Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Le Flore County, Oklahoma
Le Flore County is a county located along the eastern border of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,384, its county seat is Poteau. The name honors. Le Flore County is part of AR-OK Metropolitan Statistical Area; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma is the federal district court with jurisdiction in Le Flore County. The Choctaw Nation signed the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, ceding part of their ancestral home in the Southeastern U. S. and receiving a large tract in Indian Territory. They signed the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, which ceded the remainder of their original land and caused the removal of all Choctaws who had not voluntarily migrated to the tribe's new territory. In 1832, the Federal Government constructed the Choctaw Agency in Indian Territory about 15 miles west of Fort Smith, Arkansas; the town of Skullyville grew up around the agency. The town was a stage stop for the Butterfield Overland Mail route.
It was the Choctaw capitol for a time. In 1834, the U. S. Army built Fort Coffee a few miles north of Skullyville, but closed it in 1838; the idled fort became the Fort Coffee Academy for Boys, operated by the Methodist Episcopal Church. That church opened the New Hope Seminary for Girls in 1845, just east of town. In 1847, the Choctaw Agency burned and its functions were transferred to Fort Washita; the Battle of Devil's Backbone was fought near the present town of Pocola on September 1, 1863. Union Major General James G. Blunt defeated Confederate Brigadier General William Cabell. Union troops burned the academy in 1863. In 1866, the Choctaw government was able to reopen area schools. New Hope Seminary operated until it burned in 1896; the first school for Choctaw freedmen opened at Boggy Depot. In 1892, the Tushkalusa Freedmen Boarding school opened three miles southeast of Talihina. Coal mining and timber production attracted railroad construction beginning in 1886, when the Choctaw and Gulf Railroad built tracks from Wister west to McAlester and, in 1898, from Wister east to Howe, continuing the line to Arkansas in 1899.
In 1896 the Kansas City and Gulf Railroad built tracks through the region north to south, exiting into Arkansas near the Page community in southern Le Flore County. In 1900-01 the Poteau Valley Railroad built a line from Shady Point to Calhoun, which they abandoned in 1926. In 1900-01 the Arkansas Western Railroad constructed tracks from Heavener east to Arkansas. In 1901 the Fort Smith and Western Railroad connected Coal Creek west to McCurtain in Haskell County. In 1903-04 the Midland Valley Railroad laid tracks from Arkansas west through Bokoshe to Muskogee; the Oklahoma and Rich Mountain Railroad, owned by the Dierks Lumber and Coal Company, constructed the county's last railroad, from Page to the lumber town of Pine Valley in 1925-26. Prior to statehood, the area that became LeFlore County was part of Moshulatubbee and the Apukshunnubbee districts, in Sugar Loaf and Wade counties in the Choctaw Nation. Robert S. Kerr, former Governor of Oklahoma and U. S. Senator, left a legacy in Le Flore County, where in the 1950s he established a ranch outside of Poteau.
In 1978 the family donated his ranch home to the state, it was opened as the Kerr Conference Center and Museum. The Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture and the Overstreet-Kerr Historical Farm are in the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,609 square miles, of which 1,589 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; the Arkansas River forms the northern boundary of the county, while its tributaries, the Poteau and James Fork Rivers drain much of the county into the Arkansas. The Kiamichi and Mountain Fork Rivers drain the rest of the county into the Red River of the South; the Ouachita Mountains extend into the southern part of the county, along with associated ranges: the Winding Stair Mountains and the Kiamichi Mountains. Cavanal Hill is in the northern part of the county. Lake Wister, a flood control reservoir, is in the central part of the county; the Ouachita National Forest, in the county's southern half, Heavener Runestone State Park are tourist attractions.
Additionally, Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area is located in the county. It is one of two National Recreation Areas located in the state of Oklahoma, the other being Chickasaw. Indian Nations National Scenic and Wildlife Area Ouachita National Forest Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area Spiro Mounds As of the census of 2000, there were 48,109 people, 17,861 households, 13,199 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 20,142 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.35% White, 2.21% Black or African American, 10.72% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 5.03% from two or more races. 3.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.7 were of American, 10.1% Irish, 9.6% German and 7.7% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 17,861 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families.
