The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 is a series of twin-engine, short- to medium-range, single-aisle commercial jetliners. It was lengthened and updated from the DC-9; this series can seat from 130 to 172 passengers depending on seating configuration. The MD-80 series was introduced into commercial service on October 1980 by Swissair; the series includes the MD-81, MD-82, MD-83, MD-87, MD-88. These all have the same fuselage length except the shortened MD-87; the series was followed into service in modified form by the MD-90 in 1995 and the Boeing 717 in 1999. Douglas Aircraft developed the DC-9 in the 1960s as a short-range companion to their larger DC-8; the DC-9 was an all-new design, using two rear fuselage-mounted turbofan engines, a T-tail. The DC-9 has a narrow-body fuselage design with five-abreast seating, holds 80 to 135 passengers depending on seating arrangement and aircraft version; the DC-9 family was produced in 2441 units: 1191 MD-80s, 116 MD-90s and 155 Boeing 717s. The development of MD-80 series began in the 1970s as a lengthened, growth version of the DC-9-50, with a higher maximum take-off weight and a higher fuel capacity.
Availability of newer versions of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D engine with higher bypass ratios drove early studies including designs known as Series 55, Series 50, Series 60. The design effort focused on the Series 55 in August 1977. With the projected entry into service in 1980, the design was marketed as the "DC-9 Series 80". Swissair launched the Series 80 in October 1977 with an order for 15 plus an option for five; the MD-80 is a medium-range airliner. The series featured a fuselage 14 ft 3 in longer than the DC-9-50; the DC-9's wing design was enlarged by adding sections at the wing root and tip for a 28% larger wing. It was the second generation of the DC-9 called the DC-9-80 and the DC-9 Super 80, it has two rear fuselage-mounted turbofan engines, small efficient wings, a T-tail. The aircraft has five-abreast seating in the coach class; the aircraft series was designed for frequent, short-haul flights for 130 to 172 passengers depending on airplane version and seating arrangement. The MD-80 versions have cockpit and aerodynamic upgrades along with the more powerful, more efficient and quieter JT8D-200 series engines, which are a significant upgrade over the smaller JT8D-15, -17, -11, -9 series.
The MD-80 series aircraft have longer fuselages than their earlier DC-9 counterparts, as well as longer range. Some customers, such as American Airlines, still refer to the planes in fleet documentation as "Super 80". Comparable airliners to the MD-80 series include the Boeing 737-400 and Airbus A320; the first MD-80, DC-9 line number 909, made its first flight on October 18, 1979. Test flying, despite two aircraft damaged in accidents, was completed on August 25, 1980, when the first variant of MD-80, the JT8D-209-powered MD-81, was certified under an amendment to the FAA type certificate for the DC-9; the flight-testing leading up to certification had involved three aircraft accumulating a total of 1,085 flying hours on 795 flights. The first delivery, to launch customer Swissair took place on September 13, 1980; as the MD-80 was not in effect a new aircraft, it continues to be operated under an amendment to the original DC-9 FAA aircraft type certificate. The type certificate issued to the aircraft manufacturer carries the aircraft model designations as it appears on the manufacturer's application, including use of hyphens or decimal points, should match what is stamped on the aircraft's data or nameplate.
What the manufacturer chooses to call an aircraft for marketing or promotional purposes is irrelevant to the airworthiness authorities. The first amendment to the DC-9 type certificate for the new MD-80 aircraft was applied as DC-9-81, which approved on August 26, 1980. All MD-80 models have since been approved under additional amendments to the DC-9 type certificate. In 1983, McDonnell Douglas decided that the DC-9-80 would be designated the MD-80. Instead of using the MD- prefix as a marketing symbol, an application was made to again amend the type certificate to include the MD-81, MD-82, MD-83; this change was dated March 10, 1986, the type certificate declared that although the MD designator could be used in parentheses, it must be accompanied by the official designation, for example: DC-9-81. All Long Beach aircraft in the MD-80 series thereafter had MD-81, MD-82, or MD-83 stamped on the aircraft nameplate. Although not certified until October 21, 1987, McDonnell Douglas had applied for models DC-9-87 and DC-9-87F on February 14, 1985.
The third derivative was officially designated DC-9-87, although no nameplates were stamped DC-9-87. For the MD-88, an application for a type certificate model amendment was made after the earlier changes, so there was not a DC-9-88, certified on December 8, 1987; the FAA's online aircraft registry database shows the DC-9-88 and DC-9-80 designations in existence but unused. The second generation was produced on a common line with the first generation DC-9s, with which it shares its line number sequence. After the delivery of 976 DC-9s and 108 MD-80s, McDonnell Douglas stopped DC-9 production. Hence, commencing with the 1,085th DC-9/MD-80 delivery, an MD-82 for VIASA in December 1982, all DC-9s produced were Series 80s/MD-80s. In 1985, McDonnell Douglas, after years of negotiating attributed to Gareth C. C. Chang, president of a McDonnell Douglas subsidiary, signed an agreement for joint production of MD-80s and MD-90s in the People's Republic of China; the agreement was for 26
The Charles LeMoyne Hospital is the major hospital in Longueuil, Canada. It is located on Taschereau Boulevard in the borough of Greenfield Park opposite the borough of Saint-Hubert and in close proximity to the LeMoyne neighbourhood in the borough of Le Vieux-Longueuil, it serves neighbouring cities on the south shore of Montreal. A teaching hospital affiliated with Université de Sherbrooke, the hospital is used to train students in medical school and other multidisciplinary programs; the Charles LeMoyne Hospital is home to 3,000 employees, of which 1,500 are nurses, 500 are healthcare professionals and technicians, 325 are practicing doctors and specialists as well as 180 volunteers. It has an annual budget of over $200 million, it has 571 beds. It is the home to the Montérégie Comprehensive Cancer Care Centre, constructed; this was the first phase of a planned 3-phase hospital expansion project. Santé Montérégie Charles LeMoyne Hospital Foundation
The men's épée was one of seven fencing events on the Fencing at the 1924 Summer Olympics programme. It was the sixth appearance of the event, which had not been on the programme in 1896; the competition was held from Wednesday, July 10, 1924 to Thursday, July 11, 1924. 67 fencers from 18 nations competed. The top six fencers, by number of wins, in each pool advanced. Double-losses were allowed. Tie-breakers were held within a group tied on a number of wins that broke between qualification and non-qualification. Pool APool BPool CPool DPool EPool FPool G The top six fencers, by number of wins, in each pool advanced. Double-losses were allowed. Tie-breakers were held within a group tied on a number of wins that broke between qualification and non-qualification. Pool APool BPool CPool D The top six fencers, by number of wins, in each pool advanced. Double-losses were allowed. Tie-breakers were held within a group tied on a number of wins that broke between qualification and non-qualification. Pool APool B Double-losses were allowed.
Tie-breakers were held within a group as necessary for individual placing to sixth place. Kubatko, Justin. "Fencing at the 1924 Paris Summer Games: Men's Épée, Individual". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved August 27, 2009. Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich". Archived from the original on 2009-02-16