Patrick Anthony McCarran was a Democratic United States Senator from Nevada from 1933 until 1954. McCarran was born in Reno, attended Nevada State University, was a farmer and rancher. In 1902 he won election to the Nevada Assembly, but in 1904 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Nevada State Senate, he completed private law studies and was admitted to the bar in 1905. He served a two-year term. From 1913 to 1917, McCarran was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Nevada, he served as chief justice from 1917 to 1919. In 1932 McCarran defeated Republican incumbent Tasker Oddie for Nevada's Class 3 Senate seat to become the state's first U. S. Senator born in Nevada. In his Senate career, McCarran served as chairman of the District of Columbia and Joint Foreign Economic Cooperation Committees, he died in Hawthorne and was buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Reno. McCarran is remembered as one of the few Democrats to reject the New Deal. In addition, he was a proponent of the aviation industry.
McCarran was an ardent anti-Communist, to the point of supporting fascists including Francisco Franco as a way to prevent its spread, sponsored the McCarran Act, otherwise known as the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950. McCarran was born in Reno, the child of Irish immigrants Margaret Shay and Patrick McCarran, he was educated in Reno and in 1897, he graduated as valedictorian of his class at Reno High School. He attended the University of Nevada, but withdrew to work on the family sheep ranch when his father suffered an injury, he studied law with William Woodburn, served in the Nevada Assembly from 1903 to 1905. In 1904 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Nevada State Senate, he was admitted to the bar in 1905, in 1906 he was elected district attorney of Nye County. He served 1907 -- 1909, after which he moved to Reno to continue practicing law; some sources incorrectly state that McCarran received a bachelor's degree in 1901 and a master's degree in 1915. In fact, he did not receive a bachelor's degree at all, the master of arts he received from Nevada State University in 1915 was an honorary degree.
He received an honorary LL. D. from Georgetown University in 1943, an honorary LL. D. from the University of Nevada in 1945. In 1912, McCarran was elected to the Supreme Court of Nevada, he served as an Associate Justice from January 1913 to January 1917. In January 1917, he succeeded Frank Herbert Norcross as Chief Justice, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1918, served until January 1919, when he was succeeded on the court by Edward Augustus Ducker, as Chief Justice by Benjamin Wilson Coleman. Both during his time on the court and afterwards, McCarran continued to play a central role in Nevada's state government, as well as its legal and criminal justice systems. From 1913 to 1918, he served on the state Board of Library Commissioners. In addition, he served as chairman of the Nevada State University Board of Visitors. From 1913 to 1919 he served on the state Board of Pardons, he was a member of the Board of Parole Commissioners from 1913 to 1918, he served on the Board of Bar Examiners from 1919 until 1932.
McCarran was president of the Nevada Bar Association from 1920 to 1921, was a vice president of the American Bar Association from 1922 to 1923. McCarran's ambition to serve as a U. S. Senator was well known in Nevada, the subject of jokes in the press, he ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination in 1916, lost to incumbent Key Pittman. McCarran endorsed Pittman in the general election, Pittman was reelected. In 1926, McCarran was again a candidate for the U. S. Senate, he lost the Democratic nomination to Raymond T. Baker, defeated by Republican incumbent Tasker Oddie in the general election. In 1932, McCarran was the Democratic nominee, he defeated Oddie in the general election, he was reelected in 1938, 1944, 1950, served from March 4, 1933 until his death. During his career as a Senator, McCarran served as chairman of the: Committee on the District of Columbia. McCarran sponsored numerous laws concerning the early commercial aviation industry, including the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, the Federal Airport Act of 1945.
He was an early advocate of the Air Force as a military component separate from the Army, began sponsoring the necessary legislation in 1933. In 1945, McCarran co-sponsored the McCarran-Ferguson Act, which exempted the insurance industry from most federal regulations, including antitrust rules. Instead, this act required states to regulate insurance, including mandatory licensing requirements. McCarran co-sponsored the 1946 Administrative Procedures Act, which required federal agencies to keep the public informed of their organizational structure and rules, allowed for public participation in the rule making process, established uniform standards for the conduct of formal rule making. McCarran established himself as one of the Senate's most ardent and influential anti-Communists, was willing to make every effort to contain communism's spread and influence. A qualified admirer of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, he was nicknamed the "Senator from Madrid" by columnist Drew Pearson over McCarran's efforts t
Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders
The Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders in New York City from 1949 to 1958 were the result of US federal government prosecutions in the postwar period and during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. Leaders of the Communist Party of the United States were accused of violating the Smith Act, a statute that prohibited advocating violent overthrow of the government; the defendants argued that they advocated a peaceful transition to socialism, that the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech and of association protected their membership in a political party. Appeals from these trials reached the US Supreme Court, which ruled on issues in Dennis v. United States and Yates v. United States; the first trial of eleven communist leaders was held in New York in 1949. Numerous supporters of the defendants protested outside the courthouse on a daily basis; the trial was featured twice on the cover of Time magazine. The defense antagonized the judge and prosecution.
