The Boston Brahmins or Boston elite are members of Boston's traditional upper class. They form an integral part of the historic core of the East Coast establishment, along with other wealthy families of Philadelphia and New York City, they are associated with the distinctive Boston Brahmin accent, Harvard University and traditional Anglo-American customs and clothing. Descendants of the earliest English colonists, such as those who came to America on the Mayflower in 1620 or on the Arbella in 1630, are considered to be the most representative of the Boston Brahmins; the physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. coined the term "Brahmin Caste of New England" in an 1860 article in the Atlantic Monthly. The term Brahmin refers to the highest-ranking caste of people in the traditional Hindu caste system in India. In the United States, it has been applied to the old, wealthy New England families of British Protestant origin which became influential in the development of American institutions and culture.
The term underscores the strong conviction of the New England gentry that they were a people set apart by destiny to guide the American experiment as their ancestors had played a leading role in founding it. The term hints at the erudite and exclusive nature of the New England gentry as perceived by outsiders, may refer to their interest in Eastern religions, fostered by the impact in the 19th century of the transcendentalist writings of New England literary icons such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Walt Whitman, the enlightened appeal of Universalist Unitarian movements of the same period; the nature of the Brahmins is hinted at by the doggerel "Boston Toast" by Holy Cross alumnus John Collins Bossidy: And this is good old Boston, The home of the bean and the cod, Where the Lowells talk only to Cabots, And the Cabots talk only to God. While some 19th-century Brahmin families of large fortune were of bourgeois origin, still fewer were of a somewhat aristocratic origin; the new families were the first to seek, in British fashion, suitable marriage alliances with those old aristocratic New England families that were descended from landowners in England to elevate and cement their social standing.
The Winthrops, Saltonstalls and Lymans were, by and large, happy with this arrangement. All of Boston's "Brahmin elite", maintained the received culture of the old English gentry, including cultivating the personal excellence that they imagined maintained the distinction between gentlemen and freemen, between ladies and women, they saw it as their duty to maintain what they defined as high standards of excellence and restraint. Cultivated and dignified, a Boston Brahmin was supposed to be the essence of enlightened aristocracy; the ideal Brahmin was not only wealthy, but displayed what was considered suitable personal virtues and character traits. The Brahmin was expected to maintain the customary English reserve in his dress and deportment, cultivate the arts, support charities such as hospitals and colleges, assume the role of community leader. Although the ideal called on him to transcend commonplace business values, in practice many found the thrill of economic success quite attractive; the Brahmins insisted upon personal responsibility.
Scandal and divorce were unacceptable. The total system was buttressed by the strong extended family ties present in Boston society. Young men attended the same prep schools and private clubs, heirs married heiresses. Family not only served as an economic asset, but as a means of moral restraint. Most belonged to the Unitarian or Episcopal churches, although some were Congregationalists or Methodists. Politically they were successively Federalists and Republicans, they were marked by their manners and once distinctive elocution, the Boston Brahmin accent, a version of the New England accent. Their distinctive Anglo-American manner of dress has been much imitated and is the foundation of the style now informally known as preppy. Many of the Brahmin families trace their ancestry back to the original 17th- and 18th-century colonial ruling class consisting of Massachusetts governors and magistrates, Harvard presidents, distinguished clergy and fellows of the Royal Society of London, while others entered New England aristocratic society during the 19th century with their profits from commerce and trade marrying into established Brahmin families.
Adams Family Samuel Adams: Founding Father. S. congressman Charles Francis Adams, Jr.: Civil War general John Quincy Adams II: lawyer, politician Charles Francis Adams III: U. S. Secretary of the Navy Charles Francis Adams IV: industrialist, first president of Raytheon Henry Brooks Adams: author Brooks Adams: historian Ivers Whitney Adams: founder of the oldest continuously playing professional baseball team, the Boston Red Stockings Amory Family John Amory Lowell: merchant Thomas Coffin Amory: lawyer, author Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory: Civil War general Ernest Amory Codman: surgeon Cleveland Amory: author Appleton Family Patrilineal line: Daniel Appleton: publisher Frances Appleton: wife of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow George Swett Appleton: publisher Jane Means Appleton Pie
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Vannevar Bush was an American engineer and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U. S. Office of Scientific Research and Development, through which all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project, he emphasized the importance of scientific research to national security and economic well-being, was chiefly responsible for the movement that led to the creation of the National Science Foundation. Bush joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1919, founded the company now known as Raytheon in 1922. Bush became vice president of MIT and dean of the MIT School of Engineering in 1932, president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1938. During his career, Bush patented a string of his own inventions, he is known for his engineering work on analog computers, for the memex. Starting in 1927, Bush constructed a differential analyzer, an analog computer with some digital components that could solve differential equations with as many as 18 independent variables.
