The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range wide-body jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Based on the DC-10, it features a stretched fuselage, increased wingspan with winglets, refined airfoils on the wing and smaller tailplane, new engines and increased use of composite materials. Two of its engines are mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer, it features a glass cockpit that decreases the flight deck crew to two from the three required on the DC-10 by eliminating the need for a flight engineer. Although the MD-11 program was launched in 1986, McDonnell Douglas started to search for a DC-10 derivative as early as 1976. Two versions were considered then: a DC-10-10 with a fuselage stretch of 40 feet and a DC-10-30 stretched by 30 feet; the latter version would have been capable of transporting up to 340 passengers in a multi-class configuration, or 277 passengers and their luggage over 5,300 nautical miles.
At the same time, the manufacturer was seeking to reduce engine drag on the trijet. Another version of the aircraft was envisaged, the "DC-10 global", aimed to counter the risks of loss of orders for the DC-10-30 that the Boeing 747SP and its range were causing; the DC-10 global would have incorporated more fuel tanks. While continuing their research for a new aircraft, McDonnell Douglas designated the program DC-10 Super 60 known for a short time as DC-10 Super 50; the Super 60 was to be an intercontinental aircraft incorporating many aerodynamic improvements in the wings, a fuselage lengthened by 26 feet 8 inches to allow for up to 350 passengers to be seated in a mixed-class layout, compared to 275 in the same configuration of the DC-10. Following more refinements, in 1979 the DC-10 Super 60 was proposed in three distinct versions like the DC-8; the DC-10-61 was designed to be a high-capacity medium-range aircraft. It would have a fuselage stretch of 40 feet over the earlier DC-10 models, enabling it to carry 390 passengers in a mixed class or 550 passengers in an all-economy layout, similar to Boeing's 777-300 and Airbus A340-600.
Like the DC-8, the series 62 was proposed for long-range routes. It would feature a more modest fuselage stretch of 26 ft 7 in, along with an increased wingspan and fuel capacity, it would be capable of carrying up to 350 passengers or 440 passengers, similar to the Boeing 777-200 or the Airbus A330-300/A340-300/500. The series 63 would have incorporated the same fuselage as the DC-10-61 as well as all the larger wing of the -62. After high-profile accidents in the 1970s, such as Turkish Airlines Flight 981 and American Airlines Flight 191, the trijet's reputation was damaged by doubts regarding its structural integrity. For these reasons, due to a downturn in the airline industry, all work on the Super 60 was stopped. In 1981, a Continental Airlines DC-10-10 was leased to conduct more research the effects the newly designed winglets would have on aircraft performance. Different types of winglets were tested during that time in conjunction with NASA. McDonnell Douglas was again planning new DC-10 versions that could incorporate winglets and more efficient engines developed at the time by Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce.
The manufacturer rationalized all these studies under the MD-EEE designation, modified to the MD-100 following some more changes. The MD-100 was proposed in two versions: the Series 10, having an airframe shorter by 6 ft 6 in compared to the DC-10 and seating up to 270 passengers in a mixed-class configuration. Both versions could be powered by the same engine families as the actual MD-11 plus the RB.211-600. However, the situation for the manufacturer, the airline industry in general, did not look bright. No new DC-10 orders were received, many among the observers and customers doubted that the manufacturer would stay in business much longer. Thus, the Board of Directors decided in November 1983 to once again cease all work on the projected new trijet; the following year no new orders for the DC-10 were received. The production line was kept active thanks to earlier orders from the U. S. Air Force for 60 KC-10A tankers. McDonnell Douglas was still convinced that a new derivative for the DC-10 was needed, as shown by the second-hand market for their Series 30 and the heavier DC-10-30ER version.
Thus, in 1984 a new derivative aircraft version of the DC-10 was designated MD-11. From the beginning, the MD-11X was conceived in two different versions; the MD-11X-10, based on a DC-10-30 airframe, offered a range of 6,500 nautical miles with passengers. That first version would have had a maximum takeoff weight of 580,000 pounds and would have used CF6-80C2 or PW4000 engines; the MD-11X-20 was to have a longer fuselage, accommodating up to 331 passengers in a mixed-class layout, a range of 6,000 nautical miles. As more orders for the DC-10 were received, McDonnell Douglas used the time gained before the end of DC-10 production to consult with potential customers and to refine the proposed new trijet. In July 1985, the Board of Directors authorized the Long Beach plant to offer the MD-11 to potential customers. At the time, the aircraft was still proposed in two versions, both with the same fuselage length, a stretch of 22 ft 3 in over the DC-10 airframe, as well as the same engine choice as the MD
Sardor Mirzaev is an Uzbekistani association footballer who plays for Muangthong United in the Thai League 1. Mirzayev played for Neftchi FK for 4 years, until transferring to Lokomotiv Tashkent FK, where he was promptly loaned out to Neftchi FK for a further season. On his return to Lokomotiv Tashkent, he scored his first AFC Champions League goal in Tashkent's 3-1 away loss to Saudi Arabian club Al-Hilal FC. On 11 December 2020, it was confirmed that Mirzayev would join the Thai league club Muangthong United for the 2020 season. Mirzayev has represented Uzbekistan at U-20s, U-21s, U-23s ages, he was selected to play for the Uzbekistan U-20s during the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup in Egypt. This saw Uzbekistan finish third in their group behind Uruguay; however finished above England on goal difference. He was selected in the U23s to participate in the 2013 AFC U-22 Championship in which Uzbekistan finish 3rd in the group, failed to reach the knock out stages. Mirzayev made official debut for national team on 29 March 2015 in friendly against South Korea when he was called up for the first time in national team.
Sardor Mirzaev at FootballDatabase.eu Sardor Mirzaev at Soccerway
Govt Girls PG College is an institute located in Rampur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Students are studies in Commerce mainly; the institute is located inside Rampur Fort complex. It is affiliated with M. J. P. Rohilkhand University and is accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council, an autonomous body funded by University Grants Commission of Government of India. Govt Girls PG College was established in the year 1976; the college campus is spread over a huge area inside Rampur Fort. The building was the residence of Nawabs of Rampur, it was converted into a college during the reign of Nawab Murtaza Ali Khan. The famous Raza Library is located nearby in the same Fort complex; the college campus has administrative office, faculty buildings, sports grounds and library. It houses an ancient swimming pool made of marble in the middle of the campus. Various sports events are conducted in the sports grounds; the annual cultural event takes place in the multipurpose hall. The campus provides a conducive environment to study.
The college offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in the following programmes Bachelor of Arts in English, Persian, Political Science, Urdu, Sociology, Music. Bachelor of Commerce Master of Arts in English, Persian, Political Science, Urdu, Sociology, Music. Official website
Kilmacduagh Monastery is a ruined abbey near the town of Gort in County Galway, Ireland. It was the birthplace of the Diocese of Kilmacduagh, it was founded by Saint Colman, son of Duagh in the 7th century, on land given him by his cousin King Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin of Connacht. Kilmacduagh Monastery is located in a small village of the same name, about 5 km from the town of Gort; the name of the place translates as "church of Duagh's son". It was the 7th century Saint Colman, son of Duagh who established a monastery here on land given to him by his cousin King Guaire Aidne mac Colmáin of Connacht, who had a fortified dwelling near what is today Dunguaire Castle; as with most dates from this period, the year in which the monastery was founded is somewhat uncertain, but the early 7th century is deemed the most likely. Colman was abbot/bishop at the monastery until his death. Of his successors, only one appears in the annals by name, one Indrect, before the arrival of the English; this site was of such importance in medieval times that it became the centre of a new diocese, or Bishop's seat, the Diocese of Kilmacduagh, in the 12th century.
The early monastery was victim of multiple raids and ruined by William de Burgh in the early 13th century. To replace it, the local lord Owen O'Heyne founded the abbey of St. Mary de Petra as house for the Augustinian canons; the abbey is attributed to Bishop Maurice Ileyan but the architectural evidence, according to Harold Leask, allows only the added east range of the abbey to be associated with bishop Maurice. During the reformation this was granted to the Earl of Clanricarde; the round tower was repaired in 1879 under the supervision of Sir Thomas Deane, with financial support from Sir William Henry Gregory of Coole Park. The Diocese of Kilmacduagh is now incorporated into the Diocese of Galway; the ruins of the monastery are sometimes referred to as "the seven Churches". However, not all of these buildings were churches, none of them dates back to the 7th century; the buildings are: The abbey church, former cathedral, or Teampuil Mor, in the graveyard The "Church of Mary" or Teampuil Muire, east of the road The "Church of St. John the Baptist" or Teampuil Eoin Baiste, to the north of the graveyard The "Abbot's House" or Seanclogh, further north, close to the road Teampuil Beg Mac Duagh, south of the graveyard The "Monastery Church" or "O'Heyne's Church", ca. 180 metres north-east of the graveyard The round tower 15 metres south-west of the cathedralThe round tower is notable both as a fine example of this Irish feature but because of its noticeable lean, over half a metre from the vertical.
The tower is over 30 metres tall, according to measurements taken in 1879, with the only doorway some 7 metres above ground level. The tower dates from the 10th century. According to legend, Saint Colman MacDuagh was walking through the woods of the Burren when his girdle fell to the ground. Taking this as a sign, he built his monastery on that spot; the girdle was said to be studded with gems and was held by the O'Shaughnessys centuries along with St. Colman's crozier, or staff; the girdle was lost, but the crozier came to be held by the O'Heynes and may now be seen in the National Museum of Ireland. It is said that, in the Diocese of Kilmacduagh, no man will die from lightning; this legend was put to the test when one unlucky soul was struck, but the force of the bolt made him fly through the air into neighbouring County Clare, where he died. Bishop of Kilmacduagh Bishop of Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora Bishop of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Dean of Kilmacduagh A New History of Ireland, volume 9, pp. 330–331.
Fahey, The history and antiquities of the diocese of Kilmacduagh, Dublin, M. H. Gill & son, 1893. 814. Innreachtach, Bishop of Cill Mic Duach. Colman, son of Donncothaigh, successor of Colman, of Cill Mic Duach, died. M1199.10. John de Courcy, with the English of Ulidia, the son of Hugo De Lacy, with the English of Meath, marched to'Kilmacduagh to assist Cathal Crovderg O'Conor. Cathal Carragh, accompanied by the Connacians and gave them battle: and the English of Ulidia and Meath were defeated with such slaughter that, of their five battalions, only two survived. Many of his English were killed, others were drowned. O’Donovan, John. Annála Rioghachta Éireann. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616. Edited from MSS in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College Dublin with a translation and copious notes. 7 vols. Royal Irish Academy. Dublin, 1848–51. Vol. 1 available from the Internet Archive. Available from CELT: Vol. 1: edition and translation Vol. 2: edition and translation Vol. 3: edition and translation Vol. 4: edition and translation Vol. 5: edition and translation Vol. 6: edition and translation Cotton, Henry.
Operation Infinite Reach was the codename for American cruise missile strikes on al-Qaeda bases in Khost and the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, on August 20, 1998. The attacks, launched by the U. S. Navy, were ordered by President Bill Clinton in retaliation for al-Qaeda's August 7 bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which killed 224 people and injured over 4,000 others. Operation Infinite Reach was the first time the United States acknowledged a preemptive strike against a violent non-state actor. U. S. Intelligence suggested financial ties between the Al-Shifa plant and Osama bin Laden, a soil sample collected from Al-Shifa contained a chemical used in VX nerve gas manufacturing. Suspecting that Al-Shifa was linked to, producing chemical weapons for, bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network, the U. S. destroyed the facility with cruise missiles, wounding 11 Sudanese. The strike on Al-Shifa proved controversial. S. evidence and rationale were criticized as faulty, academics Max Taylor and Mohamed Elbushra cite "a broad acceptance that this plant was not involved in the production of any chemical weapons."The missile strikes on al-Qaeda's Afghan training camps, aimed at preempting more attacks and killing bin Laden, damaged the installations and inflicted an uncertain number of casualties.
Following the attacks, the ruling Taliban reneged on a promise to Saudi intelligence chief Turki al-Faisal to hand over bin Laden, the regime instead strengthened its ties with the al-Qaeda chief. Operation Infinite Reach, the largest U. S. action in response to a terrorist attack since the 1986 bombing of Libya, was met with a mixed international response: U. S. allies and most of the American public supported the strikes, but the targeted countries, Islamic militant groups, other nations in the Middle East opposed them. The failure of the attacks to kill bin Laden enhanced his public image in the Muslim world. Further strikes were planned but not executed. S. military carried out an operation directly against Bin Ladin before September 11." On February 23, 1998, Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, three other leaders of Islamic militant organizations issued a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, publishing it in Al-Quds Al-Arabi. Deploring the stationing of U.
S. troops in Saudi Arabia, the alleged U. S. aim to fragment Iraq, U. S. support for Israel, they declared that "The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilian and military—is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it." In spring 1998, Saudi elites became concerned about the threat posed by bin Laden. In June 1998, Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah director Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud traveled to Tarnak Farms to meet with Taliban leader Mullah Omar to discuss the question of bin Laden. Turki demanded that the Taliban either expel bin Laden from Afghanistan or hand him over to the Saudis, insisting that removing bin Laden was the price of cordial relations with the Kingdom. American analysts believed Turki offered a large amount of financial aid to resolve the dispute over bin Laden. Omar agreed to the deal, the Saudis sent the Taliban 400 pickup trucks and funding, enabling the Taliban to retake Mazar-i-Sharif. While the Taliban sent a delegation to Saudi Arabia in July for further discussions, the negotiations stalled by August.
Around the same time, the U. S. was planning its own actions against bin Laden. Michael Scheuer, chief of the CIA's bin Laden unit, considered using local Afghans to kidnap bin Laden exfiltrate him from Afghanistan in a modified Lockheed C-130 Hercules. Documents recovered from Wadih el-Hage's Nairobi computer suggested a link between bin Laden and the deaths of U. S. troops in Somalia. These were used as the foundation for the June 1998 New York indictment of bin Laden, although the charges were dropped; the planned raid was cancelled in May after internecine disputes between officials at the FBI and the CIA. Al-Qaeda had begun reconnoitering Nairobi for potential targets in December 1993, using a team led by Ali Mohamed. In January 1994, bin Laden was presented with the team's surveillance reports, he and his senior advisers began to develop a plan to attack the American embassy there. From February to June 1998, al-Qaeda prepared to launch their attacks, renting residences, building their bombs, acquiring trucks.
While U. S. authorities had investigated al-Qaeda activities in Nairobi, they had not detected any warnings of imminent attacks. On August 7, 1998, al-Qaeda teams in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, attacked the cities' U. S. embassies with truck bombs. In Nairobi, the explosion collapsed the nearby Ufundi Building and destroyed the embassy, killing 213 people, including 12 Americans. In Dar es Salaam, the bomber was unable to get close enough to the embassy to demolish it, but the blast killed 11 Africans and wounded 85. Bin Laden justified the high-casualty attacks, the
George Davidson was a geodesist, geographer and engineer in the United States. Born on May 9, 1825, in England, he went to the U. S. in 1832 with his parents, who settled in Pennsylvania. He graduated at the Central High School in Philadelphia in 1845. While a student, he had shown interest in scientific work, had assisted Alexander D. Bache in his observations of the magnetic elements at Girard College. Upon his graduation in 1845, he began his career as clerk to Bache, superindentent of the United States Coast Survey. From 1846 to 1850, Davidson was occupied in geodetic field work, in astronomy, serving in the different states on the east coast of the United States. In 1850, he went to California under the auspices of the Coast Survey, was for several years engaged in the determination of the latitude and longitude of prominent capes, etc. and of the magnetic elements of the Pacific Coast, reporting upon the proper locations for lighthouses. His work included a survey of Washington and Puget sounds, he had charge of the main triangulation of the coast in the region of San Francisco.
In 1853, he named a number of mountains in the Olympic Mountains: he named Mount Ellinor for Ellinor Fauntleroy, who became his wife, Mount Constance for Ellinor's older sister and The Brothers for her two brothers. From 1861 until 1867, he was again on the Atlantic seaboard, principally engaged in engineering work on coast and river defences. At one time, he was in command of the Coast Survey steamer “Vixen,” and performed astronomical work along the eastern coast. In 1866, he became chief engineer of an expedition for the survey of a ship canal across the Isthmus of Darien. In 1867, he was appointed to make a special examination and report upon the geography and resources of Alaska, pending its purchase, he was placed in charge, during 1867, of the work of the Coast Survey on the Pacific, planned work for the land parties from 1868 until 1875, inspected all the fields of work. He traveled extensively in Egypt, China and Europe, for purposes of scientific study. From 1876 to 1886, he had charge of the main astronomical work on the west coast.
In 1881, Davidson twice measured the Yolo base line, one of the geodesic base lines that formed the foundation of triangulating distances in California. At that time, it was the longest base line yet attempted in trigonometrical operations, the system of triangulation directly connected therewith was called in his honor the “Davidson quadrilaterals.” He measured the Los Angeles base line three times in 1888-1889. He retired from the Coast Survey after 50 years of service, he founded the Davidson Observatory in San Francisco, the first astronomical observatory on the Pacific coast of North America, in 1869 brought the Pacific geodetic of the coast survey in telegraphic longitude connection with Greenwich. His astronomical work includes the observation of the total solar eclipse under the 60th parallel, in 1869. Other positions held by Davidson include president of the California Academy of Sciences from 1871 to 1887, Honorary Professor of Geodesy and Astronomy, Regent of the University of California from 1877 to 1885.
After his retirement from the Coast Survey, he became the first professor of geography at the University of California and chaired that department from 1898 until his retirement in 1905, remained an emeritus professor until his death. Davidson was one of 182 charter members of the Sierra Club in 1892 and served as a member of its board of directors from 1894 to 1910. Coast Pilot of California and Washington Coast Pilot of Alaska The Alaska Boundary The Glaciers of Alaska The Discovery of San Francisco Bay Francis Drake on the Northwest Coast of America Origin and Meaning of the Name California He contributed numerous papers to the California Academy of Sciences, published a quantity of special reports contained in government publications, he was awarded the Daly Medal by the American Geographical Society in 1908. The Davidson Seamount off the coast of California, Davidson Current, Mount Davidson and Davidson Street in San Francisco are named for George Davidson; the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey named two ships for him, the launch USC&GS Davidson, in service from 1933 to 1935, the coastal hydrographic survey ship USC&GS Davidson, which entered service in the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1967 and served in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration fleet as NOAAS Davidson from 1970 to 1989.
In 1946, Davidson's daughter Ellinor established the George Davidson Medal, along with the American Geographical Society, to honor her father. Davidson's brother Thomas Davidson was a naval architect with the United States Navy. NOAA History: Profiles in Time C&GS Biographies: George Davidson Guide to the George Davidson Papers at The Bancroft Library Coast Pilot of California and Washington from Google Books NOAA History: Tools of the Trade: Coast and Geodetic Survey Ships: Davidson for t