23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The
Oklahoma State Highway 3
State Highway 3 abbreviated as SH-3 or OK-3, is a highway maintained by the U. S. state of Oklahoma. Traveling diagonally through Oklahoma, from the Panhandle to the far southeastern corner of the state, SH-3 is the longest state highway in the Oklahoma road system, at a total length of 615 miles via SH-3E. Highway 3 begins at the Colorado state line 19 mi north of Oklahoma. At this terminus, it is concurrent with US-287/US-385, it remains concurrent with the two U. S. Routes until reaching Boise City, where it encounters a traffic circle which contains five other highways. After the circle, US-385 splits off, SH-3 overlaps US-287, US-56, US-64, US-412, though US-56 and US-287 both split off within the next 8 miles. In Guymon, US-64 splits off. At Elmwood, US-270 joins US-412, coming from a concurrency with State Highway 23. SH-3 remains concurrent with US-270 through Watonga. In Seiling, US-183 leaves the concurrency but is replaced by U. S. Highway 281. SH-33 joins the roadbed 20 miles later. In Watonga, SH-33 and SH-3 split off from US-270 and US-281.
Highways 3 and 33 remain concurrent for 28 more miles, until Kingfisher, where SH-3 joins U. S. Highway 81, it will stay concurrent with US-81 through the town of Okarche. Three miles after Okarche, SH-3 leaves US-81; this marks the first point. Beginning at the split from US-81, Highway 3 becomes a major artery in the Oklahoma City highway system known as the Northwest Expressway because it is a diagonal route and because it serves the northwestern part of the metro area, it skirts the northern limits of El Reno before entering the Oklahoma City limits. The often-congested Northwest Expressway passes through the suburb of Warr Acres and passes close to Lake Hefner. At the intersection with the Lake Hefner Parkway, SH-3 again re-enters a concurrency; the Lake Hefner Parkway ends shortly after, SH-3 becomes concurrent with Interstate 44 through the western side of the city. Near Will Rogers World Airport, Highway 3 transfers to I-240 along the southern side of the city. After I-240 ends, SH-3 is transferred onto I-40.
In Shawnee, SH-3 splits into two highways, SH-3E and SH-3W. SH-3W splits off I-40 onto U. S. Highway 177, along with US-270, at I-40 milemarker 181, it continues along with US-270 and 177 through the west side of Shawnee, continues south of that city until Tecumseh, where US-270 splits off. South of Asher, Oklahoma, SH-3W leaves veers southeast toward Ada. SH-3E, the longer of the two split routes, was the original routing of Highway 3 before the two highways were split, it remains on I-40 for five miles. When it does split off, it soon joins SH-18, it follows a route closer to the center of Shawnee. After leaving Shawnee, it heads southeast toward Seminole. Here, it meets US-377/SH-99. SH-3E merges onto this highway, they will remain concurrent until after they reach Ada. In Ada, SH-3E and SH-3W are become SH-3 once again. SH-3 becomes part of the Richardson Loop, a freeway around the west and south sides of Ada. Throughout the Richardson Loop, it overlaps US-377 / SH-99 at different times; the highway becomes two-lane once again and heads southeast to the town of Coalgate, where begins an 18-mile concurrency with U.
S. Highway 75, lasting through Atoka. In Atoka, US-75 splits off to join U. S. Highway 69. Two miles west of Antlers, the highway has an interchange with the Indian Nation Turnpike, in Antlers it intersects U. S. Highway 271. After reaching the town of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it turns southward and overlaps US-259 and US-70. Near Idabel, the highway splits off after being with US-259 for 13 mi. Twenty-eight miles it becomes Highway 32 as it crosses the state line into Arkansas; the current SH-3 was designated on 15 May 1939. The original highway included all of current SH-3 up to Antlers, where it terminated at US-271, it was extended to the Arkansas state line on 4 August 1952. SH-3 ended there concurrent with US-70 and SH-7, near Arkansas. On 7 January 1963, the highway was given its own alignment from near Idabel to Arkansas, taking over that of SH-21, eliminated at that time. From the highway's commissioning to 1976, there was only one fork of SH-3 between Shawnee and Ada, the path of current SH-3E.
SH-3W and SH-3E were created on 4 October 1976. Other than minor realignments, the highway remains the same today. In the early 1980s, Governor George Nigh was able to obtain $97.1 million to upgrade the highway between Oklahoma City and Colorado, despite opponents labeling the project "the highway to nowhere". House Concurrent Resolution 1067 labeled the highway as "Governor George Nigh's Northwest Passage." ODOT named the highway on 2 February 1981. SH-3's concurrency with Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City is an example of a wrong-way concurrency – I-44 West is SH-3 East and vice versa. SH-3's concurrency with US-70 is a wrong-way concurrency, as US-70 is signed as going west and SH-3 as going east; the SH-3 bypass around Atoka is named the Cecil B. "Bud" Greathouse Bypass. It was designated by ODOT on 4 October 1982. SH-3 had one lettered spur, SH-3A, which continued the alignment of the Northwest Expressway for two more miles before ending at Interstate 44 near Penn Square Mall, it was known as SH-66A, a spur off U.