The prosecution's case relied on undercover informants, who described the goals of the CPUSA, interpreted communist texts, testified of their own knowledge that the CPUSA advocated the violent overthrow of the US government. While the first trial was under way, events outside the courtroom influenced public perception of communism: the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon, communists prevailed in the Chinese Civil War. In this period, the House Un-American Activities Committee had begun conducting investigations and hearings of writers and producers in Hollywood suspected of communist influence. Public opinion was overwhelmingly against the defendants in New York. After a 10-month trial, the jury found all 11 defendants guilty; the judge sentenced them to terms of up to five years in federal prison, sentenced all five defense attorneys to imprisonment for contempt of court. Two of the attorneys were subsequently disbarred. After the first trial, the prosecutors – encouraged by their success – prosecuted more than 100 additional CPUSA officers for violating the Smith Act.
Some were tried because they were members of the Party. Many of these defendants had difficulty finding attorneys to represent them; the trials decimated the leadership of the CPUSA. In 1957, eight years after the first trial, the US Supreme Court's Yates decision brought an end to similar prosecutions, it ruled. After the revolution in Russia in 1917, the communist movement gained footholds in many countries around the world. In Europe and the US, communist parties were formed allied with trade union and labor causes. During the First Red Scare of 1919–1920, many Americans were fearful that Bolshevism and anarchism would lead to disruption within the US. In the late 1930s, state and federal legislatures passed laws designed to expose communists, including laws requiring loyalty oaths, laws requiring communists to register with the government; the American Civil Liberties Union, a free-speech advocacy organization, passed a resolution in 1939 expelling communists from its leadership ranks. Following Congressional investigation of left-wing and right-wing extremist political groups in the mid-1930s, support grew for a statutory prohibition of their activities.
The alliance of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and their invasion of Poland in September gave the movement added impetus. In 1940 the Congress passed the Alien Registration Act of 1940 which required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government, made it a crime "to knowingly or willfully advocate... the duty, desirability... of overthrowing or destroying any government in the United States by force or violence... with the intent to cause the overthrow or destruction of any government in the United States...." Five million non-citizens were registered following passage of the Act. The first persons convicted under the Smith Act were members of the Socialist Workers Party in Minneapolis in 1941. Leaders of the CPUSA, bitter rivals of the Trotskyist SWP, supported the Smith Act prosecution of the SWP – a decision they would regret. In 1943, the government used the Smith Act to prosecute American Nazis. Anxious to avoid alienating the Soviet Union an ally, the government did not prosecute any communists under the law during World War II.
The CPUSA's membership peaked at around 80,000 members during World War II under the leadership of Earl Browder, not a strict Stalinist and cooperated with the US government during the war. In late 1945, hardliner William Z. Foster took over leadership of the CPUSA, steered it on a course adhering to Stalin's policies; the CPUSA was not influential in American politics, by 1948 its membership had declined to 60,000 members. Truman did not feel that the CPUSA was a threat yet he made the specter of communism a campaign issue during the 1948 election; the perception of communism in the US was shaped by the Cold War, which began after World War II when the Soviet Union failed to uphold the commitments it made at the Yalta Conference. Instead of holding elections for new governments, as agreed at Yalta, the Soviet Union occupied several Eastern European countries, leading to a strained relationship with the US. Subsequent international events served to increase the apparent danger that communism posed to Americans: the Stalinist threats in the
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. § 503, oversees all governmental legal affairs. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate; the U. S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U. S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors; the United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U. S. Attorney General; the current Attorney General is William Barr.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments"; the Department of Justice was established in 1870 to support the Attorney General in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments, it is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, required to tender their resignation, is requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.