An offshoot of the work at MIT by Bush and others was the beginning of digital circuit design theory. The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s, was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext; the memex and Bush's 1945 essay "As We May Think" influenced generations of computer scientists, who drew inspiration from his vision of the future. Bush was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1938, soon became its chairman; as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee, director of OSRD, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. Bush was a well-known policymaker and public intellectual during World War II, when he was in effect the first presidential science advisor; as head of NDRC and OSRD, he initiated the Manhattan Project, ensured that it received top priority from the highest levels of government. In Science, The Endless Frontier, his 1945 report to the President of the United States, Bush called for an expansion of government support for science, he pressed for the creation of the National Science Foundation.
Vannevar Bush was born in Everett, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1890, the third child and only son of Perry Bush, the local Universalist pastor, his wife Emma Linwood. He had two older sisters and Reba, he was named after John Vannevar, an old friend of the family who had attended Tufts College with Perry. The family moved to Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1892, Bush graduated from Chelsea High School in 1909, he attended Tufts, like his father before him. A popular student, he was vice president of his sophomore class, president of his junior class. During his senior year, he managed the football team, he became a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, dated Phoebe Clara Davis, who came from Chelsea. Tufts allowed students to gain a master's degree in four years with a bachelor's degree. For his master's thesis, Bush invented and patented a "profile tracer"; this was a mapping device for assisting surveyors. It had two bicycle wheels, a pen that plotted the terrain over which it traveled, it was the first of a string of inventions.
On graduation in 1913 he received both bachelor of master of science degrees. After graduation, Bush worked at General Electric in New York, for $14 a week; as a "test man", his job was to assess equipment to ensure. He transferred to GE's plant in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, to work on high voltage transformers, but after a fire broke out at the plant and the other test men were suspended, he returned to Tufts in October 1914 to teach mathematics, spent the 1915 summer break working at the Brooklyn Navy Yard as an electrical inspector. Bush was awarded a $1,500 scholarship to study at Clark University as a doctoral student of Arthur Gordon Webster, but Webster wanted Bush to study acoustics. Bush preferred to quit rather than study a subject. Bush subsequently enrolled in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology electrical engineering program. Spurred by the need for enough financial security to marry, he submitted his thesis, entitled Oscillating-Current Circuits: An Extension of the Theory of Generalized Angular Velocities, with Applications to the Coupled Circuit and the Artificial Transmission Line, in April 1916.
His adviser, Arthur Edwin Kennelly, tried to demand more work from him, but Bush refused, Kennelly was overruled by the department chairman. He married Phoebe in August 1916, they had two sons: John Hathaway Bush. Bush accepted a job with Tufts, where he became involved with the American Radio and Research Corporation, which began broadcasting music from the campus on March 8, 1916; the station owner, Harold Power, hired him to run the company's laboratory, at a salary greater than that which Bush drew from Tufts. In 1917, following the United States' entry into World War I, he went to work with the National Research Council, he attempted to develop a means of detecting submarines by measuring the disturbance in the Earth's magnetic field. His device worked. Bush left Tufts in 1919, although he remained employed by AMRAD, joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command
The United States Army Intelligence and Security Command is a direct reporting unit that conducts intelligence and information operations for U. S. Army commanders and national decision makers. INSCOM is headquartered at Virginia. INSCOM is an organization within both the United States Army and the National Security Agency, the United States's unified signals intelligence organization. Within the NSA, INSCOM and its counterparts in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Air Force and Marine Corps Intelligence, are known as Central Security Service. INSCOM's budget has been estimated to be $6 billion. INSCOM collects intelligence information in all intelligence disciplines to provide unit commanders intelligence for the battlefield and the focus of combat power; the organization conducts intelligence production activities, ranging from intelligence preparation of the battlefield to situation development, SIGINT analysis, imagery exploitation, science and technology intelligence production. INSCOM has significant responsibilities in counterintelligence, force protection, electronic warfare, information warfare.