S. Highway 66; the combined effect of US-66 being decommissioned and "3A" being a more logical name for an extension of Highway 3 led to the name change. State Highway 3A was decommissioned in 2009. SH-3 at OKHighways.com SH-3E at O
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Ouachita National Forest
The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma. The Ouachita National Forest is the oldest National Forest in the southern United States; the forest encompasses 1,784,457 acres, including most of the scenic Ouachita Mountains. Six locations in the forest, comprising 65,000 acres, have been designated as wilderness areas. Ouachita is the French spelling of the Indian word Washita, which means "good hunting grounds." The forest was known as Arkansas National Forest on its establishment on December 18, 1907. Rich in history, the rugged and scenic Ouachita Mountains were explored by Europeans in 1541 by Hernando de Soto's party of Spaniards. French explorers followed; the area including the forest nearly became a 165,000-acre national park during the 1920s, but a last-minute pocket veto by U. S. President Calvin Coolidge ended the effort; the bill had been pushed by U. S. Senator Joseph T. Robinson and U. S. Representative Otis Wingo, both Democrats, State Representative Osro Cobb the only Republican in the Arkansas legislature.
Cobb had been invited to meet with Coolidge before the proposal was killed because of opposition from the National Park Service and the United States Department of Agriculture because of the nearby location of Hot Springs National Park. In a magazine article, Cobb describes the area that he had sought to protect for future generations, located midway between Little Rock and Shreveport, Louisiana, as within easy driving distance of 45 million Americans, many of whom could not afford long trips to the national parks in the western states, he compared flora and fauna in the Ouachita forest to those of the southern Alleghenies, a division of the Appalachian Mountains. Cobb continues: A visitor standing upon one of the many majestic peaks in the area of the proposed park is thrilled by a panoramic view that cannot be had elswwhere in the South Central States. With cheeks flushed by the invigorating mountain breezes, the mountain climber is rewarded by an inspring view of countless and nameless peaks, mountain groups, dense forests, inviting valleys, all merging into the distant horizon....
There are many mountain streams, now moving in narrow but deep pools churning with savage ferocity down some water-worn precipice, leaving in its wake snow-white sprays... Fed by crystal springs and like so much molten silver these streams flow their turbulent courses unappreciated and visited.... The Forest contains extensive woodlands of stunted Northern Red Oak, White Oak, Post Oak, Blackjack Oak at elevations over 2,500 feet and on steep, dry slopes; these woodlands, of little commercial value, were never logged and the extent of old growth forest within them may total nearly 800,000 acres. There are old-growth woodlands of Eastern Redcedar, Gum Bumelia, Winged Elm, Yaupon along some streams. Two wilderness areas are found in the forest, protecting the sections of the forest that have had the least amount of human intervention; the 13,139-acre Black Fork Mountain Wilderness is located in both Arkansas and Oklahoma and contains significant old-growth forests. The 9,754-acre Upper Kiamichi River Wilderness is located in Oklahoma.
The Talimena Scenic Drive, Highway 1 in Oklahoma and Highway 88 in Arkansas, is a National Scenic Byway which meanders through the forest providing amazing vistas and excellent photo opportunities. The Scenic Drive passes through old-growth oak woodlands on Winding Rich Mountains. Forest headquarters are located in Arkansas; the forest contains a number of hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding trails. The most extensive hiking trail is the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, which traverses 223 miles across the region; this is a well-maintained backpacking, hiking trail with overnight shelters in several portions of the trail. Mountain biking is allowed for some sections of the trail. Camp Clearfork was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Managed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture,it is on Clearfork Lake, about 20 miles west of Hot Springs, Arkansas on U. S. 270. Reservations are required for camping, may be made through the Womble USDA Office at 867-2101; the campground has 6 dorm/cabins.
