Mbabane is the capital and largest city in Eswatini. With an estimated population of 94,874, it is located on the Mbabane River and its tributary the Polinjane River in the Mdzimba Mountains, it is located in the Hhohho Region, of which it is the capital. The average elevation of the city is 1243 meters, it lies on the MR3 road. The town grew after the nation's administrative centre moved from Bremersdorp in 1902, it derives its name from a Chief, Mbabane Kunene, who lived in the area when British settlers arrived. Mbabane was founded in 1887 by Mickey Wells, on the spot where the Transvaal-to-Mozambique route crossed the Mbabane river, it was declared the capital of the new Protectorate of Swaziland in 1902. During this time, Mbabane consisted of a few shops and schools founded by white settlers. Black Africans had to reside in nearby rural districts. By the 1930s, Mbabane had running water, telephone connection and a hospital. Prior to the Second World War, most Swazis lived in rural districts and worked outside Eswatini, which prevented the town from growing.
After the war, the creation of trade schools in the city, the arrival of the railway connecting Maputo to the mines in South Africa, foreign investment resources within Eswatini all contributed to the city's growth. Mbabane became the central hub for development in the Hhohho district. In the years following independence, governmental buildings such as the British Consulate were built in Mbabane. Further growth has been achieved through the growth of the tourism industry in Eswatini, of which Mbabane has become the centre. Mbabane today is home to many hotels and recreational sites such as clubs and golf courses tending to tourists. Mbabane's closest border crossing to South Africa is Ngwenya-Oshoek, though Swazi is the primary language, English is widespread. Mbabane, Eswatini itself, depend on tourism and sugar exports, it is a commercial hub for the surrounding region, while tin and iron were mined nearby. The city has two sites for light industries. Mbabane is the home of the Waterford-Kamhlaba United World College of Southern Africa, as well as one of the three campuses of the University of Eswatini.
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology is a private international university that lies by the South African-Eswatini border with several university candidates from Eswatini. Indingilizi Gallery is an art gallery in Mbabane, established in 1982 and showcases a range of Swazi art, including sculptures, batiks, ethnic jewellery and pottery. Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples: Roman Catholic Diocese of Manzini, Swaziland Reformed Church, Zion Christian Church. There are Muslim mosques. Mbabane is located in the district of Hhohho, of which it is the capital, lies on the Mbabane River and its tributary the Polinjane River in the Mdimba Mountains; the average elevation of the city is 1243 metres. Neighbourhoods and suburbs include Mbangweni, Kent Rock, Westridge Park, New Checkers and Vukutentele. Due to its altitude, Mbabane features a moderate subtropical highland climate; the city has a mild climate and snow is a rare event, which has occurred only three times since 1900.
The city averages only four days of frost a year. The average temperature is 22 °C in January; the thermal range is low. Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer; the difference in the driest month and the wettest is 210 mm. Mbabane is twinned with: Fort Worth, Texas, USA Taipei, Taiwan Mersing, Malaysia Melilla, Spain Haifa, Israel Maputo, Mozambique Paul Tiyambe Zeleza. "Mbabane, Swaziland". Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. Routledge. ISBN 0415234794. Media related to Mbabane at Wikimedia Commons Mbabane travel guide from Wikivoyage
Friends of the Earth Scotland is a Scottish charity and an independent member of the Friends of the Earth international network of environmental organisations It is one of the 30 national organisations that Friends of the Earth Europe represents and unites at the European level. There is a membership of around 3,000 people in Scotland. Scotland’s first Friends of the Earth group was formed in 1972 and the first joint meeting of all Scotland’s local groups was held in 1977. In 1980 it became independent of Friends of the Earth Ltd. By 1982 it had a membership of around 1,200, it has been registered as a charity since 1 January 1992 registered as a charitable company with the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator, Scottish charity number SC 003442. The organisation operates separately from Friends of the Earth in England and Northern Ireland. In 1991 Kevin Dunion was appointed as their first director, leaving in 2003 to become the Scottish Information Commissioner. Richard Dixon is the current director.
In 2003 Friends of the Earth Scotland won The Guardian newspaper's "Charity of the Year" Award. Major campaign issues of Friends of the Earth Scotland include: Fossil free Scotland. Phasing out the use of fossil fuels, promoting the use of renewable energy. Access to environmental justice, they support individuals, communities and NGOs having the right to be involved in planning decisions that affect their environment. Fracking, they have spoken about the environmental dangers of hydraulic fracturing and the pollutants involved. Previous high-profile campaigns have included: Clean up RBS, they called for responsible behaviour from banks who were bailed out with public money. Carbon Dinosaurs, they drew attention to the presence of the most polluting coal-fired power plants in 2003. Hunterston. In 2010 they had campaigned against plans for a new coal-fired power station at Hunterston in Ayrshire. In June 2012 Ayrshire Power withdrew their planning application. M74 protests, they were involved with protests against extension of the M74, withdrawing their legal action in 2006.
South Harris super quarry. They campaigned against a planned superquarry in South Harris 1994−2004. Climate change legislation, they called for Scotland to have strong climate change legislation. The Climate Change Act 2009 was seen as world-leading. Friends of the Earth Scotland has a network of local groups; these help to give the organisation a grassroots presence in communities around Scotland. The local groups cooperate on national campaigns. There are groups in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Fife, Inverness & Ross, Moray and Tayside. Anti-nuclear movement in the United Kingdom Nuclear power in Scotland Official website
Jeeralang Power Station is a gas turbine power station with a capacity of 460 megawatts near Morwell, Australia. The station is a peaking facility, used only during periods of peak demand, is used as a black start facility to restore power to the grid in the event of major system failure; as a result, the actual capacity factor of the station is less than 5%. The power station was built by the State Electricity Commission of Victoria in response to the scaling back of Newport D power station from 1,000 megawatts to 500 megawatts, as a result of community concerns and union bans. Jeeralang consists of seven gas turbines configured to operate in single cycle mode. Jeeralang A was built between 1977 and 1979 and consists of four Siemens Industries V93.1 gas turbines with a combined capacity of 220 megawatts. Jeeralang B was built between 1978 and 1980 and consists of three Alstom Atlantique MS-9001 gas turbines with a combined capacity of 240 megawatts; the power station is operated by Ecogen Energy and was purchased by EnergyAustralia in April 2018