The Baldwin apple is a bright red winter apple good in quality, shipped. It was for many years the most popular apple in New England, New York, for export from the United States of America, it has been known as'Calville Butter','Felch','Late Baldwin','Pecker','Red Baldwin's Pippin','Steele's Red Winter', and'Woodpecker'. The Baldwin was one of four apples honored by the United States Postal Service in a 2013 set of four 33¢ stamps commemorating historic strains, joined by Northern Spy, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith. According to local tradition, the apple was found near Wood Hill by William Butters, grandson of Will Butter, first white settler in what is now Wilmington, Massachusetts. William Butters raised the tree near the present Baldwin Apple Monument. According to S. A. Beach's Apples of New York, the Baldwin originated soon after 1740 as a chance seedling on the farm of Mr. John Ball of Wilmington and for about 40 years thereafter its cultivation was confined to that immediate neighborhood.
The farm came into the possession of a Mr. Butters, who gave the name Woodpecker to the apple because the tree was frequented by woodpeckers. Deacon Samuel Thompson, a surveyor of Woburn, brought it to the attention of Col. Loammi Baldwin, who propagated it and more introduced it in eastern Massachusetts. From Col. Baldwin's interest in the variety it came to be called the Baldwin. A monument to the Baldwin apple now stands on today's Chestnut street in Wilmington; the monument's inscription reads: This monument marks the site of the first Baldwin Apple Tree found growing wild near here. It fell in the gale of 1815; the apple first known as the Butters, Woodpecker or Pecker apple was named after Col. Loammi Baldwin of Woburn. Erected in 1895 by the Rumford Historical Association. A harsh winter in 1934 wiped out many of the Baldwin apple orchards in New England, its popularity as an eating apple waned, but some orchards were preserved for many years because of its desirability as a mixing apple for cider.
However, the orchards have not been replaced. Baldwin Apples, unlike many apples, have long been prized for the making of hard cider. "West County Cider" makes Baldwin Cider from trees planted in the early 1900s. It is their most popular cider; the apple is noted for its small to medium size, when compared to other apples like the Macintosh. It is an exceptionally hard apple and would remain remarkably free from blemishes and other blights with few pesticides being needed; because of its hardness it shipped well without bruising and for a time was prized for this quality. Aside from cider making it was known as an exceptionally good pie apple and due to its inherent hardness would maintain more crispness through the baking process than other apples would. Essex County, New Jersey, in the time of the Dutch, was well known for its apple groves and cider, connected with the Bauldwin family. Baldwins were once the most popular apples in the United States but have fallen out of existence with the introduction of the Red Delicious.
While not extinct, they are difficult to find in stores. Some trees can still be found wild in abandoned orchards in New England, notably in Vermont. "Baldwin", National Fruit Collection, retrieved 28 October 2015
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most grown species in the genus Malus; the tree originated in Central Asia, where Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse and European Christian traditions. Apple trees are large. Apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.
Worldwide production of apples in 2017 was 83.1 million tonnes, with China accounting for 49.8% of the total. The apple is a deciduous tree standing 6 to 15 ft tall in cultivation and up to 30 ft in the wild; when cultivated, the size and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and downy undersides. Blossoms are produced in spring with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots; the 3 to 4 cm flowers are white with a pink tinge that fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; the fruit matures in late summer or autumn, cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple, 2 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄4 in in diameter, due to market preference; some consumers those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 2 1⁄4 in are used for making juice and have little fresh market value.
The skin of ripe apples is red, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found. The skin may be wholly or russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax; the exocarp is pale yellowish-white, though pink or yellow exocarps occur. The original wild ancestor of Malus pumila was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang, China. Cultivation of the species, most beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates. In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had sequenced the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University, using'Golden Delicious'.
It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date and more genes than the human genome. This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists identify genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will help scientists perform more knowledgeable selective breeding; the genome sequence provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple—an issue, long-debated in the scientific community. The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern present-day Turkey; the apple tree may have been the earliest tree that humans cultivated, growers have improved its fruits through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in 328 BCE. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia.
Of the many Old World plants that the Spanish introduced to Chiloé Archipelago in the 16th century, apple trees became well adapted. Apples were introduced to North America by colonists in the 17th century, the first apple orchard on the North American continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in 1625; the only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples". Apple cultivars brought as seed from Europe were spread along Native American trade routes, as well as being cultivated on colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" cultivars, showing the proliferation of new North American cultivars by the early 19th century. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion-dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product; until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale.
Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage. Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilit
'Paulared' is an apple cultivar that arose as a seedling next to an orchard of'McIntosh' trees. It ripens late in the summer.'Paulared' apples are bright red with some yellow and tan spots. They have a sprightly taste, not too sweet and not too tart and reminiscent of strawberries, it has a firm white flesh that becomes soft and mealy quickly as its season declines. Paula Red apples are suitable for both eating fresh and cooking, although they become soft when cooked, which suits them to some dishes and not others; the first'Paulared' apple tree was discovered in 1960 by grower Lewis Arends near a McIntosh block in his orchard in Sparta Township, Kent County, Michigan. He named the apple after Pauline. Paulared apples appeared on the market in 1968. The'Paulared' apple is available from late August into October, it ripens with, is mistaken for, Tydeman's Early Worcester, another variety of McIntosh. New York Apple Association description
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Nectria is a genus of Ascomycete fungi. They are most encountered as saprophytes on decaying wood but some species can occur as parasites of trees fruit trees and a number of other hardwood trees; some species are significant pests causing diseases such as apple canker, Nectria twig blight, coral spot in orchards. It is ubiquitous in cool temperate Europe and North America and appears to be an introduced species in New Zealand and Australia; the occurrence in New Zealand was first identified in 1996 in Otago and Southland although it is believed to have been present since the 1980s. In North America, Nectria infections have had economically important impacts on forestry and forest products including aspen, red oak, beech and birch. Species of Nectria occur in warmer climates including island groups such as Hawaii. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi, the genus contains 82 species
South Dundas, Ontario
South Dundas is a municipality in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont and Glengarry along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, it is located 60 miles/100 kilometres south of Ottawa and is midway between Kingston and Montreal, Quebec. The township was established on January 1, 1998, with the amalgamation of the former Townships of Matilda and Williamsburg, along with the Villages of Iroquois and Morrisburg; the township of South Dundas comprises a number of villages and hamlets, including the following communities: Matilda Township: Brinston, Dixons Corners, Glen Stewart, Hulbert, Iroquois, Stampville. The county was named in 1792 to honour Henry Dundas, Lord Advocate for Scotland and Colonial Secretary at the time. Matilda and Williamsburgh were two of Upper Canada's original eight Royal Townships; the northern portions of Matilda and Williamsburg townships were separated in 1798 to form the new townships of Mountain and Winchester within Dundas County. The McIntosh apple was cultivated in South Dundas near Williamsburg.
John McIntosh's parents emigrated from Inverness, Scotland to the Mohawk Valley in New York, John moved to Upper Canada in 1796. In 1811 he acquired a farm in Dundela, while clearing the land of second growth discovered several apple seedlings, he transplanted these, one bore the superior fruit which became famous as the McIntosh Red apple. John's son Allan promoted this new species extensively, it was acclaimed in Ontario and the northern United States, was introduced into British Columbia about 1910. Its popularity in North America and propagation in many lands attest the initiative and industry of John McIntosh and his descendants. Morrisburg took its name from Canada's first postmaster general. Morris played an important role in canal-building in the area. James Pliny Whitney, Ontario's sixth premier, is buried here in the cemetery of Holy Trinity Anglican Church in Riverside Heights, just east of Morrisburg and north of County Road 2. Whitney was born in Williamsburg in 1843, represented Dundas County in the Legislature from 1888 to 1914 and served as Premier from 1905 to 1914.
Morrisburg and Iroquois were flooded by the creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958. Unlike the Lost Villages of Cornwall and Osnabruck Townships, the two towns were relocated to higher ground in the same area. There was an international design competition in 1954 to design the new Iroquois townsite. Canadian-British architect Wells Coates was among those. An artificial lake, Lake Saint Lawrence, now extends from a hydroelectric dam at Cornwall to the control structure at Iroquois, replaces the narrow and turbulent section of river, impassable to large vessels, it replaces, in part, the Long Sault rapids. Several buildings from the Lost Villages were moved to a site near Morrisburg to create Upper Canada Village, a living museum which depicts 19th century life in Upper Canada. In 1976, stuntman Ken Carter attempted to jump a one-mile portion of the Saint Lawrence River by taking a one million dollar Lincoln Continental rocket car off an eight-storey ramp; this was billed as The Super Jump.
The ramp and its runway were located in a field just west of Hanes Road, South of County road 2. The ramp has since been demolished, but the concrete runway still exists as of 2012. Charles A. Barkley, elected mayor of the municipality in the 2006 municipal elections, died unexpectedly on June 17, 2009, he was a municipal politician since 1981. He was succeeded by deputy mayor Robert Gillard; the only provincial highway directly serving the township is Highway 401. All other highway routes in the township, including Highway 2 and Highway 31, were decommissioned by the province in the 1990s, were folded into Stormont and Glengarry's county road system. Highway 416, the main route from the 401 to Ottawa, has its southern terminus at Johnstown in the neighbouring township of Edwardsburgh/Cardinal. Morrisburg is served by a unattended airport adjacent to Upper Canada Village. Iroquois is served by a small unattended airport near the locks; the Morrisburg Lions of the Eastern Ontario Junior B Hockey League play out of the Morrisburg Arena.