For example, on the inauguration of President Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the tenure of the Attorney General Loretta Lynch was brought to an end, the Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, who had tendered her resignation, was asked to stay on and be Acting Attorney General until the confirmation of the new Attorney General Jeff Sessions, nominated for the office in November 2016 by then-President-elect Donald Trump. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2019, there are ten, living former US Attorneys General, the oldest being Ramsey Clark; the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. William Barr, who served from 1991-1993, returned to the post and is serving, excluding him from this list. U. S. C. Title 28, §508 establishes the first two positions in the line of succession, while allowing the Attorney General to designate other high-ranking officers of the Department of Justice as subsequent successors. Furthermore, an Executive Order defines subsequent positions, the most recent from March 31, 2017, signed by President Donald Trump.
The current line of succession is: United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General Other Officers designated by the Attorney General: Solicitor General of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General, National Security Division Assistant Attorney General and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Justice Management Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia United States Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina United States Attorney for the Northern District of Texas United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General United States Assistant Attorney General United States Solicitor General List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Executive Order 13787 for "Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Justice" Official website
Alger Hiss was an American government official, accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. Before he was tried and convicted, he was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U. S. State Department official and as a U. N. official. In life he worked as a lecturer and author. On August 3, 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a former U. S. Communist Party member, testified under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee that Hiss had secretly been a Communist while in federal service. Called before HUAC, Hiss categorically denied the charge; when Chambers repeated his claim on nationwide radio, Hiss filed a defamation lawsuit against him. During the pretrial discovery process, Chambers produced new evidence indicating that he and Hiss had been involved in espionage, which both men had denied under oath to HUAC. A federal grand jury indicted Hiss on two counts of perjury. Although Hiss's indictment stemmed from the alleged espionage, he could not be tried for that crime because the statute of limitations had expired.
After a mistrial due to a hung jury, Hiss was tried a second time. In January 1950, he was found guilty on both counts of perjury and received two concurrent five-year sentences, of which he served three and a half years. Hiss maintained his innocence until his death. Arguments about the case and the validity of the verdict took center stage in broader debates about the Cold War, McCarthyism, the extent of Soviet espionage in the United States. Since Hiss's conviction, statements by involved parties and newly exposed evidence have added to the dispute. Author Anthony Summers argued that since many relevant files continue to be unavailable, the Hiss controversy will continue to be debated; the 1995 Venona Papers prompted more support for the theory that he was a Soviet spy, but were not yet deemed conclusive by all sources. Alger Hiss was one of five children born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Mary "Minnie" Lavinia and Charles Alger Hiss. Both parents came from substantial Baltimore families who could trace their roots to the middle of the eighteenth century.
Hiss's paternal great-great grandfather had emigrated from Germany in 1729, married well, changed his surname from "Hesse" to "Hiss". Minnie Hughes was active in Baltimore society. Shortly after his marriage at age 24, Charles Hiss entered the business world and joined the dry goods importing firm Daniel Miller and Co, he did well, becoming an stockholder. When Charles's brother John died at age 33, Charles assumed financial and emotional responsibility for his brother's widow and six children in addition to his own expanding family. Charles helped his wife's favorite brother, Albert Hughes, find work at Daniel Miller. Hughes at first distinguished himself and was promoted to treasurer of the firm, but he became involved in a complicated business deal and was unable to meet the financial obligation, part of a joint agreement; as a matter of honor, Charles Hiss felt compelled to sell all his stocks to make good his brother-in-law's debts, as well as to resign from the firm. This was in the year of a great financial panic.
After inconclusive attempts by relatives to find him a job, Charles fell into a serious depression and committed suicide, cutting his throat with a razor. Minnie, who had made the most of her former prosperity and social position, now had to rely on her inheritance and assistance from family members. Alger Hiss was two years old at the time of his father's death, his brother Donald was two months old; as was customary in those days, they were not told of the circumstances of Charles Hiss's death. When Alger learned of it inadvertently years from neighbors, he angrily confronted his older brother Bosely, who told him the truth. Shocked, Hiss resolved to devote the rest of his life to restoring the family's "good name". Although shadowed by melancholy, Hiss's early childhood, spent in rough and tumble games with his siblings and cousins who lived close by, was not unhappy, their Baltimore neighborhood was described by columnist Murray Kempton as one of "shabby gentility." Hiss, portrayed the economic circumstances of his childhood as "modest," but "not shabby."
