier Park northwest of the original proposed location, near Julian and St. James Streets. Peralta Adobe and Fallon House Historic Site in San Jose Carmel Fallon Building in San Francisco
Frederick Doerr was an American politician who served as the 39th Mayor of San Jose, from 1928 to 1930. He was a member of the San Jose City Council. Doerr was born in the son of German emigrants Charles Doerr and Minna Bertelsman, his son, Robert Doerr served as the city's mayor from 1956 until 1958
Government of San Jose
The Government of San Jose the Government of the City of San José, operates as a charter city within California law under the San José City Charter. The elected government of the city, which operates as a council–manager government, is composed of the Mayor of San Jose, the San Jose City Council, several other elected offices; the greater public administration of San Jose includes numerous entities, including the San Jose Police Department, the San Jose Fire Department, the San Jose Public Library, as well as a mix of state and county level institutions. San Jose utilizes a council–manager government, composed of the mayor, city council, several elected officers, numerous other entities. Sam Liccardo The Mayor of San Jose is the head of the executive branch of the city government. Under the City Charter, the Mayor is responsible for recommending policy and budget priorities to the City Council, which in turn approves policy direction for the City; the mayor has the responsibility to enforce all city laws and coordinate city departments and intergovernmental activities, set forth policies and agendas to the City Cuncil, prepare and submit the city budget at the end of each fiscal year.
The mayor is limited to two successive terms. If the mayor dies or resigns, the President of the Board of Supervisors assumes the office as acting mayor.. The legislative body is composed of the 11-member San Jose City Council, made up of 10 councilmembers, each representing and elected by a district, the Mayor of San Jose, elected citywide; the City Council is empowered by the City Charter to formulate citywide policy, adopt laws or ordinances, approve city budgets. The City Council appoints five officials to manage the City organization and support the City Council for effective governance: City Manager City Auditor City Clerk City Attorney Independent Police Auditor Official Site of the City of San Jose
United States Mint
The United States Mint is a unit of the Department of Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States. Today, the Mint's headquarters are in Washington D. C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Nevada. Part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799, it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyone's account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury. It was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted for the Treasury's account; the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most by Edmund C. Moy until his resignation effective January 9, 2011; the position was left vacant until April 2018. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, held by such men as Frank Gasparro, William Barber, Charles E. Barber, James B. Longacre, Christian Gobrecht; the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as "Ye Olde Mint". With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, an identifying feature on the coin to show its facility of origin.
The first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of local gold deposits into coinage, minted only gold coins; the Civil War closed both these facilities permanently. The New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a minting facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870. Like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were. In 1911 the Mint had a female acting director, Margaret Kelly, at that point the highest paid woman on the government's payroll.
She stated that women were paid within the bureau. A branch of the U. S. mint was established in 1920 in Manila in the Philippines, a U. S. territory. To date, the Manila Mint is the only U. S. mint established outside the continental U. S. and was responsible for producing coins. This branch was in production from 1920 to 1922, again from 1925 through 1941. Coins struck by this mint bear either the M mintmark or none at all, similar to the Philadelphia mint at the time. A branch mint in The Dalles, was commissioned in 1864. Construction was halted in 1870, the facility never produced any coins, although the building still stands. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint's largest facility is the Philadelphia Mint. The current facility, which opened in 1969, is the fourth Philadelphia Mint; the first was built in 1792, when Philadelphia was still the U. S. capital, began operation in 1793. Until 1980, coins minted at Philadelphia bore no mint mark, with the exceptions of the Susan B.
Anthony dollar and the wartime Jefferson nickel. In 1980, the P mint mark was added to all U. S. coinage except the cent. Until 1968, the Philadelphia Mint was responsible for nearly all official proof coinage. Philadelphia is the site of master die production for U. S. coinage, the engraving and design departments of the Mint are located there. The Denver branch began life in 1863 as the local assay office, just five years after gold was discovered in the area. By the turn of the century, the office was bringing in over $5 million in annual gold and silver deposits, in 1906, the Mint opened its new Denver branch. Denver uses a D mint mark and strikes coinage only for circulation, although it did strike, along with three other mints, the $10 gold 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Com
United States Secretary of Commerce
The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and serves in the President's Cabinet; the Secretary is concerned with promoting American industries. Until 1913 there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Labor, now headed by a separate Secretary of Labor; the current Commerce Secretary is Wilbur Ross, nominated by President Donald Trump and approved by the Senate on February 28, 2017. Parties No party Democratic Republican Status Source: Department of Commerce: Secretaries As of April 2019, there are ten living former Secretaries of Commerce, the oldest being Frederick B. Dent; the most recent Secretary of Commerce to die was Peter Peterson, on March 20, 2018. The most serving Secretary to die was Ron Brown, who died in office on April 3, 1996; the line of succession for the Secretary of Commerce is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Commerce General Counsel of the Department of Commerce Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Under Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Commerce and Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Administration Boulder Laboratories Site Manager, National Institute of Standards and Technology Official website
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader