A county commission is a group of elected officials charged with administering the county government in some states of the United States. County commissions are made up of three or more individuals. In some counties in Georgia however, a sole commissioner holds the authority of the commission; the commission acts as the executive of the local government, levies local taxes, administers county governmental services such as prisons, public health oversight, property registration, building code enforcement, public works such as road maintenance. The system has been supplanted in large part as disparate sparsely settled regions become urbanized and establish tighter local governmental control in municipalities, but in many more rural states the county commission retains more control and in some urbanized areas may be responsible for significant government services. William Penn, colonial founder of Pennsylvania is credited with originating the system of County Commissioners in the United States.
On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000 owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history, it was called Pennsylvania. William Penn, who wanted it called New Wales or Sylvania, was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction. County board of supervisors County council County executive Board of chosen freeholders Commissioners' Court Fiscal Court Police Jury Sole commissioner
Sapelo Island is a state-protected barrier island located in McIntosh County, Georgia. The island is accessible only by boat, it is the site of the last known Gullah community. It is illegal to visit the island without a permit issued by state tourism authorities. 97 percent of the island is owned by the state of Georgia and is managed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The western perimeter of Sapelo is the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve, part of NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve system; the University of Georgia Marine Institute, focused on research and education, is located on 1,500 acres on the south end of the island. The Reynolds Mansion, a Georgia State Park lies on the south end of the island. Visitors to the island must be a part of guests of residents on the island; the island has a small private airport run by the state of Georgia. The community of Hog Hammock known as Hogg Hummock, includes homes, a general store, public library, other small businesses including vacation rentals.
There are two active church congregations in Hog Hammock: St. Luke Baptist Church, founded in 1885, First African Baptist Church, established in 1866; the latter congregation has an older building known as First African Baptist Church at Raccoon Bluff, constructed in 1900 in the former Raccoon Bluff community north of Hog Hammock. It is used for special programs. Many of the full-time inhabitants of the Hog Hammock Community are African Americans known as Gullah-Geechees, descendants of enslaved West African people brought to the island in the 1700s and 1800s to work on island plantations; the current population of full-time Gullah-Geechee residents in the community is estimated to be 47. The residents must bring all supplies from the mainland or purchase them in the small store on the island; the children of Hog Hammock take the ferry to the mainland and take a bus to school, as the island school closed in 1978. Hog Hammock is home to the Sapelo Island Cultural and Revitalization Society, Inc. a non-profit organization whose mission is to preserve and revitalize the Hogg Hummock Community.
SICARS was founded in 1993 by Hogg Hummock residents and non-resident descendants who wanted to enhance the future of their community by educating all visitors to the island about the history and to increase awareness that Sapelo has existed as an African community for over 200 years. SICARS was incorporated in 1994, has over 600 members, continues to grow each year; the organization hosts a Cultural Day festival every third Saturday in October. The entire 427 acres of the community was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996 as Hog Hammock Historic District. In the 1990s, people from the mainland began acquiring parcels of land from the Gullahs to construct vacation homes. In 2012, McIntosh County property tax appraisers notified Hog Hammock residents of huge property tax increases though there was no longer a school on the island. One Hog Hammock property owner's annual tax bill soared from $600 to $2,100. In 2013, a fight over the sudden tax hikes was well underway, with some residents claiming they would be driven from land they had owned for many generations for the benefit of mainlanders who would acquire more of Hog Hammock's homes.
Sapelo Island is speculated to be the site of San Miguel de Gualdape, the short-lived first European settlement in the present-day United States and, if true, it would be the first place in the present-day U. S. that a Catholic mass was celebrated. During the 17th century Sapelo Island was part of the Guale missionary province of Spanish Florida. After 1680, several missions were merged and relocated to the island under the mission Santa Catalina de Guale. In the early 19th century Thomas Spalding, a future Georgia Senator and U. S. Representative, bought the island and developed it into a plantation, selling live oak for shipbuilding, introducing irrigation ditches, cultivating Sea Island Cotton and sugar cane. Spalding brought 400 slaves to the island from West Africa and the West Indies to work the plantation and build what would become the Spalding Mansion. One of the slaves owned by Thomas Spalding was Bilali Muhammad, an Islamic scholar from West Africa who authored a 13-page document about Islamic law on the island — the first manuscript of Islamic law written in the United States.
In 1820, a Winslow Lewis brick lighthouse was built on the island. Although it remained dark for over 90 years, it was restored and relit in 1998. Spalding opposed the abolition of slavery and he died in 1851 returning from a convention to assert Georgia's position on the matter; when freed, the former slaves established several settlements on the island. During the Civil War, the Spalding home was vandalized and lay in ruins. By the early 20th Century the International Road Races were attracting notables from the motor world to Savannah, Georgia. One attendee was founder of the Hudson Motor Car Company. Coffin purchased the entire island, save for the land owned by the former slaves, for $150,000 in 1912. Like Spalding, the Coffins embarked on numerous projects. Miles of shell-covered roads were laid, creeks were bridged, old fields were cultivated and large tracts were set aside for cattle grazing; the Coffins renovated and enlarged the Spalding house, creating an island paradise unsurpassed on the coast.