Additionally, INSCOM supports force training. INSCOM's stated vision for operations includes: conducting and supporting relevant intelligence and information operations for U. S. Army and combined forces. 1st Information Operations Command Provides multi-disciplinary Information Operations support to the component and major commands of the United States Army. 66th Military Intelligence BrigadeConducts theater level multidiscipline intelligence and security operations and, when directed, deploys prepared forces to conduct joint/combined expeditionary and contingency operations in support of United States Army Europe and U. S. European Command. 116th Military Intelligence Brigade Located at Fort Gordon, the 116th conducts 24/7 tasking, processing, exploitation and feedback operations for multiple aerial-ISR systems utilizing the Distributed Common Ground System-Army. 207th Military Intelligence Brigade Located at Caserma Ederle and Caserma Longare, Italy. It conducts full-spectrum intelligence in support of U.
S. Army Africa and United States Africa Command in order to set the intelligence architecture for the theater, disrupt transnational and trans-regional threats, promote regional stability in Africa while building and maintaining intelligence readiness. 300th Military Intelligence Brigade Provides trained and ready linguist and military intelligence soldiers to commanders from brigade through Army level. Located in Draper, Utah. 470th Military Intelligence BrigadeLocated at Fort Sam Houston, the 470th provides timely and fused multi-discipline intelligence in support of United States Army South, U. S. Southern Command and other national intelligence agencies. 500th Military Intelligence BrigadeThe 500th Military Intelligence Brigade located at Schofield Barracks, provides multi-disciplined intelligence support for joint and coalition war fighters within United States Army Pacific and the U. S. Pacific Command area of responsibility. 501st Military Intelligence BrigadeThe 501st Military Intelligence Brigade supports combined forces operations in Korea.
513th Military Intelligence BrigadeLocated at Fort Gordon, the 513th deploys in strength or in tailored elements to conduct multi-disciplined intelligence and security operations in support of United States Army Central, U. S. Central Command, U. S. Southern Command and other theater Army commands. 704th Military Intelligence BrigadeConducts synchronized full-spectrum signals intelligence, computer network and information assurance operations directly and through the National Security Agency to satisfy national, joint and Army information superiority requirements. 706th Military Intelligence GroupFormerly the 116th Military Intelligence Group, it is located at Fort Gordon, Georgia. It provides personnel, intelligence assets and technical support to conduct signals intelligence operations within the National Security Agency/Central Security Service Georgia and worldwide. 780th Military Intelligence BrigadeConducts expeditionary and remote cyber attack, cyber exploitation and cyber defense operations of Army and Defense information networks.
902nd Military Intelligence GroupProvides direct and general counterintelligence support to Army activities and major commands. Army Cryptologic Operations Serves as the Army G2 and Service Cryptologic Component representative to provide expert cryptologic leadership, support and advice to U. S. Army Warfighters and Intelligence leaders. Lead the Army’s Cryptologic effort to satisfy Signals Intelligence requirements by leveraging NSA Extended Enterprise, Intelligence Community, Sister Services and Service Laboratories. Ensure timely and effective support to operations by providing optimized capabilities and resources. Army Field Support Center Provides specialized operational and personnel management support to Department of the Army and other Department of Defense Services and Agencies as directed. Army Operations Group Conducts human intelligence operations and provide expertise in support of ground component priority intelligence requirements using a full spectrum of human intelligence collection methodsCentral Clearance FacilityServes as the U.