Hiss learned to seek out paternal surrogates. At school he was high performing, he attended high school at Baltimore City College and college at Johns Hopkins University, where he was voted "most popular student" by his classmates and graduated Phi Beta Kappa. In 1929, he received his law degree from Harvard Law School, where he was a protégé of Felix Frankfurter, the future U. S. Supreme Court justice. During his time at Harvard, the famous murder trial of anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti transpired, which ended in their conviction and execution. Like Frankfurter, who wrote a book about the case, like many prominent liberals of the day, Hiss maintained that Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted unjustly. In 1929, Hiss married a Bryn Mawr graduate and grade school teacher. Priscilla married to Thayer Hobson, had a three-year-old son, Timothy. Hiss and Priscilla had known each other before her marriage to Hobson. Hiss served for a year as clerk to Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. before joining Choate, Hall & Stewart, a Boston law firm, the New York law firm known as Cotton, Wrig
An anti-war movement is a social movement in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term anti-war can refer to pacifism, the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts, or to anti-war books and other works of art. Many activists distinguish between anti-war movements and peace movements. Anti-war activists work through protest and other grassroots means to attempt to pressure a government to put an end to a particular war or conflict. Substantial opposition to British war intervention in America led the British House of Commons on 27 February 1782 to vote against further war in America, paving the way for the Second Rockingham ministry and the Peace of Paris. Substantial anti-war sentiment developed in the United States during the period falling between the end of the War of 1812 and the commencement of the Civil War, or what is called the antebellum era; the movement reflected more moderate non-interventionist positions.
Many prominent intellectuals of the time, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and William Ellery Channing contributed literary works against war. Other names associated with the movement include William Ladd, Noah Worcester, Thomas Cogswell Upham and Asa Mahan. Many peace societies were formed throughout the United States, the most prominent of which being the American Peace Society. Numerous periodicals and books were produced; the Book of Peace, an anthology produced by the American Peace Society in 1845, must rank as one of the most remarkable works of anti-war literature produced. A recurring theme in this movement was the call for the establishment of an international court which would adjudicate disputes between nations. Another distinct feature of antebellum anti-war literature was the emphasis on how war contributed to a moral decline and brutalization of society in general. A key event in the early history of the modern anti-war stance in literature and society was the American Civil War, where it culminated in the candidacy of George McClellan for President of the United States as a "Peace Democrat" against incumbent President Abraham Lincoln.
The outlines of the anti-war stance are seen: the argument that the costs of maintaining the present conflict are not worth the gains which can be made, the appeal to end the horrors of war, the argument that war is being waged for the profit of particular interests. During the war, the New York Draft Riots were started as violent protests against Abraham Lincoln's Enrollment Act of Conscription plan to draft men to fight in the war; the outrage over conscription was augmented by the ability to "buy" your way out. After the war, The Red Badge of Courage described the chaos and sense of death which resulted from the changing style of combat: away from the set engagement, towards two armies engaging in continuous battle over a wide area. William Thomas Stead formed an organization against the Second Boer War: the Stop the War Committee. In Britain, in 1914, the Public Schools Officers' Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings, near Salisbury Plain. Head of the British Army Lord Kitchener was to review the cadets, but the immenence of the war prevented him.
General Horace Smith-Dorrien was sent instead. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring that war should be avoided at any cost, that war would solve nothing, that the whole of Europe and more besides would be reduced to ruin, that the loss of life would be so large that whole populations would be decimated. In our ignorance I, many of us, felt ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust-probably not more than one-quarter of us – learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it. Having voiced these sentiments did not hinder Smith-Dorrien's career, or prevent him from carrying out his duty in the First World War to the best of his abilities. With the increasing mechanization of war, opposition to its horrors grew in the wake of the First World War. European avant-garde cultural movements such as Dada were explicitly anti-war.