In the Oklahoma section of the forest the 26,445-acre Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area and six other designated areas offer visitors a full range of activities with more than 150 campsites, a 90-acre lake, an equestrian camp. Southeast of Idabel, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation manages the Red Slough Wildlife Management Area, a 5,814 acres wetland area donated to the USFS by The Conservation Fund in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Hunting and fishing are allowed there; the area is a destination for birdwatchers from throughout the United States and the United Kingdom as well. Canoeing and fishing are popular activities on the Mountain Fork River, Caddo River, Little Missouri River, Ouachita River within the bounds of the forest; the Cossatot River, said to be the most difficult whitewater river between the Smoky and Rocky Mountains passes through the forest. Rockhounds frequent a belt several miles wide containing concentrations of quartz crystals. Visitors and rock collectors are free to pick up loose crystals within the belt for
Pushmataha County, Oklahoma
Pushmataha County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,572, its county seat is Antlers. The county was created at statehood from part of the former territory of the Choctaw Nation, which had its capital at the town of Tuskahoma. Planned by the Five Civilized Tribes as part of a state of Sequoyah, the new Oklahoma state named the county for Pushmataha, an important Choctaw chief in the American Southeast, he had tried to ensure that his people would not have to cede their lands, but died in Washington, DC during a diplomatic trip in 1824. The Choctaw suffered Indian Removal to Indian Territory. Ca. 1000-1500: Caddoan Mississippian culture at Spiro Mounds 1492-1718: Spain 1718-1763: France 1763-1800: Spain 1800-1803: France 1803–present: United States 1824-1825: Miller County, Arkansas Territory 1825-1907: Choctaw Nation of Indian Territory 1907-present: State of Oklahoma During prehistoric times, Pushmataha County was part of the territory during the Middle Woodland period of the Fourche Maline culture.
Over time, through contact with the Middle Mississippian culture to their northeast, the Fourche Maline became the Caddoan Mississippian culture. Their center was near Spiro, Oklahoma; the elite organized the construction of complex earthwork mounds for burial and ritual ceremonial purposes, arranged around a large plaza, graded. This center of political and religious leadership had a trade territory encompassing the full extent of the Kiamichi River and Little River valleys; this 80-acre site is preserved as Oklahoma's only Archeological State Park. The larger Mississippian culture traded from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast. North America’s history changed after the arrival of Europeans in 1492 under Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. In the 16th century, European explorers began to enter the North American interior, seeking fame and conquests on behalf of their empires. France’s Bernard de la Harpe explored the area of the modern Pushmataha County in 1719, in the era when France was establishing settlements on the Gulf Coast.
They had founded New Orleans the year before. De la Harpe’s exploration of the Mississippi River valley was part of an effort to seek trade with the native peoples and a route to New Mexico. After this time France claimed this region of North America as La Louisiane, it explored Canada to the north from the Atlantic coast along the St. Lawrence River valley, where it founded New France; the area that became Pushmataha County was bought by the United States from France as part of the large Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The first American explorer to set foot in the modern county was Major Stephen H. Long in 1817, he was followed in 1819 by a scientist. Both explored the Kiamichi River valley; the Red River became an international boundary in 1819 when the United States concluded the Adams-Onis Treaty with the Spanish Empire. Fortifying the frontier from Spanish incursion, securing it against potential uprisings by American Indians, was important to United States policy; the federal government established a chain of forts along its southern border.
Fort Towson, established at the mouth of Gates Creek on the Kiamichi River, just upstream from its confluence with the Red River, was charged with providing security for the region encompassing modern Pushmataha County. As the fort was built in what was considered frontier wilderness, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a military road connecting Fort Towson with Fort Smith, Arkansas for purposes of supply and provision. Passing through the Little River valley, this military road was Pushmataha County’s first modern roadway, it lapsed into disuse. Traces of the road may still be seen. Pushmataha County’s modern origins lie in the Choctaw Nation, during its time as a sovereign nation in the Indian Territory, prior to Oklahoma statehood; the Choctaw territory comprising the modern county was, until statehood in 1907, divided among two of the three administrative districts, or regions, comprising the nation – Pushmataha and Apukshunnubbee. Each of these districts was subdivided into counties.
The modern county fell within Cedar County, Nashoba County and Wade County of the Apukshunnubbee District—today the county’s eastern area – and Jack’s Fork County and Kiamitia County of the Pushmataha District – today the county’s western area. During the American Civil War federal troops withdrew from the Indian Territory and the Choctaw Nation allied itself with the Confederate States of America; the Choctaw government sent a representative to the Confederate Congress, meeting in the Confederate capital at Richmond and raised battalions of warriors to participate with Confederate troops. Although no battles were recorded as occurring within the present-day confines of Pushmataha County, the Battle of Perryville occurred just outside modern-day McAlester and the Battle of Middle Boggy Depot took place outside present-day Atoka. Numerous Choctaws left their homes in the present-day county to join the battalions and participated in the Battle of Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, at the Battle of Honey Springs in the Cherokee Nation, which pitted them against a Unionist faction of Cherokee Indians.
Contemporary accounts make mention of many refugees streaming through the Kiamichi River valley. The war itself ended with the surrender of the last Confederate army—Cherokee General Stand Watie's forces, who surrendered at Fort Towson in June 1865, over two months after General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia—and with it any chance of