S. Army’s executive agency for personnel security determinations in support of Army world-wide missions. National Ground Intelligence CenterIs the Defense Department’s primary produce
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, is a part of Greater Boston. Brookline borders six of Boston's neighborhoods: Brighton, Fenway–Kenmore, Mission Hill, Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury; the city of Newton lies to the west of Brookline. At the 2010 census, the population of the town was 58,732, it is the most populous municipality in Massachusetts to have a town form of government. Brookline was first settled in 1638 as a hamlet in Boston, but was incorporated as a separate town in 1705. Brookline was the hometown of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States. Once part of Algonquian territory, Brookline was first settled by European colonists in the early 17th century; the area was an outlying part of the colonial settlement of Boston and known as the hamlet of Muddy River. In 1705, it was incorporated as the independent town of Brookline; the northern and southern borders of the town were marked by two small rivers or brooks, hence the name. The northern border with Brighton was Smelt Brook.
The southern boundary, abutting Boston, was the Muddy River. The Town of Brighton was merged with Boston in 1874, the Boston-Brookline border was redrawn to connect the new Back Bay neighborhood with Allston-Brighton; this merger created a narrow strip of land along the Charles River belonging to Boston, cutting Brookline off from the shoreline. It put certain lands north of the Muddy River on the Boston side, including what are now Kenmore Square and Packard's Corner; the current northern border follows Commonwealth Avenue, on the northeast, St. Mary's Street; when Frederick Law Olmsted designed the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways for Boston in the 1890s, the Muddy River was integrated into the Riverway and Olmsted Park, creating parkland accessible by both Boston and Brookline residents. Throughout its history, Brookline has resisted being annexed by Boston, in particular during the Boston–Brookline annexation debate of 1873; the neighboring towns of West Roxbury and Hyde Park connected Brookline to the rest of Norfolk County until they were annexed by Boston in 1874 and 1912 putting them in Suffolk County.
Brookline is now separated from the remainder of Norfolk County. Brookline has long been regarded as a verdant environment. In the 1841 edition of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Andrew Jackson Downing described the area this way: The whole of this neighborhood of Brookline is a kind of landscape garden, there is nothing in America of the sort, so inexpressibly charming as the lanes which lead from one cottage, or villa, to another. No animals are allowed to run at large, the open gates, with tempting vistas and glimpses under the pendent boughs, give it quite an Arcadian air of rural freedom and enjoyment; these lanes are clothed with a profusion of trees and wild shrubbery almost to the carriage tracks, curve and wind about, in a manner quite bewildering to the stranger who attempts to thread them alone. Brookline residents were among the first in the country to propose extending the vote to women. Benjamin F. Butler, in his 1882 campaign for Governor, advocated the idea. Two branches of upper Boston Post Road, established in the 1670s, passed through Brookline.
Brookline Village was the original center of retail activity. In 1810, the Boston and Worcester Turnpike, now Massachusetts Route 9, was laid out, starting on Huntington Avenue in Boston and passing through the village center on its way west. Steam railroads came to Brookline in the middle of the 19th century; the Boston and Worcester Railroad was constructed in the early 1830s, passed through Brookline near the Charles River. The rail line is still in active use, now paralleled by the Massachusetts Turnpike; the Highland Branch of the Boston and Albany Railroad was built from Kenmore Square to Brookline Village in 1847, was extended into Newton in 1852. In the late 1950s, this would become the Green Line "D" Branch; the portion of Beacon Street west of Kenmore Square was laid out in 1850. Streetcar tracks were laid above ground on Beacon Street in 1888, from Coolidge Corner to Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, via Kenmore Square. In 1889, they were extended over the Brighton border at Cleveland Circle.
They would become the Green Line "C" Branch. Thanks to the Boston Elevated Railway system, this upgrade from horse-drawn carriage to electric trolleys occurred on many major streets all over the region, made transportation into downtown Boston faster and cheaper. Much of Brookline was developed into a streetcar suburb, with large brick apartment buildings sprouting up along the new streetcar lines. Brookline was known as the hamlet of Muddy River and was considered part of Boston until the Town of Brookline was independently incorporated in 1705, it is said. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brookline has a total area of 6.8 sq mi, all but 0.039 sq mi of, land. The northern part of Brookline north of the D-line tracks, is urban in character, as walkable and transit rich; the population density of this part of town is nearly 20,000 inhabitants per square mile, on a par with the densest neighborhoods in nearby Cambridge and Chelsea, Massachusetts
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, the largest city in West Michigan. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles east of Lake Michigan; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County. A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, is nicknamed Furniture City, its more common modern nickname of River City refers to the landmark river. The city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care, information technology, automotive and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the childhood home of U. S. President Gerald Ford, buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city; the city's main airport is named after him.