The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 gave the American authorities the right to close newspapers and jailed individuals for having anti-war views. On June 16, 1918, Eugene V. Debs made an anti-war speech and was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917, he was convicted, sentenced to serve ten years in prison, but President Warren G. Harding commuted his sentence on December 25, 1921. In 1924 Ernst Friedrich published Krieg dem Krieg!: an album of photographs drawn from German military and medical archives from the first world war. In Regarding the pain of others Sontag describes the book as'photography as shock therapy', designed to'horrify and demoralize', it was in the 1930s that the Western anti-war movement took shape, to which the political and organizational roots of most of the existing movement can be traced. Characteristics of the anti-war movement included opposition to the corporate interests perceived as benefiting from war, to the status quo, trading the lives of the young for the comforts of those who are older, the concept that those who were drafted were from poor families and would be fighting a war in place of privileged individuals who were able to avoid t
A pseudo-documentary is a film or video production that takes the form or style of a documentary film but does not portray real events. Rather and fictional elements are used to tell the story; the pseudo-documentary, unlike the related mockumentary, is not always intended as humor. It may use documentary camera techniques but with fabricated sets, actors, or situations, it may use digital effects to alter the filmed scene or create a wholly synthetic scene. Orson Welles gained notoriety with his radio show and hoax War of the Worlds which fooled listeners into thinking the Earth was being invaded by Martians. Film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum says. Pseudo-documentary elements were subsequently used in his feature films. For instance, Welles created a pseudo-documentary newsreel which appeared within his 1941 film Citizen Kane, he began his 1955 film, Mr. Arkadin, with a pseudo-documentary prologue. Peter Watkins has made several films in the pseudo-documentary style; the War Game, which reported on a fake nuclear bombing of England, was seen as so disturbingly realistic that the BBC chose not to broadcast it.
The film won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Watkins' other such films include La Commune; the film Mad Max 2 first frames the story by showing a staged documentary-style sequence of images designed to inform the viewer that what follows is the aftermath of an apocalyptic global war. The methods of pseudo-documentary have been criticized in some cases, notably with the 1991 Oliver Stone film JFK, which mixes fact with fiction to advance Stone's point that John F. Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy; the film cuts confusingly between actual footage of alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald and staged images of actor Gary Oldman, playing Oswald. The modern sequences are badly lit and they are artificially made grainy and scratched-looking so that they appear to be 1963-era 16 mm film. Stone uses the pseudo-documentary format to influence the viewer by presenting the conspiracy theory in a scientific and authoritative manner. Related to, in exact opposition to pseudo-documentary, is the notion of “fake-fiction”.
A fake-fiction film takes the form of a staged, fictional movie, while portraying real, unscripted events. The notion of fake-fiction was coined by Pierre Bismuth to describe his 2016 film Where Is Rocky II?, which uses documentary method to tell a real, unscripted story, but is shot and edited to appear like a fiction film. The effect of this fictional aesthetic is to cancel the sense of reality, making the real events appear as if they were staged or constructed. Unlike mockumentary, fake-fiction does not focus on satire, in distinction with docufiction, it does not re-stage fictional versions of real past events. Another filmmaker whose work could be associated with the concept of fake-fiction is Gianfranco Rosi. For example, Below Sea Level uses the language of fiction cinema in its rendering of unscripted, documentary material. Of his own work, Rosi said, "I don’t care if I'm making a fiction film or documentary — to me it's a film, it's a narrative thing." The term found footage has sometimes been used to describe pseudo-documentaries where the plot involves the discovery of the film's footage.
Found footage is the name of an different genre, but the magazine Variety, for example, used the term "faux found-footage film" to describe the 2012 film Grave Encounters 2. The film scholar David Bordwell has criticized this recent use because of the confusion it creates, instead prefers the term "discovered footage" for the narrative gimmick. Pseudo-documentary forms have appeared in campaign advertising; the "Revolving Door" ad used in the US presidential campaign of 1988 to attack candidate Michael Dukakis showed scripted scenes intended to look like documentary footage of men entering and exiting a prison through a revolving door. Boston-based band the Del Fuegos appeared in a 1984 commercial for Miller beer, with scripted scenes shot in hand-held camera/pseudo-documentary style; the band was criticized for the falseness of the commercial. Peter Greenaway employed pseudo-documentary style in his French television production Death on the Seine in 1988, he used fabricated scenes to reconstruct a historic event, otherwise impossible to shoot, portrayed it as reality.
Reality television has been described as a form of pseudo-documentary. An early and influential example is 1992's The Real World by MTV, a scripted "reality" show bordering on soap opera. Docudrama - a dramatized documentary Docufiction - a documentary of fiction Mockumentary - a parodical or humorous fictional documentary