Thoroughbred racing pioneer Francine Villeneuve, grew up in the community of Winchester Springs. Morrisburg Leader List of townships in Ontario The Morrisburg Leader Municipality of South Dundas Historical Society of South Dundas
Central Experimental Farm
The Central Experimental Farm known as the Experimental Farm, is an agricultural facility, working farm, research centre of the Research Branch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. As the name indicates, this farm is centrally located in and now surrounded by the City of Ottawa, Canada; the 4 square kilometres farm is a National Historic Site of Canada and most buildings are protected and preserved as heritage buildings. The CEF original intent was to perform scientific research for improvement in agricultural methods and crops. While such research is still being conducted, the park-like atmosphere of the CEF has become an important place of recreation and education for the residents of Ottawa. Furthermore, over the years several other departments and agencies have encroached onto the CEF property, such as Natural Resources Canada, National Defence, the Ottawa Civic Hospital; the CEF is bordered by the Rideau Canal to the east, Prince of Wales Drive to the South-East, Baseline Road to the south, Merivale and Fisher Roads to the west, Carling Avenue to the north.
The Victorian era was a time of great interest in the advancement of natural sciences and many nations built zoos, botanical gardens, experimental farms. Canada followed suit and as the result of lobbying by John Carling, the Minister of Agriculture, William Saunders, the first director of the research branch, the "Act Respecting Experimental Stations" came into force in 1886; the CEF started out with 188 hectares, chosen because of their proximity to Parliament Hill but outside the city. Over the next few years the site was prepared by improving the land, building the facilities, planting the Arboretum and forest belt. Early research projects focused only on entomology and horticulture; the Chief Dominion Architect designed a number of prominent public buildings in Canada including those at the CEF: Thomas Seaton Scott. David Ewart embraced the Scottish baronial style. In 1887-8, Chief Dominion Architect Thomas Fuller designed the Museum, barn and Staff Residences on Prince of Wales Drive In 1887, Charles F. Cox lay out of the site and design of farm buildings.
In 1887-1888, William John Beckett, a contractor, served as foreman during the building of the residences and barns. In 1889, livestock was introduced to the CEF. Chief Dominion Architect David Ewart designed the Dominion Observatory, Carling Avenue in 1902. Chief Dominion Architect Edgar Lewis Horwood designed the Cereal and Agrostology Building, 1915-16. Chief Dominion Architect Richard Cotsman Wright designed a number of buildings including: the Poultry Office Building, 1920. John Bethune Roper designed the Administration Building, Carling Avenue, 1934. William James Abra designed the Biological Building, 1935. Over the years the scope of research grew and changed, prompting a need to increase the farm's lands and buildings; the Horticulturalist's house and staff residences were removed by the 1930s, the forest belt disappeared, new larger centralized facilities were built, starting with the Saunders Building in 1935, followed by the Neatby Building, Geophysical Lab, Laboratory Services Building, the Carling Building.
From 1940-47, building 136, operated as a high frequency Naval Radio Station -CFF which intercepted enemy transmissions. On May 1, 1993, a memorial was erected by NOAC and Royal Canadian Naval Association Ottawa and dedicated to the Naval Veterans and those who served at this station which provided a link during World War II between Canadian naval headquarters and ships at sea, allied naval headquarters and operational naval authorities. In 1983, the agricultural museum was created in the former Dairy Barn; the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office recognized or classified a number of CEF buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings between 1984-1997. The Cereal Barn Building 76 was classified in 1984; the Victoria Memorial Museum was classified in 1986. The Main Dairy Barn Building 88 was classified in 1987. In 1988, the Botanical Laboratory / Horticulture Building 74 and the Sheep Showcase / Small Dairy Barn Building 95 were recognized; the Nutrition Building 59 was recognized in 1992.
In 1993, Heritage House, Building 60 was recognized. The William Saunders Building 49 was recognized in 1994. In 1995, Heritage House, Building 54. In 1996, the Main Greenhouse Range, Building 50 was recognized. In 1997, a number of buildings were recognized: ARC Biotech, Building 34; the CEF was designated as a National Historic Site in 1998. In 2003, Public Works and Government Services Canada bought the Skyline office complex on the corner of Merivale and Baseline Roads from Nortel Networks; the complex has been renamed to "NHCAP". The head offices of Agricult