For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area. Over 2000 years ago, people associated with the Hopewell culture occupied the Grand River Valley. A tribe from the Ottawa River traveled to the Grand River valley, fighting three battles with the Prairie Indians who were established in the area; the tribe split, with the Chippewas settling in the northern lower peninsula, the Pottawatomies staying south of the Kalamazoo River and the Ottawa staying in central Michigan. By the late 1600s, the Ottawa, who occupied territory around the Great Lakes and spoke one of the numerous Algonquian languages, moved into the Grand Rapids area and founded several villages along the Grand River; the Ottawa established on the river, which they called O-wash-ta-nong, or far-away-water due to the river's length, where they "raised corn, melons and beans, to which they added game of the woods and the fish from the streams". In 1740, an Ottawa man who would be known as Chief Noonday and become the future chief of the Ottawa, was born.
Between 1761 and 1763, Chief Pontiac visited the area annually, gathering over 3,000 natives and asking them to volunteer to fight the British in Detroit, which would culminate into Pontiac's War. The Potawatomi attacked the Ottawa in 1765, attempting to take the Grand River territory but were defeated. By the end of the 1700s, there were an estimated 1,000 Ottawa in the Kent County area. After the French established territories in Michigan, Jesuit missionaries and traders traveled down Lake Michigan and its tributaries. At the start of the 19th century, European fur traders and missionaries established posts in the area among the Ottawa, they lived in peace, trading European metal and textile goods for fur pelts. In 1806, Joseph and his wife Madeline La Framboise, Métis, traveled by canoe from Mackinac and established the first trading post in West Michigan in present-day Grand Rapids on the banks of the Grand River, near what is now Ada Township, they were Roman Catholic. They both spoke Ottawa, Madeline's maternal ancestral language.
After the murder of her husband in 1809 while en route to Grand Rapids, Madeline La Framboise carried on the trade business, expanding fur trading posts to the west and north, creating a good reputation among the American Fur Company. La Framboise, whose mother was Ottawa and father French merged her successful operations with the American Fur Company. By 1810, Chief Noonday established a village on the west side of the river with about 500 Ottawa. Madeline La Framboise returned to Mackinac; that year, Grand Rapids was described as being the home of an Ottawa village of about 50 to 60 huts on the west side of the river near the 5th Ward, with Kewkishkam being the village chief and Chief Noonday being the chief of the Ottawa. The first permanent European-American settler in the Grand Rapids area was Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister. General Lewis Cass, who commissioned Charles Christopher Trowbridge to establish missions for Native Americans in Michigan, ordered McCoy to establish a mission in Grand Rapids for the Ottawa.
In 1823, McCoy, as well as Paget, a Frenchman who brought along a Native American pupil, traveled to Grand Rapids to arrange a mission, though negotiations fell through with the group returning to the Carey mission for the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River. In 1824, Baptist missionary Rev. L. Slater traveled with two settlers to Grand Rapids to perform work; the winter of 1824 was difficult, with Slater's group having to resupply and return before the spring. Slater erected the first settler structures in Grand Rapids, a log cabin for himself and a log schoolhouse. In 1825, McCoy established a missionary station, he represented the settlers who began arriving from Ohio, New York and New England, the Yankee states of the Northern Tier. Shortly after, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, was convinced by fur trader William Brewster, in a rivalry with the American Fur Company, to travel to Grand Rapids and establish trade there. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, stating the Native Americans in the area were "friendly and peaceable".
Campau returned to Detroit returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Ottawa and Ojibwa, with the only currency being fur. Campau's longer brother Touissant would assist him with trade and other tasks at hand. In 1831 the federal survey of the Northwest Territory reached the Grand River.