Darien is a city in McIntosh County, United States. It lies on Georgia's coast at the mouth of the Altamaha River 50 miles south of Savannah, is part of the Brunswick, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population of Darien was 1,975 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of McIntosh County, it is the second oldest planned city in Georgia and was called New Inverness. Darien is located at 31°22′16″N 81°25′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,975 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 51.9% White, 44.1% Black, 0.1% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.1% from two or more races. 1.9% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,719 people, 697 households, 464 families residing in the city; the population density was 869.6 people per square mile. There were 832 housing units at an average density of 420.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 54.10% White, 43.98% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. There were 697 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,135, the median income for a family was $28,750.
Males had a median income of $26,198 versus $16,897 for females. The per capita income for the city was $11,938. About 21.3% of families and 24.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 25.2% of those ages 65 or over. The British built Fort King George in 1721, near. At the time it was the southernmost outpost of the British Empire in North America; the fort was abandoned in 1727 following attacks from the Spanish. Its remains constitute the oldest fort on the Georgia coast; the town of Darien was founded in January 1736 by Scottish Highlanders recruited by James Oglethorpe to act as settler-soldiers protecting the frontiers of Georgia from the Spanish in Florida, the French in the Alabama basin, the Indian allies of each colonial enterprise. On January 10, 1736, 177 emigrants, including women and children, arrived on the Prince of Wales to establish Darien, named after the Darien Scheme, a former Scottish colony in Panama. Among the initial settlers was Lachlan McGillivray, who became a noted trader with the Creek people, Lachlan McIntosh, a leader during the American Revolutionary War.
The Scots originated from around Inverness and consisted of both Jacobite and Hanoverian supporting clans, the majority of whom spoke only Gaelic. When visited by Oglethorpe in February, the settlers had constructed "a battery of four pieces of cannon, built a guardhouse, a storehouse, a chapel, several huts for particular people." Darien was laid out in accordance with the now-famous Oglethorpe Plan. They showed similar progress in the construction of military forts: by March the Scottish settlers had begun work on two forts, Fort St. Andrews on Cumberland Island, Fort St. George on the St. Johns River, 60 miles to the south of the territory claimed by the British government in the Georgia charter. In 1736, the British abandoned Fort St. George by agreement with the Spanish officials in Florida. In 1736 Darien settlers began work on Fort Frederica, on St. Simons Island, a few miles south of Darien, between it and Cumberland Island. Scots settlers whose travel was paid for by the Trustees of the Colony were organized into two companies, the Highland Independent Company of Foot, an infantry force, the Highland Rangers, a mounted force.
By 1737 the constant military activity of the Darien colony was taking its toll. An additional 44 Highland settlers arrived to expand the town; the settlers' economy was based on the cultivation of crops. They concentrated on harvesting timber for sale in nearby Savannah. In 1739 eighteen of the most prominent members of the Darien colony signed the first petition against the introduction of slavery into Georgia, in response to pleas to Oglethorpe and the Trustees by inhabitants of Savannah to lift the prohibition of slavery; the Highlanders' petition was successful. But slavery was introduced ten years in 1749 because the Proprietors could not attract enough laborers to make the colony profitable. Conflicts continued with Indian forces during this time; the War of Jenkins' Ear began in October 1739. In November, in response to two Scots garrisoned on Amelia Island being killed in an ambush by Spanish-allied Indians, the Darien settlers mobilized and, together with forces from South Carolina, captured the Spanish forts of Fort Picolata, Fort San Francisco de Pupo, Fort San Diego, Fort Mose, before attempting to lay siege to St. Augustine.
The Spanish won
Georgia's 1st congressional district
Georgia's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is represented by Republican Buddy Carter, though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 United States Census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia; the first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. The district comprises the entire coastal area of Sea Islands and much of the southeastern part of the state. In addition to Savannah, the district includes the cities of Brunswick and Waycross. There are four military bases in the district: Kings Bay Naval Submarine Base, at Kings Bay in Camden County Fort Stewart, near Hinesville in Liberty County Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah Moody Air Force Base near Valdosta Bacon County Brantley County Bryan County Camden County Charlton County Chatham County Clinch County Echols County Effingham County Glynn County Liberty County Long County Lowndes County McIntosh County Pierce County Ware County Wayne County As of May 2015, there are two living former members of the U.
S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 1st congressional district. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 1st district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 1st district at GovTrack.us
The Highlands is a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands; the term is used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not defined to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands; the Scottish Gaelic name of A' Ghàidhealtachd means "the place of the Gaels" and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, includes the highest mountain in the British Isles, Ben Nevis. Before the 19th century the Highlands was home to a much larger population, but from circa 1841 and for the next 160 years, the natural increase in population was exceeded by emigration and migration to the industrial cities of Scotland and England.
The area is now one of the most sparsely populated in Europe. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the population density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotland's as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia and Russia. The Highland Council is the administrative body for much of the Highlands, with its administrative centre at Inverness. However, the Highlands includes parts of the council areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Bute, North Ayrshire and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire; the Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: see Caledonian Forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, although the language is now confined to The Hebrides; the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages.
Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent. The "Highland line" distinguished the two Scottish cultures. While the Highland line broadly followed the geography of the Grampians in the south, it continued in the north, cutting off the north-eastern areas, Eastern Caithness and Shetland, from the more Gaelic Highlands and Hebrides; the major social unit of the Highlands was the clan. Scottish kings James VI, saw clans as a challenge to their authority. Following the Union of the Crowns, James VI had the military strength to back up any attempts to impose some control; the result was, in 1609, the Statutes of Iona which started the process of integrating clan leaders into Scottish society. The gradual changes continued into the 19th century, as clan chiefs thought of themselves less as patriarchal leaders of their people and more as commercial landlords; the first effect on the clansmen who were their tenants was the change to rents being payable in money rather than in kind.
Rents were increased as Highland landowners sought to increase their income. This was followed in the period 1760-1850, by agricultural improvement that involved clearance of the population to make way for large scale sheep farms. Displaced tenants were set up in crofting communities in the process; the crofts were intended not to provide all the needs of their occupiers. Crofters came to rely on seasonal migrant work in the Lowlands; this gave impetus to the learning of English, seen by many rural Gaelic speakers to be the essential "language of work". Older historiography attributes the collapse of the clan system to the aftermath of the Jacobite risings; this is now thought less influential by historians. Following the Jacobite rising of 1745 the British government enacted a series of laws to try to suppress the clan system, including bans on the bearing of arms and the wearing of tartan, limitations on the activities of the Scottish Episcopal Church. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided.
There was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Tartan had been abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe; the international craze for tartan, for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, further popularised by the works of Walter Scott. His "staging" of the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 and the king's wearing of tartan resulted in a massive upsurge in demand for kilts and tartans that could not be met by the Scottish woollen industry. Individual clan tartans were designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity; this "Highlandism", by which all of Scotland was identified with the culture of the Highlands, was cemented by Queen Victoria's interest in the country, her adoption of Balmoral as a major royal retreat, her interes
Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge
Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1962. It consists of 2,762 acres of saltwater marsh, mixed deciduous woods, cropland located on an abandoned military airfield in McIntosh County, north of the intersection of Route 131 and Harris Neck Airport Road, about 30 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. Harris Neck is a coastal peninsula located 30 miles south of Georgia in McIntosh County; the nearest town is six miles to the west. Named Dickinson's Neck, the peninsula was renamed when William Thomas Harris became the principal land owner in the mid-18th century; the land was deeded to a former slave in 1865 by a plantation owner. Black families built houses as well as oyster and crab processing factories; the original Harris Neck airfield was built sometime between 1929-32. Named "Harris Neck Intermediate Field Site #8", it was an emergency airfield for commercial planes on the Richmond-Jacksonville air route; the field consisted of an irregularly-shaped 93-acre sod parcel, with two sod runways 2,600' east/west & 2,550' north/south in a criss-cross pattern.
The field was said to offer no services. Harris Neck airfield closed to the public on 1 January 1942 when the Civil Air Patrol began anti-submarine flights, it was evidently abandoned that same year, when a new military airfield was built a half-mile north. There is no trace of its existence today. In mid-1942, the Army Air Force decided to build a base at Harris Neck; the land was expropriated and families were given two weeks to remove themselves. At the time of transfer, black families were given $26.90 per acre and the white families were given $37.31 per acre. This included the 225-acre Livingston estate which included the Lorillard mansion and a deep-water dock. Construction was started on 15 July 1942 by the United States Army Air Forces First Air Force; the original plan provided for two runways. The Army's decision to add a third runway required the acquisition of additional land. A detachment of men from the 855th Guard Squadron, stationed at Hunter Army Air Field occupied the Harris Neck facility on 7 December 1942.
It was activated on 28 January 1943 as an auxiliary of Dale Mabry Army Airfield in Tallahassee, Florida. Today, there is little left to show that the area was once an airfield. Other than the overgrown runways, revetments, munitions bunkers and the bore sighting range, the only structure that still exists on the former military airfield is a water fountain which must have belonged to Livingston House; the area is overgrown, access is limited by "keep out" signs. Former residents of the displaced community and their descendants are attempting to work out a compromise with the federal government to allow them to return to their land, without disrupting the wildlife refuge; the Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1962 by transfer of federal lands and the World War II Army airfield managed by the Federal Aviation Administration. The refuge consists of 2,762 acres of saltwater marsh, mixed deciduous woods, cropland. HNNWR is located in Georgia. In the summer, thousands of egrets and herons nest in the swamps, while in the winter, large concentrations of ducks gather in the marshland and freshwater pools.
Harris Neck NWR is an important nesting area for the endangered wood stork. The public access to the refuge consists of over 15 miles of paved roads and trails provide the visitor easy access to the many different habitats. Chosen for its accessibility and bird diversity, Harris Neck is one of 18 sites forming the Colonial Coast Birding Trail, inaugurated in 2000. Media related to Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may